Volume 13, Issue 5, May 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication
Publication for Volume 13, Issue 5, May 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication
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Electronic and Transport Properties of Sr doped Mg2Si Thermoelectric Material [PDF]
Getu Tilahun Melesse, Mulualem Abebe MekonnenWe investigated the electronic structure, dynamic stability, optical, and thermoelectric properties of strontium doped Mg2âˆ’x SiSrx, x = 0, 1, using First Principle approach with ultra-soft pseudopotential method to treat the interaction between the valence electron and the ion core and the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) in Perdex Burke Emzerhof (PBE) form is used to process the exchange-related energy function. Sr modified Mg2Si show good agreement with the experimental result for the electronic and thermoelectric properties. With semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory, the transport properties of Mg2Si and Sr doped Mg2Si alloys have been investigated systematically. The result of DFT conformed that, the undoped Mg2Si system has indirect energy gap to a value of 0.222 eV; Sr doped 2x1x1 Mg2Si supercell, showing direct bandgap with a value of 0.195 eV. The carrier concentration of Sr doped Mg2Si thermoelectric material increased. After the doping, the fermi level shifts towards the conduction band and comprises of via a strong hybridization between the Sr-s, Si-p, Mg-s, and Mg-p orbitals, indicating that the covalent bonds formed by Sr, Si, and Mg atoms is very strong. The electrical conductivity of Sr doped Mg2Si material is due to electrons, which is justified from the negative value of the Seebeck coefficient and its value increases with temperature. The lattice thermal conductivity dominates the electronic thermal conductivity as a function of temperature for Sr doped Mg2Si system.
In this work, the Sr-doped Mg2Si materials were found to be a better thermoelectric material with increased Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and corresponding electronic thermal conductivity at a high-temperature range.
Current Status of Design, Adoption and Dissemination of Biomass Cookstove in Ethiopia [PDF]
Aster WolduDomestic air pollution produced using inefficient, unclean solid-fuel cookstoves is a leading risk factor for illness and death worldwide. Despite this fact, the energy sector of Ethiopia as of any other developing countries is largely relying on traditional biomass as energy source. In addition to the indoor pollution and risk associated with it, GHG emission, Deforestation and degradation of forests, are a results of the same problem. Problem generated from the unavailability of the clean cooking source like the lack of good health, death, being socially inactive participant etc. mainly affected women, girls and children. Work on the Improved cookstoves started in Ethiopia in1990 by Ethiopian government jointly with NGOs especially GT. From the starting day on the country produce five basic kinds of improved cool stove, namely MIrt, Gounziye, Lakech, Tikikil and IRS. Evaluating by going through different articles listed in the reference; in relation to the design future, the adoption and the distribution figure and other aspects of the stoves; it seems the countries ambition and efforts are lost somewhere. Since related to the given problem to resolve, that is providing / indicating /adopting /distributing of clean, safe house hold biomass stove, still the problem largely existed.
Reviewing the design of the cookstoves available in the country, the type is classified in to traditional (three stone, Metal charcoal stove), simple non-traditional (Gunziye, Mirt), and for improved cookstove (Rocket) the classification is done based on the Berkeley Air. Except the rocket and Tikikil cookstoves, all other stoves do not meet the ISO standard and listed as tier-0 and are regarded as unsafe and inefficient. The adoption and the dissemination of these cookstoves are still not high enough to resolve the situation.
Quantifying The Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Carbon footprint of Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Plants Case: The 13 UCBP-WWTPs of Ethiopia [PDF]
Aster WolduAs many countries are increasing commitments to address climate change, national governments are exploring how they could best reduce the impact of their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. All sectors have contribution to the GHG problem. Neglecting the old thinking, providing end-of â€“pipe solution- that is WWTP for the protection of the environment is holistic; nowadays, new challenges are under consideration (GHG), oriented to ensure the sustainability of WWTPs in terms of their economic feasibility and environmental impact. The operation of wastewater treatment plants results in direct emissions, from the biological processes, of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O), as well as indirect emissions resulting from fossil fuel consumption for energy generation. A carbon footprint is provided as a tool to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and identify opportunities to reduce climate change impacts.
Basing their design future, process design data and current working conditions of the working -13-TPs; in this paper it is tried to investigate the GHGs generation potential of 15-UCBP-WWTPs, Following the life cycle approach; emission factors were used to calculate the carbon footprint. Then the possible solutions for the reduction of GHGs generation are tried to be provided.
The released GHGS in the TPs with Focal drawbacks:- indirectly from power consumption (67 -170 t CO2-e/year) to cover the energy demand of the plant , directly in Sewer network (13.69-2.62 t CH4/year) due to improper ventilation system and poor operation practices, direct methane venting to the atmosphere in the Imhoof tank (46-12.88 t CH4/year), Aeration tank (3.0-0.88t N20/year), solid waste and sludge handling (119-35 t CO2e/year) and fuel consumption (120.9-63t CO2e/year) to substitute grid power supply.
Since the treatment plants are stand-in, considered and treated as the first demonstrating plants for providing training and showing the technology in the country; making the TP more environmentally friendly and sustainable though possible and mandatory modification works will give dual benefit to the country, the impact generated from the centers will reduce and better, improved, and up-to-date technical knowledge will be transferred.
How efficient is CSF in terrain extraction: A Case Study on Terrain Extraction Coast scan: Noordwijk Beach, Netherlands [PDF]
Debabrata Paul and Piyush PritamIsolating point clouds into ground and non-ground points is a preparatory and fundamental step (Zhang, W., Qi, J., Wan, P., Wang, H., Xie, D., Wang, X. and Yan, G., 2016). The Laser Scanner can be used to scan a specific area to get the sea of data, which is being used in Noordwijk Beach, Netherlands. Since the data is constantly being recorded and have abundance of data, we need to filter them down and refine it. In order to do so, a wide range of ground filtering methods can be used, out of which CSF (cloth simulation filtration) in one of them. In this report, we are using the mentioned method to analyse the point clouds obtained from the scanner and conclude about the efficiency at which CSF process provides the best data in an efficient way. In general, the depressions and complexity of the topography make the process more challenging and ends up using more parameters. CSF (cloth simulation filtration) algorithm has been found out to be good enough and it can obtain a fine initial terrain, which simultaneously provides a good foundation for parameter threshold estimation.
Theoretical models of final theory or theory of everything (TOE) in physics [PDF]
Suzan Khalid Hashim, Tabit Elias Basheer, Karim SalehiAbstract. In this paper, we will introduce three theoretical models for building the final theory or theory of everything (TOE) in physics.
Vertical Farming Next Generation Techno-Enabled Farm [PDF]
Ms.Pritam Deshmukh, Mr.Sarthak Kide, Mr.Piyush Khodke, Ms.Pradnya Kulal, Mr.Hritik DhoreIn agriculture dominant countries like ours,
innovation in the farming methodologies have been
witnessed. These innovations were observed in the areas
of irrigation, use of pesticide by the result of soil testing
etc. Our proposed method and initial experimental trials
addresses towards upcoming method of vertical farming
and its subsequent requirements. Technology used in
our experimentation involves farming structure and
artificial photosynthesis method by LED. Growth of
crop with our structure and methodology shows
promising results as compared to traditional farming in
terms of inherent advantages like requirement of less
space, reduction in hazardous consequence due to
pesticides and proposes feasible economic model of
farming. The vertical farming is the advanced level of
agriculture technology which is different from our
tradition farming methodology. This type of farming is
practiced when there is unavailable of land. The main
purpose of this methodology is harvesting technique,
water management, crop cultivation and yielding
Concern of Doctors about their own Healthcare [PDF]
Muhammad Umar Shahzad, Talha Asif, Zaroon Bin Sajjad, Usama Ashraf, Hafiz Muhammad Faizan Javed ,Muhammad Zaeem, Dr Sumera EhsanBackground & Objective:
Doctors work long hours under stressful conditions and seem to have sedentary, unhealthy lifestyle. Recently, an increased incidence of sudden mortality among doctors was observed in our community. This study was aimed to access the attitude and practice of doctors regarding their own health care.
A cross-sectional study using non-probability convenient sampling was conducted among 150 practicing doctors in Faisalabad. After getting ethical approval, a pre-tested validated questionnaire was used for data collection in May 2019. Results were analyzed using SPSS 25.
Only 35(23.6%) subjects met recommended criteria of exercising at least 5 days a week. Majority, 116(77.3%), failed to get optimal sleep of 7-9 hours per day. 111 (75.5%) subjects said that they get themselves regularly investigated in recommended time. Major barrier in assessing regular health services was limited time availability (56%) followed by self-medication 37(25.2%), medical knowledge 16(10.9%) and embarrassment 7(4.8%). 134(89.3%) did self-medication. Doctors who thought they spend enough time with their family were less stressed during duty as compared to those who thought they didnâ€™t spend enough family time. Doctors were unaware about job details regarding vacations, employee and family healthcare as provided in other organizations. 132(89.2%) were not being provided annual health checkups by employers.
Study concluded that doctors are not leading healthy life. Neither doctors themselves put effort to maintain their own health nor do their employers adopt standard health practices for them. More research should be done to understand the situation better and seek out reliable solutions.
â€œA BIRDS EYE VIEW ON INCORPORATING AYURVEDIC PRINCIPLES AND TREATMENT IN THE MANAGEMENT OF TENNIS ELBOWâ€ [PDF]
Dr Sowjanya JABSTRACT
Tennis Elbow syndrome encompasses lateral, medial and posterior Elbow symptoms. The one commonly encountered is the lateral Tennis Elbow which is known as Classical Tennis Elbow and there is pain and tenderness on the lateral side of the Elbow, some well-defined and some vague, that results from repetitive stress.
The clinical features along with Pain comprises of difficulty in gripping objects and lifting them. Sports persons will have difficulty in extending the elbow.
Recent statistical studies globally attributes 1% to 3 % of adults each year and in India, 4-7 cases of Tennis Elbow per 1000 patients in general practice and 1-3% with in general population annually. The highest incidence is found in the age group 30 and older.
The conventional therapy for Tennis Elbow includes Conservative management which comprise oral analgesics (NSAIDâ€™s), Injection of local anaesthetic and steroid which is useful only in 40% of cases and about 10% may respond to Millâ€™s Manoeuvre, where as other subjects requires Surgical management. Recent advances includes Extracorporeal Shock wave therapy (ESWT), Arthroscopic release, Autologous blood injections, Counter force bracing, Ultrasound guided percutaneous needle therapy and Rehabilitative exercises in which the efficacy is still under experimentations.
Thus, it is needed to study detail regarding Tennis elbow and find effective management in Ayurveda which reduces pain and helps to retain normal functionality of elbow joint.
KEYWORDS: Elbow joint, Tennis Elbow, Ayurveda
Estimating the Phishing/Non-phishing Probability of a URL using a Tree-based Ensemble Model [PDF]
Megh Agarwal, Ibrahim KhalilPhishing attacks are the oldest kind of cyber assault, yet continue to be the most common and a rising menace. A minuscule
effort of social engineering on the attackerâ€™s part can result in a credible, tailored email that is deceitful enough for victims to fall for. With
the skyrocketing number of phishing attempts, campaigns, and websites, this is a hugely escalating threat to cybersecurity. This study
lexically examines the dangerous, deceptive links used in phishing attacks and focuses on building a model that provides the probability of
a link being malicious based on common phishing link observations. Detection is solely based on the estimation of the probability (returned
by the random forest classifier) and not classification thereby removing bias in classifying URLs.
The Effect of Covid-19 Pandemic on e-commerce in Nigeria [PDF]
Akpama Etom Akpama, Jianhua ZhangThis quantitative study aims to investigate the effect of the Covid-19 pandemic on the Nigerian e-commerce space. The pandemic was indeed a total disaster to businesses worldwide. Numerous companies resorted to e-commerce because the government of almost every country, Nigeria inclusive, made policies to contain the virus (sit-at-home, social distancing, etc.) which affected the smooth flow of businesses. In data collection, primary and secondary data were used. A survey method was also deployed. A simple random sampling with 103 questionnaires was distributed and used for the analysis. The results shown reveals that the Covid-19 pandemic has proven to be a mixed-blessing. It is an eye-opener to a group that businesses could also thrive without physical contact; to others, it has brought a cessation of business and a tale of regret. But in all, it shows that e-commerce has come to stay and can adapt to any change.
ENGINEERING WASH & IPC IN HEALTH FACILITIES FOR EFFECTIVE HUMANITARIAN HEALTH & NUTRITION INTERVENTIONS IN ETHIOPIA [PDF]
Gemechis BizuayehuIn 2018 the Secretary-General of the United Nations (UN) issued a Global Call to Action to elevate the importance of and prioritize action on WASH in all health care facilities, including primary, secondary and tertiary facilities in both the public and private sectors. The call recognises the important role WASH plays in preventing infections, saving lives, and improving quality of care. As such, all UN agencies, Member States, and partners are now being asked to invest more in this critical component for health and wellbeing.
The purpose of this document is to visualize the global picture and developments to build capable & functional health facilities through improved WaSH intervention that contribute to community health with clear understanding of IPC. Global picture of WaSH, Health & IPC in HCFs is viewed, the coverage of WaSH in HCFs in Ethiopia is assessed, the Ethiopian Ministry of Health (MoH) strategy is presented and the recommended roles of non-government agencies implementing humanitarian health projects in parallel with the MoH strategy through their project management is shown.
This document starts with the WHO and UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programmeâ€™s WASH in Health Care Facilities at Global & specific to Ethiopian context. Global baseline report 2018, which provides the first national, regional, and global baseline monitoring estimates for SDG 6, which calls for universal access to WASH everywhere including in households, schools, and health care facilities.
The main audiences for this document are national health policy makers, district health managers, quality experts and implementers, and health facility administrators and staff. Additional audiences include WASH and health partners, national water and sanitation policymakers, WASH practitioners, researchers, and civil society.
EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS,ANTIOXIDANT,ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND LEATHER APPLICATION OF THE SEA BLITE SUAEDA MARITIMA (L.)DUMORT [PDF]
Salomie Jennifer Samuel Johnson , Nithiya RajaramIn this study an attempt was made to extract the phytochemials from the different parts of
the plant using water, methanol, hexane and acetone. These extract were screened for its
phytochemicals which showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavanoids, phenols,
saponins, tannins, terpenoids, phlobatannins and steroids . The antioxidant study the leaf, stem
and root part of plant in methanol, hexane, chloroform and distilled water extract showed
maximum activity than the other extracts. In antimicrobial assay showed that the leaf extracts has
maximum zone of inhibition against E.coli, bacillus, klebsilla, protease and pseudomonas. The
pant parts were tested for its leather application in curing process. The result showed that salt
less preservation technique using leaves of Suaeda maritima gave better results in leather
The phytochemical characterization and antibacterial activity of the leaf extracts of
Suaeda maritima (L) Dumort was investigated using standard methods. Antimicrobial activity
was studied using leaf, stem and root extracts, on the various test microorganisms, including
multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria and phytopathogens. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts
was determined by the Well Diffusion Method. The experimental results concluded that the
hexane, methanol and water extracts of S. maritima leaves have greater potential as antimicrobial
compounds against microorganisms and they can be used in the treatment of infectious diseases
caused by resistant pathogenic microorganisms. The extractive value of water is more than in the
solvents were investigated. The leaf extracts of S.maritima showed potent antibacterial activity.
The present investigation revealed that the S.maritima leaves are potential good source of
antibacterial agents. The phytochemical characterization study will be helpful to study the active
principles using modern techniques in the later part of this work.
Sustainable Procurement Policy and Regulatory Framework for Public Procurement in Pakistan (in Line with UN AGENDA 2030 & SDG #12.1, 12.7 ) AND RECOMMENDATIONS TO PAKISTANâ€™S POLICYMAKERS [PDF]
Engr. Abdul QayyunOver 20 years after the 1992 Rio Earth Summit, consequent of recognition of the fatal effects of climate change, advancing sustainable development from the local/regional level to the global level remained a major challenge and responsibility, both for the UN and the governments all over the world. Accordingly, through the United Nations Millennium Declaration, signed in September 2000, the world leaders committed to combat poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women by 2015. Meanwhile, at the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), in June 2012, all the countries around the globe through their Heads of State, adopted the 10-Year Framework of Programmes(10YFP ) and then reaffirmation that â€œfundamental changes in the way societies produce and consume are indispensable for achieving global sustainable developmentâ€ (Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, 2002).
To move further, at the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit on 25 September 2015, world leaders (High-Level Political Forum- HLPF-fig 1) adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, a set of 17 ambitious Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to end poverty, fight inequality and injustice, and tackle climate change by 2030. Each UN SDG, to achieve/measure the comprehensive, effective and efficient management/implementation, has its targets/indicators (a total of 169 Targets and 234 indicators). Among these UN 17 SDGs, SDG 12 is, â€˜ENSURE SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION(SCP) PATTERNSâ€™ and the UN defined its targets 12.1 and 12.7 as, â€œImplement the UN 10-year framework of programs (UN 10YFP) and â€œPromote Sustainable Public Procurement (SPP) practices, in accordance with national policies and priorities respectively.â€ The progress on its indicators 12.1.1 & 12.7.1, by different countries, in collaboration with UN DESA/UN HLPF-MGoS, is to be assessed/ measured by whether countries:
(i) have developed SCP and SPP policies, regulations, and actions plans in accordance with Targets 12.1 and 12.7 and:
(ii) are implementing Indicators (12.1.1 and 12.7.1).
The UN SDGs, in general, to achieve the required objectives are universal, meaning they apply to every country in the world. Local and regional governments, including Pakistan and its local governments and other stakeholders, have to play an important role in influencing the definition of the SDGs. Successful campaigning, on- a stand-alone basis on an urgent basis, for all SDGs including their targets, therefore, is crucial. It, also, is prudent to mention that UN through its relevant platform of High-Level-Political-Forum-Major Groups & other Stake Holders ((HLPF)-MGoS -system) is always ready to provide every reasonable (whatsoever including finance) assistance/technique(s)/capacity building to the member country/stakeholders.
Despite the above facilities, offered by the UN, and obligations committed by Pakistan on its part, due to non-compliance with UN Agenda 2030, Pakistan's ranking, in the UN 2030 Agenda, has been dropped on the global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) index from 115 in 2016 to 134 in 2020. It simply means that poverty, hunger, inequalities disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, violence, etc. have increased during this period, whereas peace and justice, etc. have decreased during this period in Pakistan. It also means that % the age wastage of the public procurement budget is also increased during this period. In the regional context also Pakistan is the worst performer and at the bottom of the South Asian countries in the overall performance of SDGs.
Therefore, the Government of Pakistan, through this forum of PEC, via this paper (already registered/listed by UN-DESA as an initiative) is reminded of its firm commitment towards UN Agenda 2030, specifically to SDG 12, its targets 12.1, 12.7, and indicators 12.1.1 & 12.7.1, and to design/implement, as envisaged in the One Planet SPP Strategic Programme for the next 3 to 4 years period (2018/2019-2022), by formulating/developing policy and procurement regulations including comprehensive action plans vetted/owned by Parliament of Pakistan through due legislation, required by the Constitution of Pakistan as well as by the UN, on priority basis and which, as a minimum, should include:
i. Design, formulate and develop a competitive Legal Framework (Fig-3) supporting SCP and SPP.
ii. The Framework should be inclusive of fair implementation
iii. The Framework should also be inclusive of equitable monitoring and evaluation and a recommendation system
iv. Necessary guidance/assistance may be sought from the endnotes of this paper in general and specifically from:
a. UNEP Sustainable Consumption & Production A Hand-Book for Policymakers
b. UNEP Global Review of Sustainable Procurement-2017
c. UN One Plan for One Planet 5 Year Strategy 2018-2022
d. Sustainable Public Procurement Initiatives (SPPI) may be promoted, developed, and implemented.
GDP of Pakistan is almost USD 300 billion, and out of it, 30% (90 billion USD) is spent on Public Procurement but due to inappropriate (absence of requisite policy, regulations, and action plans, Employersâ€™ in-house incompetence, use of outdated and at sometimes irrelevant documents, unfitting procurement procedures, misrepresentations, etc.) procurement practices, 30% (almost 27 billion USD per year and this amount may go on swelling) of this public money is wasted every year. This public money besides protecting the environment and reducing ecological footprint in Pakistan, by adopting sustainable procurement, in line with UN SDG 12(SCP) in general and specifically its targets 12.1(10YFP SCP) &12.7(10 YFP SPP) may be saved to cause real prosperity, decency, and dignity in Pakistan.
Making justice accessible for all through ADR [PDF]
Hafiz Muhammad Tahir AyyubiOver the last two decades, the world is going through a new age of time, the Globalization. This new stage means that there are not any boundaries between the countries and the whole world is interdependent and interconnected among each other . The market has been expanded to all the countries through social media ,E-commerce and related technologies ,as a result the international trade is increasing day by day but creating some problems to take justice system . There are free movement and shipping of goods as to globalization and the multinational companies are selling to clients around the entire world , which the nations has to face the consequences if they fail to fulfill treaties and agreements according to the term and condition .world is looking forward , to adopt easy access of justice and remedy in case of that issues, which is going easy and comfortable for the countries as well as individual through ADR .As for as the countries , inner matter is concerned it would be more convenient and easily accessible for all.
E-Learning Curriculum Resources Accepted For Use Among Physics Teachers During Covid-19 Pandemic [PDF]
Unamma Anthony Odera & Rukkayat GurinAbstract:
Efforts of some secondary school Physics teachers in Imo State to use e-learning tools for teaching were major breakthroughs during the COVID-19 Pandemic. The problem of the study stems from the concerns of stakeholders of education on the most acceptable e-learning tools which can be adopted in the schools during and after the COVID-19 Pandemic to teach Physics effectively and efficiently in an inclusive curriculum. The study was Survey that involved 288 Physics teachers in both private and public secondary schools. Two Research Questions were posed. A four-point Likert-type rating scale was used to collect data. The reliability coefficient of the instrument was determined by using test-retest approach and coefficient index of 0.75 was obtained. Majority of the secondary school Physics teachers accepted the use of e-learning tools such as smart phones, laptops, television, zoom, cybernetics, and other WhatsApp platforms for teaching. Problem of accepting e-learning tools involved high cost of purchasing internet data, lack of access to durable smart phones, laptops, cybernetics and technical problems of which insufficient internet connectivity is included. It was therefore recommended that government intervention and collaboration with private companies should be enhanced to ensure improved access of users to e-learning tools and other services for teaching Physics in schools.
MODERNIZATION OF BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMME BEING IMPLEMENTED IN NIGERIAN SCHOOLS FOR DEVELOPMENT [PDF]
Unamma Anthony Odera & Rukkayat GurinAbstract
This paper titled: Modernization of basic education programme being implemented in Nigerian schools for development surveyed the problems/challenges which led to the failure of UPE (Universal Primary Education Programme in Nigeria and the challenges facing the present day Universal Basic Education programme. The data/information collected from some stakeholders showed that apart from poor funding, planning, implementation and structuring, there are some traditional and other institution values, operational techniques and objectives which should be radically changed to be more dynamic and vibrant. It was then recommended that Basic Education as the foundational education programme should be modernized by at least giving pupils more hours to being exposed to creative, innovative and productive works and lesser hours to the acquisition of knowledge.
The effect of Adiponectin Receptors AdipoR1/AdipoR2 in Obesity and type II Diabetes, Cancer, and Cardiovascular and as potential therapeutics (Part two) [PDF]
Dr. Zelalem Kiros BitsueA vehicular ad hoc network is one of the spontaneous engenderments of a wireless network of mobile contrivances. This is the maximum developing studies area within the discipline of telecommunication. Resulting from rapid topology converting and common disconnection, it miles immensely difficult to layout a green routing protocol for routing statistics among cars, known as the car to conveyance conversation and conveyance to roadside infrastructure. VANET will inaugurate a brilliant revolution in Wi-Fi communique of speedy facts transmission, network availability, protection, and safety by using a superior application phase. VANET faces several challenges in phrases of Quality of Service and its Overall Performance which relies upon several parameters including conveyance density, throughput, packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay, emergency message inter-arrival time, packet loss ratio, average cluster time, protocol overhead, delay, broadcast count, and so forth. Performance evaluation and amelioration of the C2C communique associated with packet delivery ratio and throughput is the concern in this research. Furthermore, the destiny of the C2C communique; advantages, and barriers also are discussed right here. Eventually, the top demanding situations of destiny paintings on VANETs are presented. I evaluate the performance metrics which include packet delivery ratio and throughput utilizing the OMNET++ simulator.