Volume 13, Issue 6, June 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

Publication for Volume 13, Issue 6, June 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

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The need for computer literacy skills becomes mandatory in view of the changing nature of technological and educational development. This research focuses on developing computer skills from the primary level of education. It does this by adopting the experimental research method and to primary six pupils (20 each) from five randomly selected primary school in Kogi central senatorial district. The experiment spans 8 weeks. There noticeable significant changes in the post-test result when compared with the pre-test result. Based on the experiment, findings show that there was significant changes in the post test group collectively and this means that the that the treatment, computer literacy as the focal programme was effective and the evaluation also show that all the questions received positive rating and responses. The studies show that more programmes such as this are needed in this areas and since computer knowledge is the world it becomes imperative to impact the knowledge early in life. Keywords: Computer Literacy, Computer Education, Primary Education in Nigeria.

Retrospect on Supercapacitors []

Energy is the most evident factor of any power system. Utilization of this resource has to be made meticulously, as the inadequacy can direct to system failure. The prominence of Energy has given way to major research in the field of energy storage devices like battery etc., Capacitors which store the electrical energy in the form of charge, and their discharging nature supplies a lot of power to the system. Here in this paper, a comprehensive study is presented on Supercapacitors which are empowered with the potential of accommodating electric charge, hundreds of times of standard capacitors. We focus on the study of the detailed characteristics, along with the comparison with conventional capacitors, in terms of charging and discharging with different dielectric mediums depending on the energy densities and their Applications. An attempt is being made to develop Supercapacitor as the emerging storage solution for many application- specific power systems

The Role of Farmers in the Conservation of Selected Indigenous Trees In Golla Kebele, Semen Bench District, Bench Sheko Zone, SNNPR, ETHIOPIA []

The objective of this study is to assess the role of farmers in conservation of indigenous trees in Semen Bench District, Golla Kebele. More specifically, the study assesses the awareness level of farmers towards conservation of indigenous trees, identify the indigenous tresses at risk of destruction, identify the benefit of indigenous trees to farmers, and identify the challenges of farmers in conservation of indigenous trees in Semen Bench District Golla Kebele. In this study, survey research design was used because of it is suitable to describe the farmers’ phenomena in conserving indigenous tree. A mixed approach was used in this study. Quantitatively questionnaires were used to collect data from model farmers while focus group discussion was used to collect qualitative data from development agents and Golla Kebele Older individuals. The findings of the study show, there low level of awareness among farmers about indigenous trees conservation, as a result numerous local indigenous trees are at a risk of destruction. The other cause for indigenous tree destruction was rapid population growth. Recommendations were forwarded: Concerning the low level of awareness of farmers towards indigenous tree conservation, the development agents at Golla Kebele, District agriculture office should jointly teach people to conserve the indigenous trees at their farm and grazing land. Moreover the major causes for indigenous tree destruction were rapid population growth. Therefore, the health extension workers of the Kebele should focus on awareness creation activities about communities to use family planning. The other cause indigenous trees destruction was charcoal production as a business in the study area. So the development agents with District enterprise should identify those individuals who are engaged on charcoal production business. Then, give them short trainings and create to them other job opportunities. Side to these like police and other justice bodies should strongly control charcoal production as a business. Keywords: conservation, indigenous, trees


Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET) plays an important role in technological advancement and economic sustainability of many nations. Yet Nigeria like many other developing nations is faced with unemployment and some anti-social behaviours especially in this global economic crisis. Therefore, this study attempts to find out how to combat economic recession through qualitative instructional delivery in TVET. Three research questions and three null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance using z-test statistics guided the study. Survey research design was used with a population of 181 TVET teaching staff in two Colleges of Education (COEs) in Anambra State, Nigeria. No sampling was done because the population was manageable. A 28- items questionnaire tagged “QIDTVET”, drawn on a 4-point scale was used for data collection by the researchers. Face and content validity of the research instrument was carried out by two experts in the department of Technology and Vocational Education, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. Reliability of the instrument was established using test re-test method which yielded a coefficient (r) value of 0.87 using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. Data were analyzed using mean rating and standard deviation to answer the research questions while z-test statistics for the hypotheses. The study revealed that teachers’ quality, infrastructural facilities and teaching methods have greater roles to play in attaining quality in instructional delivery in TVET. Thus it was recommended among others that government agencies should fully support the COEs through adequate budgetary allocations and fund for the procurement of instructional facilities which will aid qualitative delivery of instruction; also regular training and retraining of teaching staff should be organized on the effective use of these facilities and modern teaching methods to ensure adequate inculcation of skills and knowledge to students who should be economically viable in the country.

A Theoretical Study of the Magnetic Field Generated due to the Rotation of Coronae in Active Galactic Nuclei []

Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are highly energetic centers of galaxies, powered by accretion of galactic matter onto a Supermassive Black Hole (SMBH). Due to the Conservation of Angular Momentum of the accreted galactic matter, a relatively cold axis-symmetrical accretion disk or α − disk is formed around the SMBH. Highly collimated relativistic jets are observed which are perpendicular to the accretion disk. This study proposes that the magnetic fields generated by a system of counter-rotating hemispherical shells separated by the accretion disk contributes to the formation of these jets.

Alternative approach to the finite element mesh convergence testing in simulation modelling of maritime structures mechanical parts []

In modern engineering world the analysis of the strength of modern maritime structures almost always relies upon the methods of finite elements (FEM). These structures are usually modelled by means of powerful 3D-modelling applications, such as Autodesk Inventor, Pro/Engineer, SolidWorks or similar, containing simulation modelling FEM tools for the analysis of linear behaviour of mechanical static deformable bodies as their intrinsic part. However, the quality of the obtained results strongly depends upon the type and size of the finite elements used. The FEM tools in these applications often recommend the size of the elements forming the actual mesh, so modern design engineers usuatakakes these recommendation as granted, thinking of them as the unique solution to their problem. Unfortunately, this is not true. Static analysis of solid deformable bodies with their material behaving linearly (following Hooke’s law) may be described by systems of partial differential equations formulated in the theory of elasticity, incorporating functions such as displacements, strains and stresses. These equations may be solved analytically only in the cases of simple structural shapes and special boundary conditions, far away from real problems. So, numerical solutions of such problems based upon FEM are only the approximation, so testing of convergence of the preselected FE mesh is required. This paper presents another proposal for the judgement of the FEM results quality, additional to the testing of mesh convergence by reducing the element size and increasing number of nodes and/or the changing the degree of interpolation polynomials within the elements. The basic idea is to compare the FEM numerical 3D simulation modelling results with the ones obtained by 1D analytical models (classical beam theory) and 2D analytical models (theory of elasticity) for a simple case where the analytical solutions can be formulated in closed form formulae. The typical example of such a system is the linearly elastic cantilever beam of finite height. The 3D results obtained by the FEM tool in SolidWorks on the 3D model of this cantilever obtained for different mesh sizes and element types have been compared to the 2D and 1D analytical solutions with the aim to judge whether the element size recommended by the SolidWorks actually produces the best numerical solutions in terms of stresses and displacements. The actual showcase taken to implement this alternative way of testing mesh convergence is the part of small maritime offshore structure used for lifting of civil engineering objects. The FEM results for the element size recommended by SolidWorks and for the element size obtained by the previously described procedure of comparison with the analytically obtainable 2D and 1D results show that there exists the difference in terms of stresses numerically calculated by these two meshes, which may mislead the designers of the structure in their final conclusions and decisions about the acceptability of this structural part.

To Determine the Sensitivity and Specificity of Retinoscopy in Diagnosis of Keratoconus []

ABSTRACT Background: Keratoconus is a common ectatic disease of the cornea results in deterioration in the quality of vision. Corneal topography is currently considered the gold standard test for diagnosing keratoconus. At present, corneal tomography machines are found only in specialized eye clinics, are expensive and require expert interpretation. When it comes to population based screening for the disease, there is a need for a cheap, accessible, portable, and simple tool. All of these prerequisites are fulfilled by retinoscopy. Objectives: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of retinoscopy in diagnosis of keratoconus using the Galeli G4 Dual Scheimpflug as the Gold Standard comparison. Methods: A Cross-Sectional study done in patients of age between 10-30 years, referred to OPD with keratoconus, keratoconus suspect, eye discomfort, frequent change of glasses, or with astigmatism or refractive surgery, were screened for the presence of scissoring reflex. Patient then underwent Corneal topography. Diagnosis of keratoconus was made by calculating KISA% index using corneal topography indices . The results of retinoscopy and Galeli Topography were compared to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the test. Results: A total of 61 patients with a mean age of 19.55±5.786 (range 10–30 years) comprising 120 eyes were included. There were 62 eyes diagnosed with keratoconus and using the Amsler–Krumeich classification, 43.5%, 41.9%, 11.3%, and 3.2% of the eyes had stage I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of retinoscopy were 91.9%, 75.9%, 80.3%, and 89.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Retinoscopy appears to be a highly sensitive diagnostic tool for detecting keratoconus. Such a test could be implemented in population based screening for keratoconus. Keywords: keratoconus, retinoscopy scissor reflex, screening, epidemiology, corneal topography.


This study compared the Job Satisfaction of Teaching and Non-Teaching Staff of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The Population of the study is 5004 staff (Teaching and Non-Teaching) of NAU, while the sample consist of five hundred (500) teaching and non-teaching staff selected through simple random sampling technique. Two research questions and two null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance, guided the study. A twenty-four items researchers-developed questionnaire was the instrument for data collection. It was validated by three experts. The reliability of the instrument was established using Pearson product moment correlation coefficient which yielded 0.82 indexes. Arithmetic mean was used to provide answer to the two research question while t-test statistic was adopted to test the two null hypotheses. The study found among others that government interference in university autonomy and unpaid allowances by the government and the institutions are the major factors that affect the job satisfaction of both teaching and non-teaching staff of NAU. It was also found that there are no significant differences between teaching and non-teaching staff on the strategies that improves their job satisfaction. Based on this, conclusion, implication and recommendations were made for the study.


When observations are costly and time consuming but the ranking of the observations without actual measurement can be done with ease comparatively, ERSS can be employed instead of Simple Random Sampling (SRS), to gain more information for estimation purposes. In this paper and in an attempt to address the problem of loss of efficiency usually suffered in estimation of population mean under SRS, a new family of ratio-cum-product estimators of population mean of the study variable Y is proposed based on ERSS using information on two concomitant variables. Members of the proposed family of estimators were obtained by varying the values of the scalars that aid in developing the estimators. Various properties of the estimators such as biases, relative biases, Mean Square Errors (MSEs), and Optimal Mean Square Errors (OMSEs) were derived to the quadratic form of Taylor’s series approximation. Empirical study was conducted using three natural population data sets in order to investigate the performances and efficiency of the proposed family of estimators under ERSS over its corresponding counterpart’s estimator based on SRS and some existing ratio and product estimators. This empirical study was followed up with a computer simulation study using R-software. The results revealed that the proposed family of estimators in ERSS produced about 50% smaller MSEs which is an indicator of appreciable gain in efficiency and superiority over its corresponding counterpart estimator and some existing ratio type estimators in sample survey for all cases considered in this paper and were therefore adjudged to provide a better alternative whenever efficiency is required.


Acceptance Letter

Serum Glucose Concentration of Women on Depo-provera Contraceptive Attending Family Planning unit of Jos University Teaching Hospital []

Contraceptives are devices, drug or agents that are used to prevent conception. The serum glucose concentrations of women on Depo-Provera contraceptive were investigated with the aim of establishing whether Depo-Provera can affect glucose metabolism of those who use it as a means of family planning. A total of one hundred (100) women of ages between 19-47 years who came for Depo-Provera administration for the first time were recruited for this study. Ethical clearance was sorted for and obtained from ethical committee Jos University Teaching Hospital before carrying out this study. Parameters such as tribe, occupation, body weight and blood pressure were collected and analysed. Blood samples were collected and analysed for serum glucose concentration before and after Depo-Provera administration using glucose oxidase method. Tribe and occupation were analysed based on percentage, and result obtained for tribal classification indicates that Igbo has the least number of participants while other minor tribes grouped together as others has the highest number of participants. Occupational classification indicates that, health worker have the least number of participants while business women have the highest number of participants. The mean and standard deviation of age, body weight, blood pressure and glucose concentration were calculated. Result indicates that there was no significant change in body weight and blood pressure one month after Depo-Provera administration. Glucose concentration was further analysed using students t-test and result indicates, there was no significant change in serum glucose (p>0.05) after comparing glucose value obtained before and one month after Depo-Provera administration.

Developing the Traditional Roofing Style in Northern Nigerian Architecture []

Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of Traditional Roofing in northern Nigeria, historical developments, influences, changes, challenges, and issues experienced from the post-colonial period to date. The primary target of the research is factors such as; culture, climate, urbanization, and education

smart reader for visually impaired people []

This paper proposes an intelligent text reader using python. This product is built on a Raspberry Pi module connected with a camera that is used to capture the input image. The input image is enhanced using Image processing techniques. The Tesseract OCR (Optical Character Recognition) engine embedded in the Raspberry Pi searches for the text in an improved image and converts it into a digital document. The digital document is then analyzed using the semantic check module. After the analysis, the text is converted to speech by a Python-based TTS (text to speech) conversion unit embedded in the Raspberry Pi. Finally, the audio output is given to the Audio Amplifier for it to be readout.

Factors affecting the consumption behavior towards Tam Dat Joint Stock Company’s organic food []

ABSTRACT Vietnamese people are increasingly concerned about health issues, especially in the context of the rapidly spreading and complicated Covid-19 epidemic. Consumers' demand for consumption of healthful products is increasing day by day. Organic food is also one of the product lines can meet that expectation. In the market, there are many businesses involved in the production and supply of organic food, including Tam Dat Joint Stock Company. Established in 2009, Tam Dat is one of the prestigious addresses in providing organic food with 6 units in Hanoi. Organic food is still the new field in the Vietnamese market, but competition is increasingly fierce due to the emergence of new food brands, and the Covid-19 pandemic has made consumer behavior changing quickly, so it is important to understand customer's consumption behavior. Based on the this situation, the authors decided to carry out the research "Factors affecting the consumption behavior towards Tam Dat Joint Stock Company’s organic food" to help Tam Dat in particular, and organic food businesses in general to have the facilities and information to make decisions on how to produce, distribute, and sell organic food more effectively. The current research selected and analyzed the impact of 5 factors on the organic food consumption behavior of Hanoi people: Vietnamese culture, family habits, consumption motives, normative values and word of mouth. The research results show that there are 4 factors which have positive impact on organic food consumption behavior but with different levels of impact, while the word-of-mouth factor has no relationship with the dependent variable. Keywords: organic food, Vietnamese culture, family habits, consumption motives, normative values, word of mouth.


The present study attempts to study Effect of demographic variables on gratitude among adults. A group of 102 participantsthat include people from urban and rural areas of Karnataka. Professionals, self-employed unemployed, homemakers and retired people are included in the survey. People with different educational qualification, marital status, family type, social status participated in the study. The Gratitude scale questionnaire is used to measure the level of gratitude of the participants. Results reveal that there is a significant correlation between the gender, marital status, age and educational qualification of the participants. Also there is no significant influence of time spent on social media, number of working hours, occupation, type of family and annual income on gratitude.

Optimization Control for Coal Mill Fault Diagnosis in Coal-Fired Steam Power Plant []

Coal pulverizer mill at PLTU Rembang is the main equipment in the boiler that supports the reliability of the generating unit. They serve to supply coal fuel in the furnace to get perfect combustion. In the operation of coal mills, the pattern of operations carried out such as setting flow rate raw coal and primary air to avoid the occurrence of delay combustion and self combustion. The operating parameters change, and their valus are often outside standard limits. In this study, a simulation of the correct operation pattern of the coal pulverizer mill was carried out to avoid failure of the coal excessive mil wtih ANFIS system. By knowing charateristics of the coal mill operating parameters and the probability of the root cause of failure, the operating pattern can be determined in several steps by changing the input settings in the modelling. The operating pattern of the coal pulverizer mill with dynamic modelling is carried out using Matlab software by varying the three inputs are percentage openings of coal flow, hot air and coal air. This modelling can be used to monitor, diagnose disturbances in the plant and optimize control, so that operators can recognize early detection and can assit the proper operation pattern of the coal mill.


The present study is quantitative study by nature wise the study was conduct in Azaad Kashmir in Rawalkot to explore impact of tourism on local culture of Rawalkot the targeted area was Toli Pir, Banjosa Lake, Gurdwara and Nergola waterfalls these are very attractive spots for tourism in Kashmir. I have personally collected data through interview schedule from respondents. Natives of the spots were our respondents. The research topic is unique Impact of Tourism on Local Culture because no one can do any research or other related work before this. After conducted the research we explore different culture were mixed with Kashmir culture due to tourism, crime rate is also increased due to tourism some of positive impacts of tourism are people have upgrade their life standard, natives got jobs, increased local investment and natives have got employment opportunities, while local handicrafts and local artist were also promoted due to tourism. Main findings of the research are listed, 58.1% respondents were agreed that we learn different languages, 76.3% respondents were agreed that handicrafts were promoted through tourism, while 70% respondents agreed about that we learn different cultures due to tourism.


Experiments were conducted to determine the resistance level of different cultivars and study the efficacy of various synthetic insecticides against red pumpkin beetle (Aulocohphora foveicollis) at the New Developmental Malakandir Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar, during 2018. In the first experimental trial, data were collected on the mean population density of red pumpkin beetle on three cultivars (Desi, Super Green and Madam-560) of cucumber crop. While in the second experiment, three insecticides (Carbaryl, Cypermethrin, Malathion) and an Untreated/Control were used to study the effect of these insecticides on Desi (susceptible) and Madam 560 (resistant) cultivars regarding red pumpkin beetle on cucumber cultivar. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used in this experiment. The data on the relevant parameters were recorded at weekly intervals for eleven (1st experiment) and four weeks (2nd experiment) i.e. till termination of the experiments. During first experiment, it was observed that significantly lowest population density of red pumpkin beetle (0.82) per plant and highest yield (8981.3 kg ha-1) was observed from Madam 560, while significantly highest mean population density of red pumpkin beetle (4.06) per plant and lowest yield (7313.7 kg ha-1) was obtained from Desi cultivar. Significantly maximum mean number of red pumpkin beetle plant-1 was recorded in the seventh week (29 May) from Desi, Super Green and Madam 560 cultivars with 6.41, 4.50 and 1.62 beetle plant-1, respectively. During the cropping season, mean population density of red pumpkin beetle plant-1 reached its peak in the seventh week (29 May). After 7th week, a gradual decline was occurred in the mean population density of red pumpkin beetle plant-1. In second experiment, lowest mean population density of red pumpkin beetle adults plant-1 (0.12), area of consumption (3.12 mm2), percentage weight loss (1.60 %) and highest yield (21555 kg ha-1) was recorded from Madam 560 treated with Carbaryl, while highest mean population density of red pumpkin beetle adult plant-1 (7.09), area of consumption (36.11 mm2), percentage weight loss (17.27%) and lowest yield (7247 kg ha-1) was recorded from untreated Desi cultivar. It was followed by untreated Madam 560 cultivar where 5.40, 25.92 mm2, 13.20% and 8766 kg ha-1. Madam 560 is significantly better cultivar than Super Green and Desi, as this cultivar results in lowest population density of red pumpkin beetle and highest yield of cucumber fruit. Carbaryl is significantly better as compared to Malathion and Cypermethrin because it reduces the population of red pumpkin beetle.

A Survey of Factors That Motivate Agricultural Science Students in Nigerian Secondary Schools. []

Abstract The study investigated the perceptions of agricultural science teachers and parents on factors that motivate students to learn agricultural science. The purpose was to provide a descriptive analysis of some motivational factors that can foster students’ motivation to learn agricultural science in Nigerian secondary schools. The population for the study included all agricultural science teachers and parents in Rivers state; 30 agricultural science teachers and 70 parents were randomly and accidentally selected for this study. A questionnaire was designed to collect data from the targeted audience. Result from the study indicated that peer motivation, self-motivation and adult authority have weak influence on the students’ motivation to learn agricultural science. Furthermore, it was also discovered that collegial authority, students’ expectation of success and relevance of topics to students’ needs have strong influence on students’ motivation to learn agricultural science. Learning agricultural science in Nigerian senior secondary schools is presently at the lowest ebb, students only registered for the subject at the Senior School Certificate Examination only to make up for the required number of subjects. In order to forestall this situation, there is need for motivation, hence, collegial authority, students’ expectation of success and relevance of topics are motivational strategies that agricultural science teachers can engage in motivating students. Keywords: Agricultural Science, Senior Secondary Schools, Motivation

Reading the Cold War through Outer Space: The Past and Future of Outer Space []

The article takes a history based technical analysis on the governing activities by outer space laws. It outlined the spirit of the outer space law and treaty by the scientific development of the earth’s orbits & solar objects’ orbits. It focuses on the contamination of outer space by human activities in large scale structure with concluding scientific evidence. It analyzed geopolitical conflicts in terms of satellite technologies. They are analyzed based on the utility-science dichotomy, and the subject(s) that ultimately benefit from and control the utility. The texts are arranged by the contrast between the American led globalization and Russian hegemony with dictatorial powers. The technical analysis is nuclear science based with epistemology.

Systematic Study and Proposed Future Trends on VR and AR []

This research paper includes information about the VR and AR industry, its upcoming advancements, future trends and challenges.

Rural Non-Farm Enterprises Supporting the Agricultural Sector and their Relative Success in Kiambu County, Kenya []

Rural areas encounter numerous challenges, which include poverty, food insecurity and unemployment. Declining productions in agribusiness plays a critical impact in having more individuals to partake in agricultural non-farm activities in the rural area to support their livelihoods. This study sought to identify the different kinds of rural non-farm enterprises (RNFEs) that support the agricultural sector in Kiambu County and their relative success. Ann epistemology philosophy was adopted. The target population was all non-farm small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Kiambu County who have prevailed by supporting agrarian related exercises. This population of RNFEs came from every one of the 12 sub-areas: Gatundu North, Gatundu South, Thika, Juja, Githunguri, Ruiru, Kiambu, Kiambaa, Kabete, Kikuyu, Lari and Limuru. The study investigated five rural non-farm undertakings occupied with the accompanying regions: agribusiness activities, rural industrialisation ventures, transport services, the travel industry activities and development ventures. The study used questionnaires and interview guides for primary data collection. The findings indicated that what made most of RNFEs to begin the business was to bring in cash and utilized as a type of revenue. The study correlation results between the diversity of RNFEs that support the agricultural sector and rural livelihood outcome was positive and significant. The regression model depicted a positive and significant relationship between the various kinds of RNFEs that support the agricultural sector and rural livelihood outcomes. The inferential statistics demonstrated that the relationship between various types of RNFEs that help the effect of country non-farm undertakings on rural business results are significant. Therefore, is the study concluded that the help of RNFEs occupied with farming does affect rural business results in rural regions. Besides operating related rural-based commercial activities including agro-processing and ancillary commercial, it is possible to introduce activities to provide services to facilitate the adjoining agricultural commercial activities such as sale of fertilisers, insecticides or improved seeds.

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