Volume 8, Issue 11, November 2017 Edition


Publication for Volume 8, Issue 11, November 2017.


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POLICY IMPLEMENTATION MANAGEMENT OF KEDUNG OMBO RESERVOIR IN CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE TOWARDS CONTINUITY DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVE[ ]


The management problem of Kedung Ombo’s Reservoir which is occur today has been created by communities around this reservoir area. The government has made a policy namely The Regulation of Ministry of Public Assignment and Community Accomodation of Indonesia Republic Number 27/PRT/M/2015 about reservoir, that aimed to build a reservoir and its management along with this implemented regularity by taking attention on environmental life condition, the suitable, economical, environmental, and security technicals of those reservoir. This research aims to explore the policy result achievement by bring up to sustainable development.

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Bitcoin Future[ ]


Technological evolution has brought change not only the communication approach but also financial approaches (Peng). The emergent trends have brought about electronic features such as electronic mail, e-commerce, e-wallet, and e-money. Today, many transactions can be conducted via online platforms.

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Effect of aggressive soil on self compacting concrete[ ]


Aggressive soil basically means soil which attack the concrete of the earth structures by the chemicals composition of the soil basically sulphate. The conception of self-compacting concrete (SCC) is totally different from ordinary concrete, therefore some changes in durability behavior might occur. The durability aspects investigated here are sulfate attack and permeability, which are of prime importance in almost all concrete structures. Tests were carried out on 6 SCC mixtures and on the corresponding 6 mortar mixtures in addition to the ordinary ones. The SC concrete and mortar mixtures were designed such that they have different paste contents, two types of powder, comprise silica fume or not, and two different gravel to sand ratios. A mineralogical study was conducted at the mortar specimens before and after sulfate exposure to identify the sulfate effects at the microscopic level.

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Samuel Method of Multiplication by Dividing Digits[ ]


Multiplication is one of four main elementary arithmetic operations. Most people learn basic multiplication algorithms in elementary school and these are used at all education levels. Among the various techniques, long multiplication is the method of multiplication that is commonly taught to elementary school students globally. It can be used on two numbers of arbitrarily large size or number of decimal digits. Long multiplication of two n-digit numbers take approximately n^2 multiplication operations. This is said to be a time complexity of order n^2 or 0(n^2). In this paper, a new method of multiplication which works for two, three, four and five digit numbers is shown and proven. This method allows the multiplication of numbers quickly and easily in comparison to the usual method. The distribution property of multiplication over addition and subtraction are deployed; writing numbers in expanded form according to their place values is used to prove the theorems.

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Design of an Application to Minimize Noise Effect and to Reduce False Triggering in PLC based Security System[ ]


The power line communication system (PLC) used the existing power lines for data transmission with an advantage of eliminating the need of new wires and cost reduction. As the main purpose of power line is the transmission of electric power at low frequency, so there is extremely distortion environment for high frequency communication. The main distortion factor in PLC is noise, which are produced by power electronic devices.

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Biometrics and Identification: Survey[ ]


This paper displays the basic concepts to identify a person from many by using biometric criteria and how these criteria increases the security systems in the last few years. It displaying different researches and techniques that is related with this subject and the concepts to evaluate these techniques. The goal of this paper is comparing the techniques and methods in the identification systems or verifying persons depending on biometrics traits by using protected systems without humans entry in decision making to get into the comparing table that is depending on the similarity or difference traits for the different stages to design the identification system on persons, and by argument the comparing results it can give an idea on the importance of each stage and the adequate algorithms to inquiry it.

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Performance of Caching in Device-to-Device Networks with Mobile Nodes[ ]


A distributed caching device-to-device networks is considered where a user file of interest is stored as several portions in the storage of other devices in the network and obtained successfully through D2D communication. In this paper, we propose that users are mobile and communication links can be spontaneously activated and dropped depending on the users’relative position. By modeling the location of wireless terminal in our network superimposed of independent poisson point process, we derive a service success probability which capture the system performance. Furthermore, the effect of mobility devices, density and file size related to it’s type (audio/video) is investigated through numerical results compared to simulation curves

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Stability of Dynamical System Using Reduction Technique[ ]


In this paper, Dynamic stability analysis of a large interconnected power system is extremely time consuming and laborious and may even exceed the storage capacity of modern fast computers because of the high order of the system matrix. The complexity often makes it difficult to obtain a good understanding of the behavior of a system. The exact analysis of most of the high order system is both tedious and costly; it poses a great challenge to both system analyst and control engineer. So we will use both methods Routh Stability Array (RSA) Method and Stability Equation (SE) Method. To reduce a high-order system, the proposed methods ensures the stability of the reduced system model, if the original high order system is stable.

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Roles of family physicians in diagnosis and treatment patients with gout in primary care[ ]


The aim of this review is to aid generalist physicians by highlighting the diagnostic methods and treatment possibilities and as well as prevention. We searched electronic databases; PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Collaboration for original research studies concerned with gout management in primary care, published up to September, 2017. Gout is a serious and also painful illness which could possibly be disabling and also harmful if untreated. In spite of significant development in the understanding of pathogenesis as well as treatment, the frequency of gout is raising and many patients improperly manage illness. Gout is a treatable illness and also the method of lasting reducing of serum urate concentrations is very efficient in eliminating monosodium urate crystals. Almost all of the people who are afflicted with gout can control their symptoms and live productive lives, and they should focus on prevention the serious consequences.

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Management approaches toward of neonatal hypoglycemia; Review[ ]


Severe neonatal hypoglycemia (HG) leads to neurologic damage, mental retardation, epilepsy, personality disorders, impaired cardiac performance and muscle weakness. The goal of this review is to highlight the background of the inborn errors of metabolism that present with neonatal hypoglycemia to understand more and discuss management of neonatal hypoglycemia. We conducted a search using electronic databases; MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), up to October, 2017. Neonatal HG is important factor in the general neonatal death.

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Advantages and efficiency of immediate vicryl mesh insertion after lumpectomy[ ]


Vicryl-mesh insertion, one such technique, is a simple method involving a comparatively short time period. Nonetheless, questions concerning its safety and also efficiency stay. For that reason, our aim is to discuss about surgery process and to evaluate the cosmetic outcomes and safety aspects to Vicryl mesh. Electronic biomedical databases such as; PubMed, Embase, and science-direct, were searched by performing strategy of MeSh terms as following; “Vicryl-mesh”, “surgical insertion”, “lumpectomy”, “efficiency”. Vicryl-mesh insertion needs to be done very carefully. Immediate Vicryl mesh insertion is a simple method and comparing it’s cheaper. Nevertheless, it can bring to considerably increased incidence of postoperative complications and delay in commencement of adjuvant radiotherapy.

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Proper management approach toward essential thrombocythemia[ ]


In this article, we discuss pathophysiology, outline the diagnostic approach and treatment of essential thrombythemia, as well as risk factors. Medline, and Embase, databases were searched for relevant studies discussing the essential thrombocythemia through, October, 2017. Platelet level is increased in essential thrombythemia and it is very important to underscore the prognostic relevance of distinguishing from early/prefibrotic myelofibrosis and to raise awareness of relatively high risk of residual thrombosis in certain patients with defined ET. As the treatment low-dose aspirin combined with hydroxyurea may represent a satisfactory treatment of patients over the age of 60 years, but there is a need of disease-modifying drugs for younger patients. However, a definitive treatment of ET remains dependent on exclusion of the numerous reactive, hereditary, and neoplastic causes of thrombocytosis.

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Study of Seismic Effect of Different Type of RC Shear Walls in Concrete Frame Structures[ ]


Shear walls are a type of structural system that provides lateral resistance to a building or structure. They resist in-plane loads that are applied along its height. The applied load is generally transferred to the wall by a diaphragm or collector or drag member.Shear walls are analyzed to resist two types of forces: shear forces and uplift forces. Shear forces are created throughout the height of the wall between the top and bottom shear wall connections. Uplift forces exist on shear walls because the horizontal forces are applied to the top of the wall. These uplift forces try to lift up one end of the wall and push the other end down.

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CONSTRUCTING BYZANTINE FAULT TOLERANCE AND VON NEUMANN MACHINES WITH QUIDAM[ ]


Scheme and public-private key pairs, while natural, in theory, has not until recently been considered significant. Here, we validate the visualization of multicast methodologies, which embodies the theoretical principles of extremely Markov cryptography. Our focus in this work is not on whether RPCs can be made modular, embedded, and optimal, but rather on describing a novel methodology for the synthesis of the lookaside buffer (Quidam).

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A Methodology for the Improvement of Reinforcement Learning[ ]


Many scholars would agree that, had it not been for expert systems, the study of DHCP might never have occurred. In fact, few steganographers would disagree with the refinement of Smalltalk. We introduce an analysis of DNS, which we call BabySig and are concentrating on finding compatibility between the active networks and multicast frameworks. We are also exploring a methodology for simulating 802.11 mesh networks.

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Jab: A Methodology for the Understanding of Hierarchical Databases[ ]


The development of model checking has enabled write-back caches, and current trends suggest that the understanding of IPv4 will soon emerge. In this work, we verify the exploration of Lamport clocks, which embodies the robust principles of electrical engineering. In order to fix this issue, we propose new atomic communication (Jab), which we use to validate that context-free grammar and superblocks are often incompatible.

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Braille Messenger: Adaptive Learning Based Non-Visual Touch Screen Text Input for the Blind Community Using Braille[ ]


‘Braille Messenger’ is an Android application (app) that is designed to facilitate the communication between users via the Braille alphabet through the medium of Short Messaging Services (SMS). This application is mainly envisaged to be used by the visually handicapped community. The proposed method is comprised of three gesture types for braille communication. The gestures can be generated with either two fingers, three fingers or six fingers. The app can be used by the blind and blind-deaf users with tactile feedback in the form of vibrations. Simple drawing patterns were selected as commands instead of long-tap and double tap operations.

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Roadside Plant Diversity and Soil Analysis in Uyo Sub-urban Environment Akwa Ibom State Nigeria[ ]


A study on roadside plant diversity and soil analysis in Uyo sub-urban environment was carried out using systematic sampling method. A quadrat of 5m x 5m was used to sample the vegetation spaced at regular intervals. The vegetation parameters determined were density and frequency. Soil samples were collected at different depths (0 – 15 cm and 15 – 30 cm) and analysis done using standard methods.

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Assessment of Engineering Properties of Granites in Some Quarry Sites in Ogun State, Nigeria[ ]


This study is based on the discovery that single size aggregates produced in some parts of Ogun State do not conform to grading requirements specified in relevant building standard and codes of practice. It is an accepted fact that the properties, mix proportion and economy of fresh and hardened concrete is strongly influenced by the properties of coarse aggregate. Samples of 9.5mm, 12.5mm, 19mm and 25mm aggregates were collected from four different quarry sites spread across the state. Laboratory tests were carried out on the Samples of these various sizes obtained from the different quarry sites. The engineering properties considered are Specific Gravities, Water Absorptions, Moisture Contents, Aggregates Impact Value and Aggregates Crushing Value in accordance to the relevant standards. Test results reveals that all the samples conform to relevant building standard and codes of practice. It was therefore concluded that although the aggregates do not conform to grading specification in the code, but the physical and mechanical properties of all the aggregates tested are okay.

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Chemical and Biological Remediation of Lindane Residue in Aqueous Media[ ]


This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiencies of chemical remediation by advanced oxidation processes [TiO2(nano /H2O2/UV, ZnO(nano)/H2O2/UV, Fe2+/H2O2/UV, Fe3+/H2O2/UV, TiO2/H2O2/UV, ZnO/H2O2/UV, H2O2/UV and UV] and bioremediation by Xanthomonas campestris pv. Translucens and Aspergillus fumigatus for removal of lindane residue for aqueous media.

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The Impact of The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership on The Internationalisation of SMEs In Morocco[ ]


The partnership agreement between Morocco and the European Union intervenes in a constantly changing economic context characterised by a greater openness on the world trade. In this cooperation platform which brings together the countries of the EU and the South and East Mediterranean Countries, Morocco constitutes a key partner on the economic, social, political and financial plans.

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Survey of Fuzzy and Cross Layer Routing Protocols in Manet[ ]


MANET is an infrastructure less, a self-configuring network of mobile hosts connected by wireless links which forms an arbitrary topology. Due to dynamic network topology and infrastructure less network multihop communication making the unstable route in MANET is challenging than the infrastructure based networks. Several protocols for stable routing in an ad-hoc network have been proposed using the fuzzy and cross-layer in literature. But due to their limitations, there is a need to make them very robust and more stable so that they can go well with the demanding requirements of mobile ad hoc networks. This paper presents a survey of fuzzy and cross-layer based routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks. Different fuzzy and cross-layer based routing protocols are discussed and analyzed in the paper along with their approach, their metrics and simulation results.

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Influence of the global labor market on course design of university degree programmes: A case of Kenyan Universities[ ]


Many countries in Africa are reporting a worrying, rising cases of unemployment. In Kenya despite the rising levels of education, many graduates remain unemployed. Many private universities and public universities have been established to cope with the demand for university education. The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of the global labor market on course design of university degree programmes in Kenyan universities.

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The Effectiveness of School-Based Oral English Assessment from the Perspective of Experienced and Novice Teachers in Malaysia[ ]


There are many ways to assess the different skills in English. Assessing oral proficiency is however a tough job for teachers. The limitation in the oral proficiency assessment is vast, especially in the Malaysian context. Hence, the Ministry of Education has implemented the Malaysian School Based Oral English Assessment (SBOA) in 2002 with the aim to assess the students’ oral proficiency.

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ANALYSIS OF CIRCULAR MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA TO DETECT STRAIN USING METAMATERIAL[ ]


In this paper the feasibility of using a circular microstrip patch antenna to detect strain has been investigated. The theoretical model shows a linear relationship between strain as a function of temperature and the shift in the resonant frequency of the antenna. It has been shown that strain could be detected using a circular patch antenna and therefore could be detected wirelessly. The need for a structural health monitoring (SHM) system which could be more reliable and accurate to locate the damage in structure and specify its size and location still exists. The ultimate intention of this work is to configure antennas or resonators for the detection of relatively small damage zones in structures and to do so wirelessly.

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Low Efficiency of the Photovoltaic Cells: Causes and Impacts[ ]


Solar cell converts visible light into Direct current (DC) electric power. The DC output of the solar cell depends on multiple factors that affect its efficiency i.e. solar irradiation falling over the cell, direct air around cell called local air temperature, cable thickness connected to solar panel, wave length of the photons falling, Ambient temperature, Shading effect, direct recombination of holes and electrons, Reflection of irradiation, Types of least efficient invertor, Batteries and charger controller used with solar cells panel. Any abnormality or deviation from reference level regarding these entire factors, limit the efficiency of the solar photovoltaic cells. This research paper presents the significant causes that affect efficiency of photovoltaic cells. Improving the said factors will increase the efficiency of the photovoltaic cells. Low efficiency reduces the output of solar cell and enhances the levelized cost respectively.

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A Move Towards Sustainable Urbanism: Reconnecting the City with Urban People Through a Vibrant Riverfront Landscape Design[ ]


Gentle-breezes, quench weather is always admired by Bangladeshi people because it refreshes human body so there is nothing but riverbank is one of the finest places for recreation. For designing riverbank as a recreational area, the investigation results indicate the Padma riverbank area because Padma is the largest river in Bangladesh, situated in Rajshahi City, is very resourceful, but yet not utilized properly, remains unplanned.

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An Analysis of Contributing Factors to Child Labor: A Case Study of Rajshahi City[ ]


Child labor is regarded as one of the most common problems in Bangladesh where 93% of child laborer are employed in the informal sector such as small factories and workshops, on the street, in home-based business and domestic employment which cannot be ignored. Many families rely on the income generated by their children for survival, so the problem child labor becomes worthy. Rajshahi is the main city of its division and so the opportunity of work is more available here. The study finds out the push factors behind child labor with their families’ lifestyle and tries to eradicate this problem. In this study, 90 families have been interviewed from different slum areas of Rajshahi (e.g. Padma Residential Slum, Vodra Railway Slum and Talaimari Slum).

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Towards An Eco-Friendly Campus Design: A Place for Vibrant Activity Space and Scenic Beauty[ ]


Now-a-days universities referred to as small cities where various complex activities taking place, and which have some serious direct and indirect impacts on the environment. A well-ordered and purposeful landscape design can bring a level of efficiency and maintenance of the campus area. By following campus landscape design process and landscaping principles, the study team used database from both primary and secondary sources for the improvement of existing activity spaces and environmental management of Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology (RUET) considering people’s needs at first. Various complex activity spaces are sub-divided into civic, social, courtyard, residential, street and parking space. The study aims to ensure an aesthetically beautiful and eco-friendly design where activity, safety, and waste management get consideration.

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Study of Nonlinear Analysis ONE-WAY Ribbed Reinforced Concrete Slab of The Tall Building Subjected to Seismic Load[ ]


Study is aimed to investigate of stresses nonlinear analysis one way ribbed reinforced concrete slab of the tall building (10 stories) subject-ed to seismic load. Although structures are often designed to resist seismic loading using elastic analysis, nearly all experience considerable inelastic deformations when subjected to great earthquakes. Current performance- based design techniques have need of traditions to resolve the practical performance of buildings subjected to such circumstances. Facilitated by innovation in technology along with accessible experiment facts, nonlinear analysis presents the methods for calculating structural reaction outside the elastic range, together with stiffness and strength weakening connected with inelastic behavior of material and huge displacements.

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An Evaluation of the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Coarse Aggregates Produced in Ogun State, Nigeria[ ]


Coarse aggregate has been said to have strong influence on the properties, mix proportion and economy of fresh and hardened concrete. Personal on-site experience reveals that single size aggregates produced in some parts of Ogun State do not conform to grading requirements specified in [1]. This prompted the desire to investigate the compliance of the physical and mechanical properties of the aggregates to relevant standards. Samples of 9.5mm, 12.5mm, 19mm and 25mm aggregates were collected from four different quarry sites spread across the state. The Samples were tested for their Specific Gravities, water Absorptions, Moisture Contents, Aggregates Impact Value and Aggregates Crushing Value in accordance to the relevant standards. Test results reveals that all the samples conform to [2], [3], [4] and [5] respectively. It was therefore concluded that although the aggregates do not conform to grading specification in [1], but the physical and mechanical properties of all the aggregates tested meets the specified requirement in [2], [3], [4] and [5].

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Chronic idiopathic urticaria impacts on patients' quality of life, in Saudi Arabia[ ]


Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is a debilitating allergic skin disease that can have a profound influence on the patients' quality of life and their ability to perform the usual daily activities. It is a highly complex relation to its etiology. In addition to the classic symptoms, like pruritis and papuloues, other factors are more relevant in patients with CIU, such as the unpredictability of flares, sleep disorders, fatigue, drug-related side effects, and physical appearance. We aim in this study to evaluate the quality of life in patients with CIU in Saudi Arabia. The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) was used to measure the quality of life in 100 patients with CIU. Clinical and socio-demographic characteristic of patients were studied, such as age, sex, etiologic diagnosis of CIU, duration of disease and quality of life score. 66% of patients were females and 34% were males. CIU showed to affect 87% of the population where 41% suffered from a very large effect on their quality of life according to DLQI scoring system.

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A dual-Mode Algorithm for CMA Blind Equalizer Of Asymmetric QAM Signal[ ]


Adaptive channel equalization accomplished without a training sequence is known as blind equalization. A dual-mode DM blind equalization technique for adaptive channel equalization of asymmetric constellation AC of QAM is introduced. DM algorithm has been proposed as a solution to the problem of slow convergence of blind equalization algorithm, such as Constant Modulus Algorithm. The adaptation of the equalizer weight coefficients changes from the standard algorithm to the dual mode algorithm depending on the error level. In this paper the proposed technique is applied to a QAM received signal corrupted by an additive Gaussian noise. Computer simulations have been performed to verify the performance of the proposed method dominates the conventional equalizers.

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Effect of Supervising GPS Code Smoothing Process on the Positional Accuracy[ ]


GPS smoothed codes merge the advantages of both phase and code measurements as it is based on using the high accurate phase measurements in smoothing the unambiguous code measurements. However, the resulted smoothed codes are suffering from two main problems. First, it is contaminated by relatively high biases. Also, such biases are not similar at all stations as in the classical approaches of code smoothing the process starts at the epoch of satellite rise which differs among different stations. This resulted in non-similar positional errors at different stations.

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Confidence Intervals for Parameters of Nonparametric Regression Spline Truncated Model for Longitudinal Data Using Pivotal Quantity[ ]


In multivariable regression, response variables can have a particular pattern of relationships with predictor variables one of which has an unknown pattern of curve form. The nonparametric regression approach is an appropriate approach for the case. One of the nonparametric regression approaches is the spline truncated, which has the advantage of knot points. With the point of knots, the resulting model will follow the form of changes in data behavior patterns. Changes in data behavior patterns if observed over and over can provide more complete information about the dynamics of changes in the behavioral patterns of the data. Data obtained from the repeated observation of each object at different time intervals is called longitudinal data.

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Socio Economic Prospects and Challenges of Solar Potential in Pakistan[ ]


Pakistan lies in an area of the world having greater solar radiations. The co-ordinates of the country have solar potential to generate 2.334 million MW electric power. The huge solar potential of the country can play revolutionizing role to overcome the prevailing power shortage in the country. The solar potential can contribute to overcome the power shortage which has an adverse impact on the economy of Pakistan cutting GDP growth by 3%.The solar potential exploitation can reduce the health cost of Country by $ 916.2 billion which will be 21% of GDP in 2050.solar potential exploitation can contribute to electrify the rural population of Pakistan. At contemporary 38% people in Pakistan remain without access of electricity. As per recent report of Water And Power Development Authority WAPDA, over 40000 villages across the country that cannot be provided electricity as it is not economically viable to connect rural areas with Natural grid. Baluchistan’s 80% population lives in rural areas 30% of it have no access to electricity. If only 10% diesel pumps in country are replaced by solar pumps 2100 GWh energy can be saved per year and will save Rs.21.6 Billion per year. Exploitation of such gigantic potential yet confronts various impedes in Pakistan. Some of the challenges in this respect are time line and policy uncertainty, Land identification issues, Massive cost of solar energy technology, Transmission issues, on Grid and off Grid issues and unstable and volatile explosive land and order situation in solar potential areas in the country.

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Audit Social d’aide à la bonne gouvernance des collectivités Territoriales Marocaines - Cas de la Préfecture de Tanger - Asilah[ ]


L’objectif de cet article est d’étudier l’efficacité de l’organisation interne et le degré de maitrise de la gestion des ressources humaines au sein des collectivités territoriales. Fondée sur le concept d’audit social et sa relation avec la bonne gouvernance territoriale , cette étude repose sur les données de la préfecture Tanger-Asilah, au sein de laquelle nous avons séjourné suffisamment en vue d’accomplir une mission d’audit social.

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Mathematical Modelling of Powder Coating Polymer Extrusion in Self-Wiping Co-Rotating Twin-Screw Extruder[ ]


The objective of this research paper is to present a unified approach for modelling and quantifying the flow, geometrical and process parameters in the local zones of the self-wiping co-rotating twin-screw extruder operated without a die as applied in the production of powder coatings in order to aid optimisation of the process. To achieve this, the flow dynamics is modelled by analysis of the velocity profile in the forward and reverse screw elements that are prevalent, from which the local drag and pressure flow rate, degree of fill in the screw channel and residence time can be determined. A new modelling approach for the flow profile in kneading disc elements is proposed. The Newtonian and non-Newtonian flow cases were considered. A model for calculating the non-Newtonian viscosity was also proposed. With these strategies proposed, it is seen that it is possible to quantify the local geometrical and flow parameters, which influence processing of powder coatings in the self-wiping co-rotating twin-screw extruder without recourse to experimental data.

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Impact of AODV routing protocol for establishing Security in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks in Indoor Environments[ ]


A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a continuously self-configuring, self-organizing, infrastructure-less network of mobile devices connected wirelessly. It is sometimes known as "on-the-fly" networks or "spontaneous networks, and also known as wireless ad hoc network or ad hoc wireless network. Instead of relying on a base station to coordinate the flow of messages to each node in the network, the individual network nodes forward packets to and from each other. Basically, an ad hoc network is a temporary network connection created for a specific purpose (such as transferring data from one computer to another).

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Investigating the effect of Joining Techniques on Waterproof and Comfort Properties[ ]


Waterproof clothes quality greatly depends on waterproof performance of seams. To study the effect of joining techniques on clothing comfort, Gore-Tex waterproof breathable fabric was sewn with different stitch and seam types in both weft and warp directions and seam line was sealed different sealing materials. Ultrasonic welding was used as an alternative joining method. Both seam strength and elongation were remarkable affected by sewing and sealing and welding in both directions, while using different types of seams and stitches did not affect water permeability or resistance to water penetration under pressure.

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