Volume 13, Issue 6, June 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

Publication for Volume 13, Issue 6, June 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

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This review paper is basically focusing on the description of the composite materials. It is also explaining about the optimization of the composite materials on different fields with respect to its varieties. Besides all,it mainly focuses on the application of composite materials in aerospace. The fact that extensive research is being done to apply novel materials to diverse components demonstrates the relevance of materials in the current world. Nonetheless, It's only natural for a design engineer to rely on tried and true methods. However, the world is changing now. Nowadays, composite materials are used.All material engineering has evolved as a result of materials.The development of composite materials has made it possible for various designers to employ new and improved materials, upwarding the accuracy of the work and also about the reliable use of the resources. Resources that are available composite materials are making a comeback


Regenerative architecture is the practice of engaging the natural world as the medium for, and generator of the architecture. It responds to and utilizes the living and natural systems that exist on a site that become the “building blocks” of the architecture. Regenerative architecture has two focuses; it is an architecture that focuses on conservation and performance through a focused reduction on the environmental impacts of a building. It is embodied in the material selection, reduced energy consumption, and intelligent design. The second, more profound piece of regenerative architecture is the treatment of the environment as an equal shareholder in the architecture. It is a practice that employs a full and comprehensive understanding of natural and living systems in the design of a structure. It is an architecture that embraces the environment and uses the millions of years of engineering and evolution as the foundation for a regenerative structure. Regenerative structure is the practice of engaging the natural international because the medium for, and generator of the structure. Regenerative structure has focuses; it is a structure that specializes in conservation and overall performance via a targeted reduction at the environmental effects of a constructing. Regenerative structure is the practice of attractive the natural international because the medium for, and generator of the structure. It responds to and makes use of the dwelling and natural structures that exist on a website that grow to be the `` constructing blocks '' of the architecture.

Comparative Analysis of Acetylation and Oxidation on Produced Water from Otakikpo Marginal Field, Niger Delta. []

This study is aimed at comparative analysis of acetalization and oxidation on four samples defined as follows: Sample A (EAS Acetalization filtrate + produced water), Sample B (EAS oxidation filtrate + produced water), Sample C (AYB Acetalization filtrate + produced water), and Sample D (AYB oxidation filtrate + produced water) obtained from Otakikpo Marginal field in Niger Delta in terms of four parameters: Chloride, Total hardness, Total dissolved solid and Total suspended solid respectively. In terms of chloride samples, A, B and D increased chloride level in mg/l while sample C decreased in chloride level in mg/l, in terms of Total hardness samples A, C and D decreased in total hardness in mg/l while sample B increased in total hardness in mg/l, in terms of total dissolved solid samples A, B C and D all decreased in total dissolved solid level in mg/l and finally in terms of total suspended solid samples B, C and D increased in total suspended solid level in mg/l while sample A decreased in total suspended solid level in mg/l.

contrast sensitvity and photostress recovery time in prediabetics []

The purpose of this study was to assess contrast sensitivity function and photo stress recovery time test in prediabetes. The descriptive cross sectional study was carried out. The study was carried out at the general opd departments of tertiary eye care hospital. Subjects without diagnosed diabetes including aged 30 to 50 years, pre diabetic based on their HbA1C values. Participants underwent Contrast Sensitivity function assessment using a Pelli– Robson chart and for measuring Photo stress recovery time, the macular spot of a direct ophthalmoscope was used. A total of 350 patients were assessed out of which 100 patients (200 eyes) were pre-diabetics. Out of total 99 (49.5%) were male and majority of the patients 56 (28%) were from the age group 41-45 years. The mean of photostress recovery time was 29.0±0.30 seconds whereas the mean of contrast sensitivity was 1.54±0.50. Delayed photostress recovery time was observed in 55.5 % of the individual eye while the 53 % of the eyes have decreased contrast sensitivity function. The one sample t test shows statistical significant association between mean values of pre-diabetics patients and calculated mean value of their photostress recovery time (-31.117) and contrast sensitivity function (-4.745) with p-value<0.05.so therefore it is concluded that reduced contrast sensitivity function and delayed photo stress recovery time seen in prediabetes could give clinical discernment into initial variations earlier diabetes and microvascular impairment.

Plant Leaf Detection and Disease Identification System []

- In an agricultural country like India, agricultural productivity plays an important role in boosting the economy. It is often the case that farmers and growers are not able to take care of their crops, and this leads to serious crop effects, such as crop diseases. Expert training in plant diseases is required to diagnose diseases, as farmers must pay the cost of bringing their crops to the laboratory, it is beneficial to apply technical measures in the field. The most common diseases, such as black spot, mildew, and rot, are simple to notice, but less common illnesses may wreak havoc on plant growth, reproduction, and survival if not caught early enough. Picture processing methods such as resizing and enhancement are used by the system, followed by image segmentation to maintain just the vital areas, and discard the rest. Then, the features of the segmented images extracted and then passed to a supervised learning model called multi-SVM for classification.

Evaluation of the vulnerability of groundwater to nitrogen pollution in the commune of Mananara Avaratra by the SINTACS method []

The urban commune of Mananara Avaratra, located on the east coast of Madagascar in the Analanjirofo region, is characterized by alluvial soils, mainly sandy and ferruginous, and a tropical climate. Groundwater is considered as the main source of drinking water for the local population although the presence of pollution by nitrogen compounds has been a serious environmental problem for more than a decade This study aimed at developing a groundwater vulnerability model for nitrate and ammonium as a protective measure. Based on the intrinsic vulnerability determined by the SINTACS model, the influence of anthropogenic parameters related to nitrogen sources and groundwater use on contamination was verified using GIS. Chemical analyses showed high concentrations of nitrate (136.987 mg.l-1) and ammonium (1.120 mg.l-1) in the samples. The high nitrate and ammonium concentrations were found in the northern subwatershed, probably due to the area impacted by urbanization by urbanization, where the groundwater vulnerability index is high (high index is 197 - 210 and for the very high ones 215 - 223). On the other hand, the concentrations in the southern subwatershed are lower, and the index is moderate (137 - 178). In order to prevent the contamination of groundwater by nitrogen, it is necessary to develop management policies on surface land use and groundwater, as well as to continuously monitor the latter.


The company is a legal entity upon incorporation, and duly vested with the powers of a natural person to carry out its objects. Since the company is not a natural person, even though vested with the powers of a natural person by the enabling statutes as the Companies and Allied Matters Act 2020 (CAMA 2020), it needs the requisite natural being with limbs and mind to properly discharge its functions and objects. Several authors have discussed the various organs of the company, others have even gone ahead to promote a Company Secretary from being an ordinary clerk or typist to being one of the principal officers of the company. This promotion does not however make the company Secretary one of the deciders or managers of the company, as the various statutes on corporate governance clearly place responsibility on the BOD and the members in general meeting. The Board of Directors (BOD) are the deciding organs of the company, aside the members in general meeting. Arguments as to which is more superior between the BOD and the members in general meeting is rather neither here nor there as the day to day running of the company is shouldered by the BOD. Corporate Governance Codes in Nigeria and the world at large have placed liability on the BOD, and at several times placed them as burden bearers in instances of company’s dwindling and subsequent winding up. This article in adopting the doctrinal methodology, brought to light the various legal and institutional framework on the roles of the board of directors in corporate governance in Nigeria, and referred to regional and international frameworks on the topic too. In conclusion, it was discovered that the Code of Corporate Governance applies only to public companies, and as such it is recommended that to curtail further malfeasance in private companies, the provisions of the Nigeria Code of Corporate Governance be extended to apply mandatorily on private companies too for the protection of investments and global economy.

Mobile Application for Finding Skilled Workers for Daily Chores []

The growth of booking services, purchasing products over the internet has gained immense popularity in recent years. People find it more convenient to book services from the comfort of their homes. Considering this fact, the proposed Skilled Workers Management mobile application creates a platform for all the skilled workers to connect directly with their customers and cater to their needs at their homes. It will help the laborers assimilate to the ongoing trend. The main focus of our project is making it user-oriented. This application can be used from anywhere and anytime according to one’s convenience. It is easy-to-use for workers who have basic knowledge of technology to understand the working of the application due to a user-friendly interface.


Pandemic COVID-19 that struck the world, including Indonesia, has drastically changed the business environment and competition. As a result, many companies re-align their business strategies to win the competition and, most importantly, obtain a sustainable competitive advantage in current and uncertain circumstances. Indonesia's demographic trends support the acceleration and expansion of Indonesia's economic development; its growing middle class and the abundance of its natural resources are critical contributing factors. As a country with a total population of 275 million, Indonesia has made remarkable development strides in the 21st century, including stable economic growth and a significant poverty reduction. Indonesia has vast economic potential in Southeast Asia and has become a G20 member. The construction industry plays a vital role in Indonesia's economy. Indonesia's construction industry experienced an increase due to growth in infrastructure construction. Besides infrastructures, energy transition occurs in power plants through renewable energy in the energy sector. Similarly, digital transformation is forecasted to be a "boom" market in Indonesia now and in the future. The research focuses on PTAI as an international multidisciplinary engineering company that offers design, engineering, and advisory to the value client. As a global company operating in Indonesia with open competition in the market, PTAI has identified critical business issues as part of its business strategies, such as branding, sustainable growth, and profitable business. External and internal analyses are carried out to identify the business problem and propose solutions. The external method uses PESTLE and Porter 5 Forces models, whereby the internal investigation uses VRIO, Diamond Model, SWOT, and TOWS. Keywords: business strategies, core expertise, new market, corporate values, branding, sustainable competitive advantage.

Eco-Friendly Mini Hybrid Wind Solar Power Plant at Jetty PLTU Rembang []

The geographical position of the Steam Coal Power Plant Rembang 2 X 315 MW (PT PJB UBJ O & M PLTU Rembang) which is located on the northern coast of Java, makes the area get a very large supply of sea breezes. The sun’s heat in the beach area is also very optimal. According to Indonesia’s regulation (Peraturan Presiden No. 22 Tahun 2017), the potential for wind energy that can be utilized by Indonesia reaches 60,65 GW. However, until 2021 the utilization of wind energy that can be utilized by Indonesia has only reached 131 MW. Meanwhile, Indonesia’s solar energy potential is very large, around 4,8 KWh/m2 or the equivalent of 112.000 GW. Thus, the development of wind and solar energy in Indonesia is still a national challenge. To maximize the potential of these two energies, a hybrid power plant can be made. A hybrid power plant is a power plant consisting of a minimum of two or more types of renewable energy-based power plants. This power plant does not use fuel so that it can save fuel use by 10,546,210.83 kg/year, reduce self-consumtion electricity by 0.58 GJ/year and reduce pollutan emissions by 0.052 TonCO2eq and save the budget of Rp. 7,500,642,125.00 in 2021.

Digital Ethics Insights into how technology shapes us and the world we live in []

From the manner in which we work to the manner in which we mingle, innovation has practically changed every part of our general public in the course of recent years. In the event that we investigate how our youngsters today play and interface versus the age previously, we will locate that the more significant part of the kids matured between two and five years that can run applications and computer games yet can't tie shoelaces or ride a bicycle. Startling right? Well, not exactly. The ever-increasing advancement in technology in today's world and the involvement of the individuals in these advancements have led to individuals getting distant from manual work and labour and moving more towards automation. But while this automation has eased our everyday lives, it does have many drawbacks associated with it, one of the biggest being that our lives now live on the internet. This affects all aspects of our lives, whether it is autonomous devices that collect our information while we go about our day, or our social media accounts where our precious information is sold on the internet for a couple of dollars. All this data flow has a huge impact on our lives as information that we may not have wanted to share with the wider world can still be taken and made available without our informed consent. This means that even without hacker groups creating major cyber-attacks on sensitive information, our data remains vulnerable on the internet and is at the mercy of the companies that we have trusted to protect them. While these companies have shaped our lives in ways that have improved them vastly, the question that arises for many is where we draw the line. The concept of digital ethics focuses on the various aspects of our lives which are now dominated by technology and how we as a society need to step up and hold not only the technology giants responsible to use the data in an ethical fashion but also inform people about how they can protect themselves from the evils of the internet, by making them aware of the things that they should and should not share on the internet and how to protect the information that they have shared.

A Baseline study on heavy metal in agricultural soils from selected small scale farms in Trinidad []

Heavy metal contamination in soils can pose a significant threat through accumulation in agricultural produce. The purpose of the study was to investigate the levels of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni in soils from six sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) farms in Trinidad. Aliquot 1.00g of dried soil was predigest overnight (12hrs) with10mL of HNO3, followed by exhaustive digestion on a heating block at 130oC for 3hrs. Samples were cooled, dilute to 5 mL with deionized water, filtered through Whatman No. 542 filters and made up to 50 mL. Samples were then analyzed using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS). A Certificate reference soil, NIST SRM 2709a Montana soil was analyzed to determine the % recovery for Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu. The concentrations of heavy metals in soils were to the Finnish guidelines for ecological and health risks. The mean concentrations of Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu and Cd (58.6, 10.3, 13.5, 11.8 and 0.50 mg/kg respectively), which suggest that the soil is safe for food cultivation. Key words: farm soil, heavy metal, Trinidad, threshold value.

Assessment of Some Heavy Metals Contamination in Some Vegetables (Tomato, Lettuce and Onion) in Ethiopia: A Review []

Heavy metals in soil have a variety of chemical forms linked to their solubility, which has an impact on their mobility and biological availability. Heavy metals can be absorbed by plants and deposited on their tissues after they absorb them from the soil. The goal of this review paper is to assess the levels of heavy metals in some vegetables cultivated in Ethiopia (lettuce, tomato, and onion). Due to their high consumption rate, these vegetables are stapled and common vegetables consumed by Ethiopians of all social strata. Vegetables are crucial in human diets because they include critical nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. Heavy metals enter the food chain through the consumption of vegetables such as tomato, lettuce, and onion. According to several research in Ethiopia, heavy metal concentrations in vegetables have been compared to the WHO/FAO recommended standard value, and other organizations have reported comparative average values and some of the heavy metal concentrations are above the recommended limit. Industrialization and agricultural activities may be to blame for the greater content of heavy metals in vegetables. We recommend that the competent official body adopt the required precautions for agricultural operations, contaminated manufacturing effluents, gasses, solid wastes, and other heavy metal sources based on data acquired from various investigations. Keywords: Heavy Metals, Vegetables, Contamination, WHO

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