Volume 13, Issue 11, November 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

Publication for Volume 13, Issue 11, November 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

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Understanding Problems to Calculate Non-Trivial Homotopy Groups of Spheres []

One of the fundamental problems of Algebraic topology is to calculate Homotopy groups of spheres that is concerned as a goal of 21st century. Trivial homotopy groups of spheres have been calculated convincingly. But computation of non-trivial homotopy groups of spheres is found very complex and difficult. To understand the complexity, we have reviewed computation of the trivial homotopy groups and then looked at the complexity again to draw some meaningful insights. We found that homotopy groups have not been defined properly yet for non-trivial cases and have no useful classification of it. Some proofs have been rewritten to ensure their mathematical foundations.


AUTHOR : ROBIN JACOB TITLE : A STUDY TO ASSESS THE UTILIZATION OF SELECTED PORTABLE MEDICAL EQUIPMENT IN CRTICAL CARE AREAS LANGUAGE : ENGLISH SUPERVISIOR : DHWANY D.B INSTITUTE : MOSC INSTITUTE OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES UNIVERSITY : KERALA UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES ABSTRACT Equipment utilization identifies the necessity, appropriateness and efficiency of medical equipment in the process of diagnosis and treatment. Utilization index or use coefficient is used to monitor the same. All healthcare organizations spend a considerable amount of its budget per year for the installation, implementation, maintenance & repair of various medical equipment for providing immediate point of care to patients. Most of the time, the viability and usage of medical equipment are not being explored. This study identifies the utilization of selected portable medical equipment such as X-Ray, ECG, USG and Defibrillator in critical care areas. The study was descriptive in nature as it is concerned with describing and identifying the usage of selected portable medical equipment in critical care areas. As a census study, the data were collected from all selected portable medical equipment in critical care areas. The collected data were analysed by statistical tools. The primary sources of data were intensivist, bio-medical engineers and technician and secondary sources were hospital records, registers and hospital website. Unstructured interview and direct observation were done for the same. From the study it was found that the activities involved in a procedure to be streamlined to improve the use coefficient of the equipment for ensuring their economic efficiency. KEYWORDS: Medical equipment, portable equipment, medical equipment utilization, critical care,

Kinetics of Kapalbhati: A mathematical interpretation of force, pressure, centre of gravity and centre of mass []

This article introduces the theoretical study of kinetics of kapalbhati, how mathematical parameters correlated to each other. Kapalbhati is high frequency yoga breathing (exhalation breathing rate up to 2 Hz) literally means shining forehead (kapala = cranium or forehead, bhati = shining or even knowledge in Sanskrit). It is known widely for its positive effects on abdominal muscles and overall health. Kapalbhati plays an important role to enhance the abdominal muscle strength and its muscle tone as well. The purpose of this theoretical study is to analyze or investigate the effects of pressure and forces at various sitting anatomical positions during kapalbhati and also to find the exact location of centre of mass, centre of gravity at different positions of sitting postures. This article helps the practitioner to provide deep understanding and analysis for the mechanics of kapalbhati as well as to reduce errors during practice. In this study a standard mathematical approach is adopted to find the relation between the force, angle and pressure. The study shows that the force which is exerted on the abdominal area during kapalbhati pranayama is a mathematical function and how pressure changes as direction of force changes. This implies that as angle of sitting changes, it leads to increase force and it results to increase pressure ultimately and vice versa. There are significant changes in the outcome of the practice at different sitting body posture that leads to change in work of breath, heart rate and oxygen consumption. From the mathematical interpretation, we can conclude that practice of kapalbhati pranayama at proper position gives a positive impact on the overall health. Index Terms— Centre of gravity, Centre of mass, Force, Kapalbhati, Kinetics, Pressure, Yoga


This study examined the impact of Safety Climate on Safety Performance of companies in Onne oil and gas free zone, River’s state; a comparison of good and bad safety performing firms. The study adopted descriptive and regression research design. The companies were categories into two groups based on the safety performance chart as “good and bad safety performing companies”, 20 companies were sampled randomly from 170 companies with 6400 workers population, and 400 were sampled and shared 200 per group.

Design and Analyze Real Drive Cycles for Electric Vehicle Using MATLAB Simulink []

With the advancing technology, it has shifted in the automobile industry with the introduction of Electric Vehicles. Electric Vehicles provide humanity with a sustainable mode of transport, by not deteriorating the environment. modeling and simulation of Electric vehicles have attracted increasing attention from researchers. This paper describes the procedure for modeling an Electric Vehicle in MATLAB Simulink, by analyzing real Drive cycles (Driver behavior), Powertrain models (Battery, PMSM, Motor control), and Vehicle Dynamics models. Four Real drive cycles represented different road types such as Crowded, Urban, Rural, and Highway roads. Through Simulink, the designed Electric Vehicle is simulated and various factors are analyzed like; Vehicle Dynamics (Speed, Acceleration, Distance), Battery (current, voltage, power, power losses, state of charge, energy and capacity consumption), electric motor (speed, torque, and power). Motor cooling system (motor and coolant temperature). All simulation results were plotted and discussed. This study forms the foundation for further research and development.

Stevia rebaudiana; a precious gift of nature, it's therapeutic values and uses []

Stevia rebaudiana, a well-known medicinal plant, is a precious gift of nature. It is known for its non-caloric, bio-sweetening, and medicinal value. A herbaceous and perennial plant of the genus Stevia, Cav. It consists of approximately 250+ species of herbaceous, shrub, and sub-shrub plants. High content of protein, some essential minerals, and carbohydrates all indispensable amino acid are present in leaves of stevia, except tryptophan, folic acid, vitamin C and some bioactive chemical constituents as well as linolenic and palmitic acids. Two varieties of Stevia rebaudiana Bertonic prepared for cultivation in Mexico, their extract were screened and contained some phytochemicals and antioxidant properties. It has been used as a sweetener and contains no calories. Steviol and stevioside constitute the main parts of the chemical composition, an alternative to saccharose for the treatment of many diseases. This review article includes the collection of basic data on Stevia plant and the biochemical composition, nutrition and its therapeutic values, biochemistry and its uses in different fields and it's beneficial role and metabolites on properties that are health promoting.


Abstract: The article examines the identification of the planning system of historical urban centers, an increase in the population and territory of the city, the influence of social factors, an increase in free time of population and the scope of it, the concentration of business institutions influencing the development of historical city centers.

Informal Used Lead Acid Battery Recycling: Assessment of Topsoil Contamination from their Operational Activities []

The recycling of used lead-acid batteries (ULAB) has caused numerous health and environmental problems in developing countries. Soil pollution from ULAB recycling activities has been associated with elevated lead concentrations in human blood. We measured lead concentrations at 25 different smelter sites. Lead concentration was determined using an iCE 3000 series atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The average lead concentrations at the smelter site, 20 meters, and 40 meters from the smelter site were 39,800 mg/kg, 6,310 mg/kg, and 4,720 mg/kg, respectively. All samples at the smelter site exceeded the U.S. residential limit (EPA) of 400 mg/kg and the U.S. bare soil limit (EPA) of 1,200 mg/kg. The highest concentrations of lead in soil were found in the smelter or collection site. Soil lead concentrations decreased significantly with distance along the road from the ULAB recycling facility. The result shows that the topsoil is highly contaminated where informal ULAB recycling is conducted, which poses a potential health hazard to the surrounding communities.


Massive multiple-input multiple-output (mMIMO) is one of the major key enabling technology for future generation networks, which has large number of antennas at both base stations (BSs) and the user equipments (UEs) to provide high throughput using signal processing techniques. In this research work, we studied downlink (DL) sum throughput of mMIMO networks using multi-cell basic linear precoding techniques. The multi-cell zero-forcing (M-ZF), multi-cell regularized zero-forcing (M-RZF), single-cell minimum mean squared error (S-MMSE), and multi-cell minimum mean squared error (M-MMSE) precoding techniques are utilized in the DL. The closed bound expressions of spectrum efficiency (SE) of these linear precoders were derived and analytically expressed. Monte-Carlo simulations were performed with channel-estimators such as minimum mean squared error (MMSE) and element-wise MMSE (EW-MMSE) estimates. The numerical analysis shows that the M-MMSE tends to out-perform S-MMSE, M- RZF, and M-ZF by having the highest average sum throughput at any number of antennas with different UEs in the two-channel estimators. Finally, there is an average sum throughput performance gain of using the M-MMSE over other basic linear precoding techniques.

Treatment of severe acute malnutrition with home-based therapeutic nutrition: A critical appraisal of efficacy and safety []

Child malnutrition is a major public health problem since it is one of the leading causes of mortality and disability across the globe. This review looked at the evidence surrounding the effectiveness of ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF), ready-to-use supplemental foods (RUSF), prophylactic antibiotic utilization, & vitamin A dietary supplements for the treatment of severe and moderate acute malnutrition (SAM) according to the current World Health Organization (WHO) guideline using facility- and community-based techniques. Following a thorough examination of relevant digital archives, we collated the resulting data. Inconclusive evidence suggests that SAM and MAM recovery rates may be increased with integrated community-based screening, identification, and management. Screening and treatment in a facility for basic SAM did not affect recovery or fatality rates, although therapeutic milk F100 used to treat SAM had effects comparable to RUTF. Recovery time as well as weight gain for MAM are similar with whey and local food RUSF compared to regular RUSF, but CSB receives greater advantages from normal RUSF. When antibiotics are given before a case of simple SAM, the patient has a better chance of making a full recovery, gaining more weight, and even living longer. Data on the effects of high-dose vit A supplements on weight growth and mortality in children with SAM are few, but they seem to be equivalent to those of low-dose vitamin A supplementation.


This is a nodejs based radio which basically helps to transfer information among the group of people and an organization in just one go. It is a mass media communicator which helps to communicate messages among a group of people also in this era where people have such a hectic schedule that seeing text messages and other important notifications have become tough for them. We introduced such a system where they could listen to the text message verbally and also any important information does not miss out.

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