Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2017 Edition


Publication for Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2017.


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EATS: Enhanced Automatic Tollgate System Powered by IoT and Big Data[ ]


Enhanced Automated Tollgate System aims to eliminate the delay on toll roads by collecting toll fees electronically. EATS determines whether the cars passing are enrolled in the program, alerts enforcers for those that are not, and electronically debits the accounts of registered car owners by reducing the stopping time at the toll gates .The primary technologies used are Image Processing, Big data analytics, Vehicular Sensing and Complex Encryption systems. EATS minimizes the traffic density which is expected to be a huge burden to the government by 2030.The EATS algorithm is a smart learning machine which could detect frauds and handle huge chunks of traffic in a very short period of time. We also designed the EATS system which could be of great help to the Police Department for nabbing criminals and speedsters. EATS may be of great help to government to support Digital Economy, since it avoids the use of cash transactions. Complex gateway encoding strategies is applied to detect and verify respective vehicle without human intervention.

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CONTRASTE DE GEOIDES GRAVIMETRICOS CON OBSERVACIONES DE NIVELACION GEOMETRICA Y GPS EN LA COMUNIDAD DE GALICIA[ ]


This work describes the physical and contrast of different geoid models availables, applied in the northwest of Spain, in the community and neighbouring of Galicia and northern Portugal. The model contrast is done by comparing the direct undulations with the one calculated on levelling nails using REDNAP (Spanish Network of High-precision Levelling); in which it is observed and calculated the ellipsoidal height using GPS measurements in static mode with time no less than 3 hours, also vertices are observed in the REGENTE (Spanish Geodesic Network for Space Technics) network from the National Geographic Institute (IGN) and the Portugal National Geodesic Network (RGN). The fiducial points are active antennas from the ERGNSS, ITACYL, and GALNET network. Observations were done on 136 points, 116 nails REDNAP and 20 geodetic vertices, one of them was made in Portugal. The test models used in this work were IBERGEO95 (Geoide Ibérico 1995), EGM96 (Earth Gravitational Model 1996), EGG97 (European geoid model EGG97), IGG2005 (Iberian Gravimetric Geoid of 2005), EGM08 and an adapted version of EGM08 to REDNAP by IGN, and finally EGM08REDNAP. Nail separation was chosen to be about 10 km, and the position was the same that the one measured by IGN in ER. The results showed differences in REGENTE vertices with official coordinates probably because of the different frame system used, but also notes that are more accurate than indicated by IGN. Levelling nails are in 97% of the cases a better precision than 12 mm. Contrasting the models verified that the best fit is the most updated one, and it showed that the precision indicated by official organizations in relation to EGM08REDNAP is significantly lower than specified.

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The Image Volume[ ]


The volume of an image can be defined by using the concept of vectors. Using this volume of an image a novel mathematical model has been developed for the first time. And this research the mathematical principles are used in very useful way. Research propose a new concept to find a volume of an image by using vector algebra. Volume of a parallelepiped is playing major role for the conceptual design part of this project. This concept can be used for practical applications such as in medical problems.

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Settling Characteristics of Wastewater from the Ceramic Tile Industry Treated with Different Coagulants[ ]


The settling characteristics of wastewater sludge emanating from a ceramic tiles factory were investigated. Settling characteristics were investigated by tracing the height of interface (h, cm) against time (t, hours). Three coagulants were used in different proportions, namely, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), alum, and polyacrylamide (PAM). It could be concluded that: CMC has to be discarded as for its possible use as deflocculating agent to assist precipitation of the solid matter in sedimentation tanks. The obtained results clearly play in favor of using PAM in sludge treatment and possible recovery. However, economic factors have to be taken into consideration owing to the large difference in its price compared to that of alum.

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Development and characterization of novel biochar-mortar composite utilizing waste derived pyrolysis biochar[ ]


Industrialization and urbanization have increased exponentially over the decade. This have caused serious impact on the environment due to the vast consumption of energy and eco-unsustainable production. Therefore, scientists and engineers are placing more effort of designing better environmentally sustainable systems. To achieve sustainability, one potential solution is to use renewable resources to produce construction materials. In this research, biochar, a carbonaceous solid material produced from the waste source poultry litter, is utilized as a renewable resource to replace cement content while making mortar which is being used in the construction industry. The mechanical properties of mortar was investigated through different tests. Three major tests were used to analyze cement-biochar composite. The tests are compressive strength test, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and water absorbance test. A total of 60 samples were prepared for mechanical testing of biochar-mortar composites. The compression test revealed that with greater biochar replacement in mortar, compression strength was reduced. However, the 28 days cured biochar cement composites exhibited higher compressive strength than 12.5MPa, which is the minimum compressive strength requirement of mortar for structural use. The FTIR analysis showed that with increasing biochar replacement, less calcium silicate hydrates were formed in the biochar cement composites. The water absorption test showed that with increasing biochar replacement, more water is retained in the mortar-biochar composites. From the results, it can be concluded that biochar can be a viable alternative of cement, up to certain percentage, while making mortar for specific applications.

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The Impact of Job Satisfaction on Intention to Stay among Sales Executives at Oil and Gas Services Companies in Ba Ria- Vung Tau Province, Vietnam[ ]


The prime purposes of this research are to examine the causal relationship between overall job satisfaction and intention to stay, and further to identify which dimension of job satisfaction has the strongest impact on the intention to stay among sales executives in Oil and Gas Services companies in Ba Ria-Vung Tau Province, Vietnam. The sales executives’ demographic characteristics, job satisfaction and intention to stay data were collected through self-administered questionnaires. The results showed that there was a significantly positive relationship between overall job satisfaction and intention to stay. Sales executives reported high satisfaction levels with co-workers and supervision; while the lowest satisfactions were with fringe benefits and operating conditions. In addition, it had been found that only pay, fringe benefits, contingent rewards and co-workers satisfactions significantly predicted intention to stay among the indicated group. It also highlighted that satisfaction with co-workers had the strongest influence on intention to stay. Those findings could be crucially beneficial for company management to enhance job satisfaction and employee retention effectively.

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SOCIAL LIFE OF APPLE TRADER AND THEIR RELATED ISSUES IN THEIR BUSINESS[ ]


Apple economy is one of the main earning factor of the state Jammu and Kashmir, the peoples of the state are connected with this business directly or indirectly, Kashmir is one of the most famous fruit mundi which is also known as Asia 2nd largest fruit mundi which is located in Sopore and Sopore is also known as apple town in Kashmir the traders from all over India come to this fruit mundi to enhance this business and the traders are very aware about the ups and downs of the business.

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Psychological Well Being and Work-Life Balance of Working Women - A co-relational study[ ]


The world of work is tremendously varied. In today's world, balancing between work and life causes anxiety, sorrow, and reduced efficiency especially for women who take care of dual responsibilities of home and office. There are a rising number of women taking up useful employment. Working women are no longer a scarcity and are now recognized as an integral part of the working force.Psychological well-being person refers to as one who perceives himself individually active and socially approved on the other hand Work-life balance (WLB) is the capability of persons to follow successfully their work and non-work lives. Keeping this in mind the present study compares the Psychological Well Being and Work Life Balance of working women of four sectors i.e. Information Technology, Banking, School Teachers, and College Lecturers. The sample consists of 200 working women (50 each) with the age group of 25-45 years of Pune city and sample was collected randomly through convenience sampling method. The tool used for the same were “The Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being” by Spring in 2005 and “Work -life (W-L) balance scale proposed by Pareek and Joshi in 2010. The results of the study revealed that women working with banks and schools were psychologically more stable and so their overall Work-life balance was high as compared to those who work with colleges and IT companies. It may be due to higher work pressure and long working hours. Women employees can balance their work-life by taking some initiatives and decisions for themselves. This study emphasizes the need to understand the necessity of the balance between work and life and keeping oneself psychologically fit. Many countries like UK and China have already taken big steps towards assured work life balance to employees; Indian government should also take initiative for enforcing similar regulations or laws. Only with this clear perceptive programs can be successfully conducted for the employees benefit.

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Evaluation of the effective properties of cotton knit fabrics radiated by gamma rays emitted from cobalt 60: an advanced step in wet processing of textiles[ ]


Gamma radiation has emerged as state-of-the-art technology in wet processing of textile. 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 KGy of gamma rays were applied on both grey and dyed states of cotton knit fabrics. After radiation grey fabricwasprepared for test by wet processing method. Then essential properties like dyeing, physical, mechanical, and fiber morphology were tested. Grey radiated dyed fabrics showed better dyeing properties like color yield, washing fastness to color, perspiration, rubbing, and dry cleaning than dyed radiated fabrics but lightfastness remain unchanged for both. Although both type of radiated fabrics demonstrated gradually decreasing bursting strength with increasing radiation doses. However it is revealed that both types of fabrics are stiff after irradiated. But 20 KGy radiated grey reactive dyed fabrics gained antibacterial property and 5 KGy radiated same fabric gained anti-odor property. Fiber morphological changes like inter and intra molecular H-bonds were reduced resulting inmore free OH in grey irradiated cotton cellulose from ATR-FTIR spectra.

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Developing Odor Free Textile with Natural Colorants Using New Nontoxic Mordant[ ]


Odor free textiles enhance freshness of apparel and prevent staleness when stored or in contact with body sweat without use of toxic chemicals. In this research work, to create odor free fabrics, natural colorants such as flower of tagetes erecta, leaves of syzygium cumini , swietenia mahagoni and psidium guajava were selected for dyeing of cotton-jute blended single jersey structure fabric using potash alum mordant along with two new ecofriendly mordant like aliphatic polyamine and cellulase enzyme. To provide these dyed samples as good textile substrate, all dyed fabrics were tested in the following: color fastness to wash, perspiration, rubbing, dry cleaning and light fastness, mechanical test like bursting strength, physical test like bending length and odor test. Fabrics dyed with natural colorant using aliphatic polyamine and cellulase enzyme mordant demonstrate better results compared to others. All color fastness values are moderate to good. No significant strength loss is observed, but in all cases fabric softness is improved without using any softener. All fabrics dyed with natural colorants are odor free when using both potash alum and aliphatic polyamine mordant but not with cellulase enzyme.

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Use of Maritime Decision Support System to Assess Risk[ ]


For just about few year the analysts and technologist of data framework have gathered and examined DSS networks that enable to settle on better business choice organizations using idea of an extemporaneous systems based framework. The DSS are intelligent systems based frameworks recommended to enable leaders to improve correspondences advancements, information and reports etc. This paper introduces a way to deal with break down the oceanic hazard, by evaluating progressively the hazard level of an individual ship, and in this way survey the security of sea transportation framework in the fleeting skyline. The paper describes different hazard elements and factors. The point of the approach is to encourage the programmed correlation of boats from the perspective of hazard. The paper utilizes a part of DSS networks for the group ships, which require a unique consideration. The paper exhibits a few business situations, where the way to deal with chance investigation can be connected. The paper shows the strength of maritime decision support system. Different types of maritime decision support system are described in paper. The best technique of maritime DSS to face the maritime hazard is also described deeply for future use in maritime DSS. The framework, architecture of maritime DSS is also described here.

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Development of Forecasting Model of Cooking Oil Price with Time series Clustering Approach[ ]


Cooking oil is one of commodities that contributed to rural inflation in Indonesia. Time series data can be used to model for forecasting. Time series data can have pattern resemblance. This resemblance can be used to form clusters. This research aimed to compare the accuracies of ARIMA model of cooking oil price developed using hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC) time series method with ARIMA of individual level. As the results, modeling for 32 provinces individually resulting an average MAPE of 2.56%, while ARIMA model development with DTW as the distance measures for HAC and employing 2 or 3 clusters, gave a more efficient on modeling process and only giving effect on increased MAPE just by average of 6 to 7%. They were compared with models without clustering. Those clusters with DTW gave a lower MAPE in 11 provinces. The DTW cophenetic coefficient was 0.772.

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INTOXICATION OF BODY THROUGH YOGA AND PLANTS[ ]


As the technology is increasing day by day the man is becoming isolated from nature. The culture of INDIA has always been supportive for plants, in day to day life, whether it is worshipping tulsi. Urbanization is increasing, and hence the greener areas are decreasing which has alienated the people from nature.Researchers have demonstrated the benefits of interior plants. Plants make a major contribution to the health and well being of people, it reduces energy costs and increases productivity and profitability, as well as they, reduces VOC'S(volatile organic compounds) from our environment. They reduce SBS (Sick Building Syndrome) are reduced when plants a . If we see the history from the paintings formed in the cave to tulsi in INDIA evidence can be seen that buildings are better with plants in exterior as well as interiors.As stated by Webster's New Universal Unabridged Dictionary - the landscape is a picture representing a section of natural, inland scenery, as of prairie, woodland, mountains....an expanse of natural scenery seen by the eye in one view.Now coming to Interior Landscape it is the practice in which we design/grow, arrange and care in an enclosed environment. The outdoor landscape has a similarity as spaces are there with ornament, color, sculpture, focal points and overall pleasant environments.

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Smart Cloud Load Balancing Approaches towards Green Computing[ ]


Cloud computing is emerging as a new paradigm for distributed computing. A framework for enabling’s convenient network access on demand to a common set of computing resources. Load balancing is one of the major challenges in cloud computing and is required to distribute the dynamic workload across multiple nodes to ensure that no single node is overwhelmed. It helps optimize the use of resources and thus enhance system performance The goal of load balancing techniques is to reduce load from one node to another by distribution, which is an urgent need for cloud computing. This identifies the need for new standards, energy consumption and carbon emissions to achieve energy-efficient load balancing in cloud computing. This paper discusses current load balancing techniques in cloud computing, comparing them on the basis of different parameters such as performance, scalability, overhead, etc. These approaches are also discussed from the perspective of energy consumption and the perspective of carbon emissions.

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PID Controllers for Line Tracing Robots[ ]


“PID” is an acronym for Proportional Integral Derivative. Main task of the PID controller is to minimize the error of whatever we are controlling. It takes in input, calculates the deviation from the intended behavior and accordingly adjusts the output so that deviation from the intended behavior is minimized and greater accuracy obtained. Line following seems to be accurate when carried out at lower speeds. As we start increasing the speed of the robot, it wobbles a lot and is often found getting off track. Hence some kind of control on the robot is required that would enable us to make it follow the line efficiently at higher speeds. This is where PID controller can be used. This paper demonstrated in detail how to employ the PID method to line tracers. The proposed approach had superior features, including easy implementation and good computational efficiency.

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Shear Behavior Of Ultra-High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams With Minimum Web Reinforcement[ ]


An experimental and analytical investigation to study the shear behavior of Ultra-High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) beams with minimum web reinforcement has been conducted. Five simply supported beams with a characteristic concrete cube strength approaching 188 MPa have been tested under two-points symmetric top loading. The main studied parameters are the shear-span-to depth ratio (a/d) and the minimum vertical web reinforcement ratio in the form of the spacing between stirrups and the stirrup bar diameter. The steel fibers volume fraction of 1.5% is kept constant for all the tested beams. The results of these tests have been used to examine the applicability of the shear design equations of ACI 318-2014 building code, Eurocode 2 (EC-2) and the Egyptian code (ECP-203-2017) when applied to UHPFRC beams. The design recommendations proposed by the France Association of Civil Engineers (AFGC-2002) and also the design recommendations of the Korea Concrete Institute (KCI-2012) for UHPFRC beams have been evaluated. An analytical model for predicting the shear strength and deformations of the studied UHPFRC is proposed using three dimensional finite element program. The results of this study showed that the maximum spacing between stirrups required by the ECP-203-2017 is applicable for UHPFRC beams, while the maximum spacing between stirrups required by ACI 318-2014 is not practically suitable for beams with relatively small height and can be safely increased from 0.5d to be 0.75d. The equations of the shear strength of the reinforced concrete beams used by the studied international codes highly underestimate the shear strength of the tested UHPFRC beams. The minimum recommendations of AFGC-2002 and also KCI-2012 are safe and conservative for design of UHPFRC beams provided with shear reinforcement less than that required by the studied codes. The predictions of the ultimate shear strength of the tested beams using AFGC-2002 are approximately similar to that of KCI-2012. The steel fibers volume fraction of 1.5% of the tested beams contributes by about 60% in the ultimate shear strength of the tested beams while the contribution of the concrete and the vertical web reinforcement is about 40%. Including the effect of steel fibers in the finite element model showed good predictions for the ultimate shear strength and the deformation response of the studied UHPFRC beams.

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Overview of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) and the Efficiency of Hydroxyurea for Treating Patients with Sickle Cell[ ]


Sickle-cell disease is a multisystem disease, associated with episodes of intense disease and progressive organ damage, and is among the most typical serious monogenic conditions around the world. We searched Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar for Literature about SCD through 2016, for English, using key words included individual use or a combination of the following: “Hydroxyurea or HU or hydroxycarbamide”, “Foetal hemoglobin or HbF or gamma globin”, “hemoglobin-induction”, “Sickle Cell disease”, “SCD treatment” primary publications that described treatment in humans. The majority of people with sickle-cell disease reside in Africa, where little is understood about this disease; nevertheless, we do understand that the condition follows a more extreme medical course in Africa than for the remainder of the world which transmittable illness have a function in triggering this increased seriousness of sickle-cell disease. Hydroxyurea (HU) treatment has actually shown success in numerous settings, both in children and grownups with SCD. hydroxyurea is the only easily offered representative that enhances both scientific and hematologic outcomes. It’s understood and possible toxicities must be interpreted in this context, due to the fact that it is suggested for dealing with a disease with incredible morbidity and early death.

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The Influence of Nano Silica Surface Area on Its Reacitivity in Cement Composites[ ]


Nowadays, nanotechnology is the main trend of research in different areas due to the new potential of using nanometre materials scaled less than 100nm. Nano materials are needed with cement to react with excess CH, produce additional C-S-H, and refine the pore structure to densify the cement matrix, reduce permeability of gases and water in concrete and replace cement to reduce CO2 emission. The present study focuses on the effectiveness of superplasticizers and ultrasonic processing on the dispersion of Nano Silica at first in water and then in cement composites. A qualitative analysis using compressive and flexure strength tests were conducted with a view to investigate the influence of different dispersion techniques on the mechanical properties of cement composites containing Nano Silica (NS) particles with different percentages. In addition micro-structural analysis was carried out to understand the surface morphology and microstructure of cement composites with different dosages of NS addition. The investigational study results showed that the strength can be improved by the the optimum NS concentration by consequence time of sonication was 2.5% by cement weight sonicated for 12 minutes using indirect sonication method. Gain in compressive strength was 97% and 40% for 7 and 28 days respectively as compared to the reference mortar. the experimental program helped in achieving about 100% gain in flexure strength using 0.5 wt. % NS sonicated for 1.5 minutes or 2 wt.% NS sonicated for 3 minutes.

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Prevalence of abnormal cervical smears in outpatient gynecology clinic at National Guard Hospital Al-Hasa[ ]


Background: Reports describing the frequency and pattern of abnormal Pap smears in developing countries using the revised Bethesda system for Pap smear are few. We studied the pattern of cervical intraepithelial lesions and carcinoma detected in Pap smears of Saudi females in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia using the revised system.Methods: All cervical Pap smears were done in outpatient department in King Abdulaziz hospital for National Guard, Al-Hasa , from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2011 were reclassified according to the revised system with age ranges identified.RESULTS: Of 579 smears, 39 (6.7%) were identified as abnormal and were further classified as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) (20 cases, 51.2%), atypical squamous cells of high grade (3 cases, 7.6%), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) (9cases, 23%), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) (4 cases, 10.2%), glandular cell abnormalities (1 case, 2.5 %) and squamous cell carcinoma in situ(1 case, 2.5%).and one case of endometrioid carcinoma 2.5%. Conclusion: this study showed a prevalence of cervical epithelial cell abnormalities like others published internationally, the results emphasize the need for a well-organized cervical screening program supplemented by larger national studies on the pattern of cervical abnormalities in this country. The information provided in this study will encourage use of the Pap smear as a screening method for cervical cancer in developing countries.

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Development of Eco Friendly Pressed Roof Tiles A Prologue Study[ ]


Growth of any country relics in the deployment of industrial wastes for its infrastructure facilities. Countries like India, certainly needs a vital utilization of industrial waste like paper sludge in the construction industry to produce various building materials. Also it is the duty of every Civil Engineer or a researcher to engage them in developing new materials from the waste dumped as land fillings. In every construction project, about 70% of cost accounts for the procurement of materials. If this, can be minimized subsequently the cost of construction will certainly be reduced. Research has proven that the waste paper sludge can be reused in construction field for a possible extent. The construction industry consumes a large amount of non-renewable resources. On the other hand, more waste paper sludge ends up in landfill or dump sites than those recycled. Consequently, waste paper sludge for use as a construction material constitutes a step towards sustainable development. Keeping this in mind an attempt has been made to utilize paper board sludge obtained from the paper board industry and used with several pozzolanic and cementitious materials for a specific application.. The addition of paper sludge has been varied from 0% to 20% by weight of cement. The tests done with the samples reveals that four samples showed a considerable outcomes with remarkable strength and durability properties which leads to move for the next phase of research for producing light weight tiles.

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Shear Behavior Of Ultra-High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams With Minimum Web Reinforcement[ ]


An experimental and analytical investigation to study the shear behavior of Ultra-High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) beams with minimum web reinforcement has been conducted. Five simply supported beams with a characteristic concrete cube strength approaching 188 MPa have been tested under two-points symmetric top loading. The main studied parameters are the shear-span-to depth ratio (a/d) and the minimum vertical web reinforcement ratio in the form of the spacing between stirrups and the stirrup bar diameter. The steel fibers volume fraction of 1.5% is kept constant for all the tested beams. The results of these tests have been used to examine the applicability of the shear design equations of ACI 318-2014 building code, Eurocode 2 (EC-2) and the Egyptian code (ECP-203-2017) when applied to UHPFRC beams. The design recommendations proposed by the France Association of Civil Engineers (AFGC-2002) and also the design recommendations of the Korea Concrete Institute (KCI-2012) for UHPFRC beams have been evaluated. An analytical model for predicting the shear strength and deformations of the studied UHPFRC is proposed using three dimensional finite element program. The results of this study showed that the maximum spacing between stirrups required by the ECP-203-2017 is applicable for UHPFRC beams, while the maximum spacing between stirrups required by ACI 318-2014 is not practically suitable for beams with relatively small height and can be safely increased from 0.5d to be 0.75d. The equations of the shear strength of the reinforced concrete beams used by the studied international codes highly underestimate the shear strength of the tested UHPFRC beams. The minimum recommendations of AFGC-2002 and also KCI-2012 are safe and conservative for design of UHPFRC beams provided with shear reinforcement less than that required by the studied codes. The predictions of the ultimate shear strength of the tested beams using AFGC-2002 are approximately similar to that of KCI-2012. The steel fibers volume fraction of 1.5% of the tested beams contributes by about 60% in the ultimate shear strength of the tested beams while the contribution of the concrete and the vertical web reinforcement is about 40%. Including the effect of steel fibers in the finite element model showed good predictions for the ultimate shear strength and the deformation response of the studied UHPFRC beams.

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THERMAL ANALYSES (DTA AND TGA) OF LIGAND (H6L) AND ITS METAL COMPLEXES Co(II), Fe(II), Cu(II) AND Ni(II)[ ]


In this article we study the thermal analysis (DTA and TGA) of ligand (H6L) and its metal complexes : Co(II), Fe(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II), the thermal data of metal complexes were illustrated that the thermal curves in the 27-800 oC temperature range indicated that, the metal complexes are thermally stable up to 40 oC and the weight losses recorded in the 70-90 oC range is due to elimination of hydrated water molecules.

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Mechanical and Morphological Investigation of Cement Paste Containing Nano Silica [ ]


Cement paste matrix is a porous material composed primarily of calcium hydroxide (portlandite), aluminates and anhydrate cement (clinker) embedded into an amorphous structured hydration product called calcium silicate hydrate gel. The enhancement in calcium silicate hydrate product leads to enhancing the cement paste properties and thus improves the entire concrete composites properties. NS replacement of cement paste (at 3%, 6% and 9% of binder) was investigated and compared to a control cement paste. Fresh and mechanical properties were investigated according to the appropriate standards. XRD and TGA analyses were used to determine the physical properties of the components and SEM was used to identify morphological changes for comparison. Flowability was found to increase from 20 cm in the control mixture to 24 cm in with 9% NS replacement. The 3% replacement specimen provided 50% and 29% higher compressive and flexural strength at early ages, copared to the control, respectively. The 6% NS replacement provided the highest compressive and flexural strengths at 28 days, but the 9% replacement performed worse than all other specimens for all mechanical tests. XRD results indicate that, the cement powder contained three main elements C2S, C3S, and CaCO3, there were shortages of Al, and Fe compared with what was expected. The TGA indicated 3% NS replacement increased CSH content and a decrease in enthalpy of Ca(OH)2 and had the smallest decrease in weight at 1000oC. SEM images show a denser microstructure with fewer voids when comparing the 3% NS replacement to the control and free NS randomly distributed in structure indicating NS has the ability to improve the hydration process by providing numerous hydration sites.

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A Channel Decision strategy for Cognitive Radio Ad hoc Networks [ ]


In this paper, a distributed channel decision strategy (DCDS) has been proposed for cognitive radio ad hoc network (CRAN). In this strategy, DCDS classifies the available channels and uses them efficiently to increase reliability in cognitive radio networks. The classification is done on the basis of Primary User (PU) un-utilize, the number of Secondary User (SU) neighbors using the channels, and the capacity of available channels. NS2 simulator is used for comparing the performance of DCDS compared to two related strategies. Simulation results approved that our strategy is effective compared to others strategies with regard to selecting best channel, less interference with PU, and maximizing spectral efficiency.

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APPLICATION OF QUEUEING THEORY TO A STREAM OF VEHICULAR MOVEMENT[ ]


Traffic congestion is a growing problem in many areas in Nigeria as it increases travel time, air pollution, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and fuel use because cars cannot run efficiently. This work contributes to the modeling road congestion in a sub-urban area of Ekiti State, Nigeria by way of queueing theory using stochastic process and initial value problem frame work. The approach is used to describe performance measure parameters allowing the prediction of the level of queue built up at a signalized intersection as an insight into road vehicular movement there and how such congestion occurrence can be efficiently managed.

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Modelling of bacterial sulphate reduction in anaerobic ponds: Kinetics investigations[ ]


The aim of the study was first to develop a simple and practical model of anaerobic digestion including sulphate-reduction in anaerobic ponds. The basic microbiology of our model consists of three steps, namely, acidogenesis, methanogenesis and sulphate-reduction. This Model includes multiple reaction stoichiometry and substrate utilization kinetics. The second aim was to determine some stoichiometrics and kinetics parameters associated to this model. The results of this study provide the values of saturation constant for SO42-, KSO4 and the maximum specific rate of sulphate utilization for SRB in an anaerobic pond. The values of KSO4 calculated at 20°C and 30°C are 614 mg/l and 240 mg/l respectively. When the temperature was increased from 20°C to 30°C, the maximum specific rate of sulphate utilization increased from 128 to 200 mgSO4reduced.gVSS-1.d-1. The values of those parameters of sulfidogenic bacteria are used implementation of the Anaerobic Pond Model, to describe the sulphate reduction processes and to evaluate the risk of odour generation in a second paper.

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Water Resource Assessment of Barangay San Juan, Kalayaan, Laguna Philippines[ ]


The implementation of water quality objectives into planning initiatives can help protected watershed values; mitigate impacts of upland-use activities on source area watersheds, and protect water in the context of both acute and chronic impacts to human and aquatic ecosystem health. In this study, it assessed and compared the water quality of three (3) selected drinking water source continuously used in Barangay San Juan, at the Kalayaan, Laguna Philippines. The main objectives of the study includes water quality monitoring and analyses of the physico-chemical variables (Taste, Odor, DO, pH, temp, electrical conductivity, Chloride, Nitrates, Ammonia and Turbidity) using multi parameter equipment apparatus and were carried out for one time sampling during normal rainy days. Identification and quantification of floral diversity and species richness within the water source was also evaluated in this study through transect walk and identification of plants. Based on physico-chemical assessments of the three different sampling stations in Barangay San Juan water source, it generally observed a high level of Turbidity that failed to meet the Philippine National Standard for Drinking Water (PNSDW). Sediment often tops the list of substances or pollutants causing turbidity. Meanwhile, current result for Taste, Odor, Nitrate and Chloride are in good condition and all are within and meet the acceptable standard values set by PNSDW. Temperature, DO, Ammonia and EC parameters tested don’t have equivalent standard in PNSDW for drinking water. For riparian vegetation assessment, results showed that in every plot, there is an invasive species dominant. Recommendation includes continuous water quality monitoring is encouraged to effectively analyze the impact of human intervention on the environment and human health as this is the basis for policy or management decisions concern a drinking water sources and its uses. In addition, the local’s ordinances on protecting watershed vegetation cover must be implemented more strictly.

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Efficiency of X-ray in diagnosis of tuberculosis[ ]


Tuberculosis is a chronic pulmonary infectious illness that has impacted one-third of the people worldwide. It causes nine million new cases and two million fatalities per year. In clinical practice, rapid TB diagnosis can be difficult, and early pulmonary TB detection continues to be challenging for clinicians. In this article, current advances that allow better and earlier medical diagnosis of active pulmonary TB are summed up and diagnostic algorithms in clinical practice are suggested, concentrating on the x-ray in medical diagnosis of tuberculosis, advantages and disadvantages. Electronic search was performed using following databases; "MEDLINE", "EMBASE", "PUBMED". The PubMed database was searched using the MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) term; "Tuberculosis", "Diagnosis", "X-ray". Prompt diagnosis of active pulmonary TB is a priority for TB control, both for treating the individual and for public health treatment to decrease further spread in the area. Chest X-ray is useful yet is not specific for diagnosing pulmonary TB. Moreover, TB can present with symptoms and atypical radiologic results that are indistinguishable from those of community-acquired pneumonia. As an outcome, it is not uncommon for clinicians to prescribe a number of programs of antibiotics for pneumonia before the pulmonary TB is correctly identified.

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Identification factors influencing Bicyclist's Safety in Urban Conditions[ ]


Drafting urban policies which aims at increasing the use of cycling requires an understanding of bicycle requirements. The purpose of this paperwork is to research the key factors that may affect the safety of bicyclists' riding in the city of Prishtina. To carry out this research, a survey was conducted with 202 bicyclitsts on 13 streets of the capital of Kosovo, Pristina. For analysing the data ordinal regression model has been used. Following the analysis of the results, it was concluded that infrastructure factors and traffic flow volume have an important role in the perception of bicyclists' riding safety. Increased traffic turnover, the level of speed and the presence of heavy vehicles have a negative impact on the bicyclists’ safety. For some variables, the impact on bicyclists' riding safety are more or less the same for separated bicycle paths and on-street bicycle lanes and the presence of lanes and cycling paths have a positive impact in riding safety.

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Modified N-way analysis of variance for porosity prediction of 2 lacustrine carbonate formations with limited logging data[ ]


Physical characteristic models are generally considered as the best way to evaluate reservoirs, whereas require some essential geological parameters involved in calculation. On purpose of promoting the efficiency of logging interpretation, a new combined method of N-way analysis of variance and multivariate linear fitting, thus, is proposed based on the statistical theories. The combined method has the capability of predicting porosity for the carbonate reservoirs without aiding any geological parameters. Additionally, according to the statistical results of multiple comparisons, the fitted values can be accurately corrected, further. The whole processing procedures are completed in only three steps. Using N-way analysis of variance to optimally select logging curves is the first step. Then figuring out values by applying the established multivariate linear fitting model. Finally attempting to improve the accuracy of fitted results with the creative algorithm of fitting correction. Five cases are comprehensively analyzed in the verification of proposed method. As a results,the mean absolute errors of all the fitted values calculated by N-way analysis of variance are relatively smaller than that only by the multivariate linear fitting method. After the fitting correction, almost all the fitted results are getting much closer to the core data, especially in the case that the accuracy can be raised up by nearly 30% when the robustness of the fitted coefficients is enhanced. All the calculated results and analytical conclusions convincingly prove the fact that the combined method can predict the porosity of lacustrine carbonate formations in a cost-efficient way, and the results are reliable enough to sever as the reference data for other relative work.

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Analysis of Emphysema Patterns in Computed Tomography Images [ ]


Texture analysis and classification is one of the biggest challenges in the field of computer vision and pattern recognition. In this case, fractal dimension (FD) has proven to be a useful technique to characterize distinctive texture patterns. However, it could be sometimes difficult to use this approach to extract descriptors as the fractal magnitude space usually fails in representing adequately the richness of detail present in a unique feature vector. This paper proposes two new methods for emphysema patterns analysis and detections. The first approach is the Higuchi fractal dimension, different methods of calculating the Higuchi’s dimension of digital images would be used in this paper for identifying the region of interest in images. The second idea applied the multi-fractal spectrum for efficient identification of emphysema patterns in high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images. The multi-fractal spectrum is a graphical representation of FD values in different regions within the images, which can be used as a global descriptor for accurate pattern recognition. The proposed algorithms were applied to identify the locations and corresponding quantity of the emphysema patterns in HRCT images. Some of the experimental analyses of the results are investigated using the statistical analysis to establish the relationship between the ground truth patches and the HRCT image slices. It was concluded that the Higuchi’s dimension and the multi-fractal analysis can be accurately used for detecting the regions with emphysema patterns.

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