Volume 13, Issue 4, April 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

Publication for Volume 13, Issue 4, April 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

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Shortest Path Planning for Wheeled Mobile Robot using Dummy Targets and MATLAB simulations []

— In robot navigation, obstacle avoidance is major issue of consideration and if not handled properly can result in enormous losses and permanent damages. This paper presents simple algorithm, with a different technique in obstacle avoidance, for devising the shortest path for the robot navigation, while ensuring utmost safety and task competency in reaching the target. The proposed algorithm assumes the obstacles are 2D, stationary and of different shapes and sizes, embedded by virtual, secure elliptical surrounding. This approach combined with the conventional methodology of employing tangential approach in clockwise/counter clock wise directions and Virtual Force Field (VFF), projects it as hybrid model. The novelty of this method is the introduction of intermittent dummy targets to determine the straight-line segments of the shortest path to the goal.

Performance Evaluation of Power-Aware Relay Selection Scheme in Cooperative Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks []

Cooperative communication greatly reduced fading but isn’t sufficient enough to increase the longevity of network lifetime due to inefficient usage of the node’s power. This project was proposed to utilize a Power-aware relay selection scheme (PARS) in selecting the relaying node that best extends the network lifetime and thereby conserves the node’s backup power. The power-aware relay selection scheme (PARS) entails the measurement of the channel state information (CSI) of wireless ad-hoc networks and the estimation of the Optimal power allocation (OPA) for each relay. Then two Power-aware relay selection scheme (PARS) criteria were developed to select the best relay by utilizing both the CSI and the OPA information. The simulations were done under Amplify-and-forward (AF) and Decode-and-forward (DF) modes of cooperation and the Power-aware relay selection scheme (PARS) criteria were examined with the existing OR strategy that only considered the CSI measurements. The result shows that by considering the node’s power in relay selection, the network lifetime is greatly improved compared to the OR strategy, and the network lifetime for PARS in DF mode is more energy-efficient than in AF mode due to stricter consideration of channel conditions. Index Terms---Power-aware relay selection scheme (PARS), Channel state information (CSI), Optimal power allocation (OPA), Opportunistic relaying (OR), Amplify-and-forward (AF), Decode-and-forward (DF).

Detection of Covid 19 from Cough Audio using Convolutional Neural Networks []

COVID-19, also known as the coronavirus which has sparked a global pandemic that has infected a lot of people and has also caused a large number of deaths globally. Trouble breathing, fever, and exhaustion are common early signs of the virus, and over 60% of patients had a dry cough. We propose a COVID-19 cough audio classifier based on machine learning technology that can distinguish COVID-19 positive cough audio from COVID-19 negative cough audio and healthy cough sample recorded on a smartphone. This type of screening is non-contact, easy to use, and can reduce the testing center effort while also limiting transmission by advising early self-isolation to patients with a cough that suggests COVID-19. The datasets which are used in this study are the COUGHVID and Virufy dataset. Over 25,000 crowdsourced cough audio recordings are available in the COUGHVID collection, covering different participant ages, genders, country, and COVID-19 statuses. The Virufy dataset is also used which contains segmented cough audio samples from patients. Our findings reveal that, while all classifiers were able to detect COVID-19 coughs, the CNN classifier with 10 layers had the greatest performance, with area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.80 in distinguishing between COVID-19 positive cough audio, symptomatic and healthy cough audio. This type of cough audio classification is possibly a beneficial and viable means of non-contact screening because it is cost-effective and simple to implement.

Conducting Polymer as Potential fluorescent sensor for the detection of Cu(II) ions []

Conducting polymer (CP) based on Michal's addition of aromatic sulphinyl compound to phenylenediamine was synthesized as a selective and stable fluorescent sensor for the detection of Cu2+ ions. In the absence of Cu2+ ions, CP shows a strong fluorescence emission spectrum at λem = 490 nm while addition of Cu2+ ions cause a quenching for its fluorescence emission due to the coordination bond between Cu2+ ions and CP functional groups. Selectivity of fluorescent sensor for the detection of Cu2+ was investigated by using various numbers of different metal ions. Also, the stability test of fluorescent sensor in different pH media appears the sensor is stable in pH range 1-9. In addition, the sensor exhibits stability toward a strong ionic strength medium as well as in exposure to visible light for about 48 h.


In spite of recent development in earthquake resistant engineering, earthquake still inflict widespread damage at various parts of the world. The importance of space structures to survive earthquake have been noticed from the experience of severe earthquakes. At present various measures against the earthquakes are applied to the space structure. Nonlinear Static analysis has been widely used on earthquake response prediction of building structures under severe earthquakes. It needs to be studied whether it is applicable for reinforced concrete Cylindrical Barrel Vault structures or not. In this paper, Nonlinear Static analysis of Cylindrical Barrel Vault structures is introduced. The first mode lateral loading pattern for the Cylindrical Barrel Vault structure with nine other cases is adopted to perform the pushover analysis. The Nonlinear Static analyses results are compared with linear static, linear dynamic and nonlinear time history analyses results. All the analyses were performed using SAP2000.

On the critical temperature and transitional values of a combustible mixture in different modes of heat transfer []

In this study, the steady one-dimensional heat transfer process in a chemical substance, at rest in a vessel, involving branched-chain thermal reaction under generalized Arrhenius reaction-rate law is revisited. Two distinct boundary conditions are considered; constant surface temperature and Newton cooling on surface. The temperature equation and the specified boundary conditions are transformed into dimensionless forms for cartesian, cylindrical and spherical geometries. The developed non-linear equation is reduced to linear problem by assuming that the generalized heat generation term depends only on the maximum central dimensionless temperature. The resulting equations are then integrated analytically using standard techniques. The simplified yet accurate solutions obtained produces expressions for criticality condition and transition (disappearance of criticality). Comparison of present analytical expressions is in agreement with the limiting case of Arrhenius reaction-rate law. The analytical expressions obtained for criticality and transition conditions are shown graphically and discussed in detail for various parameters of interest.


The Indigenous Community in the Philippines is advocating for an education that is sensitive to, and reflective of, their cultural context, aspirations and concerns. The main objective of the study was to determine the level of pedagogical performance of the Indigenous Peoples Education (IPED) teachers as perceived by the one hundred six pupil-respondents from three target schools in the Division of Zambales. The descriptive research design was used in the study with the used of questionnaire as the main instrument in gathering data from the pupil respondents. The respondents are typically female, in their early adolescent, and majority of them were grade 5 pupils. Based on the findings, the pupil-respondent perceived their teachers as Exceeds Expectation on the following competencies, Teaching Ability, Classroom Management and School Fit in all indicators towards the level of pedagogical performance of the teachers in the implementation of the IPED program. Moreover, the pupil-respondent perceived Skill in Contextualization as Improvement Needed (I) in all indicators towards the level of pedagogical performance of the teachers in the implementation of the IPED program. There is a highly significant difference on the level of pedagogical performance of the teachers in the implementation of the IPED program in terms Teaching Ability when grouped according to age and sex of the respondents. There is no significant difference in the level of pedagogical performance of the teachers in the implementation of the IPED program in terms of School Fit and Classroom Management when grouped according to profile variables of the respondents. There is a significant difference in the level of pedagogical performance of the teachers in the implementation of the IPED program in terms of Skill in Contextualization when grouped according to age variable.


Objective: To evaluate hearing sensitivity and Eustachian tube function in oral sub mucous fibrosis patients preoperatively and following surgical intervention. Materials and Methods: This is observational prospective study in which 40 patients (80 ears) suffering from biopsy proven OSMF (Group 2 & 3) were tested for Eustachian tube dysfunction and hearing sensitivity using Tympanometry & Audiometry. Results: On Tympanometry, Type A curve was obtained in 58 ears, Type B curve in 15 ears and Type C curve in 7 ears preoperatively. Immediate postoperatively TYPE A curve was obtained in 54 ears, TYPE B curve in 19 ears and Type C curve in 7 ears. After 1 month and 3 month Type B and Type C curve was not obtained in any ear. On Audiometry, 56 ears showed normal hearing and 24 ears showed minimal conductive hearing loss preoperatively and Immediate postoperatively. Tests after 1 month and 3 months showed all 80 ears having normal hearing. ). One way ANOVA test was done and the results were found statistically significant in both tests .Pearson correlation test shows that both test methods (Tympanometry and audiometry) are highly co related. Conclusion: The results indicate an association between stages of OSF and hearing loss. OSMF causes fibrotic changes in Tensor veli palatani and Levator veli palatani muscles which in addition with restricted mouth opening restricts proper Eustachian tube functioning in turn causing changes in Middle ear function. This feature if found can be dealt effectively with surgical intervention.

pH and Temperature Monitoring with a GSM-based Auto Feeding System of a Biofloc Technology []

Biofloc technology (BFT), the new "blue revolution" in aquaculture, has the potential to increase aquaculture production's sustainability without sacrificing quality. The main challenge of biofloc technology is the recycling of waste nutrients, particularly nitrogen, into microbial biomass by controlling the water property. Much work has been published since the introduction of BioFloc Technology to evaluate this system in various contexts and under various nutritional situations. This paperwork is being done on the design and development of a water quality monitoring system of a Biofloc, with the objective of notifying the user through some LED’s and display. The pH value and temperature of water in Biofloc are sensed with a pH sensor and temperature sensor respectively and will notify through LED’s. Also, an automatic feeding system is added which is controlled by sending SMS through a GSM module that controls a servo motor to open and close the food gate accordingly.

Customer perceived marketing and its rapid adaptation via e- commerce business for its customer. []

The purposes of this study is to explore the concept of value , the processes of consumer value creation by e-commerce businesses and the role of firms and consumers in value creating process. the research explores special attention to perceived value that drives users to engage in transaction activities through e-commerses businesses. The study identifies the effect of perceived value on the consumers buying interests also evaluating the relationship between trust and loyalty, as well as the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty. The results of this study suggest that perceived value can influence both purchase intentions and user trust, which will in turn affect loyalty. Providing insight into the importance of perceived value is one of the practical implications of this research for understanding how consumer perceived marketing is been adapted by the e-commerce businesses In order to build a sustainable relationship with customers.

Molecular Modeling Methods Used in Drug Design []

Computer-aided design is used in biomedical fields to accelerate and assist the determination of targeted drug active ingredient, assist in precursor drug selection, optimize absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity profile, and prevent safety problems. Commonly used computational approaches include ligand-based drug design (pharmacophore, a 3-dimensional spatial arrangement of chemical properties required for biological activity), structure-based drug design (drug-target placement), and quantitative structure-activity and quantitative structure-property. In addition, computer-aided drug design is applied at an early stage of the drug development process for target verification, hit determination, target achievement optimization and potential drug agent optimization. A detailed description of how computer-aided applications are used in drug design, such as molecular docking, structure-based design, drug-receptor interactions, effector-based drug design, target-based drug design, molecular modeling methods, docking method, De Novo design, and fragment-based design, which are frequently used in these optimization stages. It has been investigated. In addition, we tried to explain with examples how molecular docking is used to rationalize biological activity applications and guide their optimization.

Courtyard design, a passive approach in residential buildings for reducing direct solar gain []

Bylaws followed in existing societies of Lahore, Pakistan is causing more harm than good as the urban fabric lacks the considerable application of passive design building typology in modern construction. These bylaws followed by regulatory authorities are increasing the cooling load of building due to the increase in direct solar gain resulting in more electricity consumption. In this paper, minor modifications are suggested in the existing layouts of modern houses by adding courtyard along with a veranda as a passive design feature. Among various available passive cooling techniques, the courtyard technique is borrowed from traditional houses like Havelis. The direct solar gain for existing house (no courtyard) is compared with the house having courtyard. Addition of a courtyard can result in long-term benefits by decreasing the monthly average direct solar gain (Qg) through openings that ultimately reduce the cooling load of a building and significant reduction in electricity bills is seen at a larger scale. Implication of this research is to suggest the regulatory authorities combine the modern houses with traditional one to enhance the effectiveness of residential units in terms of lesser cooling load. After careful consideration, a residential unit was selected as a representative of modern houses from society of Lahore Development authority. Residential unit with courtyard reduces 52% of direct solar gain (Qg) when compared with the existing house (without courtyard). The simulation results explicate that passive approaches like courtyard and verandas, help in reducing the inside temperature (Ti) and direct solar gain (Qg) in summer. The field survey of Barood Khana Haveli and Sethi Haveli Peshawar was conducted to understand the effective implementation of architectural and passive features of traditional buildings that can be adapted in modern houses to achieve the thermal comfort.

Procedures for Concluding and Divorcing Marriage in the Civil and Church Law (Orthodox Christian Variety): Macedonian Case []

Abstract - The paper presents a comparative overview of the procedures for concluding and divorcing marriage in the civil and church (Orthodox Christian Variety) law, with particular reference to the differences between civil and church procedures. In text were elaborated the procedures and practices in the Macedonian civil and ecclesiastical code regarding the conclusion and divorce of the. The in-depth and extensive processing of the phenomenon, the development and the current state of marriage law in the Macedonian civil and ecclesiastical legal system has been used. In this context, the paper investigated the extent to which these two types of rights express, on the one hand, complementary positions for the procedure of marriage and divorce, but also on the other hand what are the differences in the stands between these two legal systems. Regarding the method, in the master's thesis were used analysis of content, discourse analysis, comparison and analysis of legal documents.The paper clearly outlines the current weaknesses of the family legal legislation in North Macedonia and proposes outbound solutions and guidelines for eventual harmonization of the same with the Orthodox Christian position. Index terms - marriage, family, spouses, conditions for marriage, family law, civil law, church law, marriage law, divorce, sacred secret.

After-effects of COVID-19 disinfectants and antiseptics on the public health and ecology in Metropolitan Lagos: sustainability and biophysical-environment based approaches []

The disinfectants used to control COVID-19 spread are chemicals, which may have human health and ecological implications. This study aimed to analyze the after-effects of the environmental cycling of three COVID-19 disinfectants and antiseptics, namely, Dettol®, Savlon® and Jik® on the public health and ecology in Lagos using laboratory-analysis, and simulated disinfectant applications methodologies. The results showed that the volatile matter of dilute Dettol, dilute Savlon and dilute Jik Bleach were 93.3%, 98.7% and 92.4% respectively, whereas the corresponding non-volatile matter were 6.70%, 1.25% and 7.60% respectively. The results of emission determinations showed that the office background total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) concentration under air conditioner (AC) ventilation was 174.5±23.1 ppb. When Dettol and Savlon were applied, TVOC increased to 738.6±393.5 and 258.7±99.7 ppb respectively, whereas it was stable at approximately 174.1±13.4 ppb when Jik was applied. The office background TVOC concentration under wind ventilation was 190.1±27.5 ppb, while the office TVOC level increased to 272.2±101.7 and 229.0±69.1 ppb when Dettol and Savlon were applied respectively and decreased to 151.0±6.3 ppb when Jik was applied. Additionally, the office background NO2 concentration under wind ventilation was 32.6±8.0 µg/m3, while the office NO2 level increased to 46.1±17.7, 105.0±199.8 and 58.5±18.7 µg/m3 when Dettol, Savlon and Jik were applied respectively. The office background HCl concentration was 272.1±142.7 µg/m3 under AC ventilation. The office HCl concentration increased to 355.8±209.9, 296.4±182.9 and 542.9±191.9 µg/m3 when Dettol, Savlon and Jik were applied respectively under AC ventilation. The office background HCl level under wind ventilation was 208.4±50.3 µg/m3, while the office HCl level increased to 318.6±112.6, 539.1±157.8 and 439.3±236.2 µg/m3 when Dettol, Savlon and Jik were applied respectively. The results of the volatile matter due to the disinfectant organic ingredients and the non-volatile matter suggested that the consumption of disinfectants and antiseptics in Lagos could translate to emission of volatile matter to the atmosphere, and salts to the soil and surface waters, expanding the environmental burden of the disinfectant pollutants. The simulated disinfectant applications results showed that significantly high total volatile organic compounds levels were emitted following Dettol application and this was a potential health risk to individuals susceptible to disinfectant vapours and sustainable environment practices. Also, the emitted HCl gas was significantly high from Savlon and Jik applications and would be important for people susceptible to Toxicant‐Induced Loss of Tolerance.

Automated Attendance System using Face Recognition []

In the traditional attendance system, it is difficult to handle the attendance of vast students in a classroom. The process is laborious and has a high probability of error during the process of inputting data into the computer. Face Recognition is used as one of the solutions to handle a bulk of students’ attendance. Face Recognition is a process of recognizing the students face for taking attendance by using face biometrics. In this paper, a computer system will be able to find and recognize human faces fast that are being captured through a camera. LBPH (Local binary pattern histogram) algorithm is used for face recognition by using Python programming and OpenCV library.


This work aims to propose an extraction technique for reliable bamboo fibers with improved hydrophilic property, for potential use in composites related to walls revetement and fences. "Bambusa vulgaris" aged five have been used for this purpose. Many fibers extraction methods were examined and compared to IHEM that consists to use the DMCN Art-150 press machine (8000 N/m2) on bamboo and immersing in a 3% caustic soda solution. Parameters like the diameter of the fibers, their density, their percentage of celluloses, which influenced the hydrophilic character, are found. The chemical characterization, by ASTMD standards (American Society for Testing and Materials), has shown that the fibers of "Bambusa vulgaris" extracted by the IHEM have 19.7% lignin, 54.1% cellulose. With the "pycnometry" method, we found a density of 1.494 g / cm3 and by measuring, the professional digital electronic caliper of YATO brand (YT - 7205) ranges 0-150 mm sensitive to ± 0.02 mm. The fiber s diameter has been determined using a "Brasser Biolux NV" optical microscope equipped with Balow Lens. An average diameter of fiber s equal to 0.140mm and 0.225 millimeters respectively on 25.2% and 22.2% of the extracted fiber s are found. The lateral surface of each fiber was observed with a magnification of 2, a 16-x eyepiece, and a 60-x lens. Images acquired by computer, have been analyzed using Image J software, showing a very smooth morphology. The IHEM reduces extraction duration to less than five days with very little waste (less than 20%).

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