Volume 7, Issue 12, December 2016 Edition


Publication for Volume 7, Issue 12, December 2016.


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AVAILABILITY AND USE OF VISUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING MATERIALS IN TEACHING GEOGRAPHY AT MINJIBIR EDUCATION ZONE KANO[ ]


The availability and use of visual teaching and learning materials’ study was aimed at finding out if there are adequate visual teaching and learning materials for teaching Geography in Minjibir Education Zone, Kano and if these materials have been effectively and judiciously utilised by the teachers to teach geography. The descriptive survey design was selected for this purpose. The population of the study covers all secondary schools in Minjibir Education Zone where a sample of 36 geography teachers both male and female out of the 37 geography teachers in the Zone was drawn. A questionnaire was used for the data collection while the data collected were analysed using the frequency and percentage distribution table. The gathered data shows that visual materials were inadequate for the effective teaching of geography in Minjibir Education Zone and the few available visual materials have not been effectively and judiciously utilised to teach geography. The study has made certain recommendations that important visual materials like barometer, thermometer, rain gauge, wind vane, computers, projectors e.t.c and geography laboratory must be provided for the effective teaching and learning of geography and the government must ensure that seminars and workshops are organised for geography teachers to make them aware of the importance of using visual materials and motivate them towards discharging their duties effectively.

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Does a Workplace Incivility influence employee’s job stress and turnover intentions by Moderating role of Psychological Capital: Descriptive study on Banking sector Gujranwala; Pakistan[ ]


Purpose- The key purpose of the study to scrutinize the relationship among workplace incivility job stress and turnover intentions by employees and moderating role of psychological capital furthermore, data collected by using simple random sampling technique 500 questionnaire distributed from different banks out of which 420 were completely and authentically.

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On Soft Semi-Open Sets[ ]


The objective of this paper is to describe the basics of soft semi-open sets and soft semi-closed sets in soft topological spaces by applying the functions of D. Molodstov’s soft set theory.

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Toward Transparency and Broader Safeguards Conclusion: A Closer Look at the Proposed Saudi’s Civilian Nuclear Power Program[ ]


The higher the transparency of any civilian nuclear power program, the higher the chance of attracting and securing the long-term foreign nuclear cooperation. For newcomer states, securing nuclear cooperation is essential for successful deployment and implementation of nuclear power program. Complying with an acceptable types of safeguards commitment/protocols plays a major role in increasing transparency.

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People Detection, its Applications in learning-based computer vision[ ]


Detecting humans in video/images is a challenging task, with many applications that has attracted lot of attention in recent years. The area of computer vision is concerned with the recognition of activity from video sequences. It’s application techniques are very numerous. There may be mentioned the video surveillance, power management and evaluation of advertising policies. Several algorithms have been developed to achieve very good results. Some approaches are based on motion information and other are focused on appearance information. Considering the huge demand existing in the area, it would be very important to talk about the learning-based computer vision.

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Effect of Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) on adiet poultry contaminated with fungus exudate toxins Aspergillus flavus and the possibility of inhibition growth and break down toxins producers from it[ ]


This study was conducted in the laboratory of Advanced fungi at the Department of Biology/ College of Education for girls / University of Kufa for the period from 03/01 - 15/05/2016 in collaboration with the laboratory of the veterinary clinic to the Iraqi Ministry of Agriculture, so as to detect the ability of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) to protect the contamination of diet poultry by fungi and the possibility of breaking down the Aflatoxin and Ochratoxins which produced by Aspergillus flavus. Tested way to extract the poison, using an organic solvent is Acetonitrail, results showed for the detection of the toxin using organic solvent in the recovery of the venom of the contaminated samples using several standard poison under study and using the ELISA device showed the ability of p.ostreatus to break down toxins contaminated with aflatoxin to diet in the treatment of treatment mushroom oyster duration of fermentation 28 days where the highest percentage smash hit 1.0 mcg / kg, followed by treatment T4 treatment also mushroom oyster duration of fermentation 21 days Reached at 1.5 mcg / kg compared to the treatment of T2 untreated mushroom oyster which showed the highest contamination rate was 165.3 mcg / kg either treatment control were free of contamination and mycotoxin which gave 0.0 mcg / kg. way to extract the poison, using an organic solvent is Acetonitrail, results showed for the detection of the toxin using organic solvent in the recovery of the toxin of the contaminated samples using several standard poison under study and using the ELISA device showed the ability of p.ostreatus to break down toxins contaminated with aflatoxin to diet in the treatment of T4 treatment mushroom oyster duration of fermentation 28 days where the highest percentage smash hit 1.0 mcg / kg, followed by treatment T3 treatment also mushroom oyster duration of fermentation 21 days reached at 1.5 mcg / kg compared to the treatment of T2 untreated mushroom oyster which showed the highest contamination rate was 165.3 mcg/ kg either treatment control were free of contamination and mycotoxin which gave 0.0 mcg / kg.

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Evaluation on the Performance of Lowest Responsive Bid Contract and the Quality of Materials Used on Governmental Building Projects in Jimma Town[ ]


Construction industry participants have started recognizing that accepting the least bid price does not guarantee maximum value. Continuous problems of inferior quality of constructing facilities, high incidence of claims and litigation, frequentcost overruns and use of poor quality of materials have become the main features of Ethiopian’s public construction work contracts.This research was undertaken to evaluate the performance of public owned construction projects awarded on a lowest bid awarding system, to determine the effect of advance payment on the contractor’s performance, compare lowest and average bid systems,and check the quality of local construction materials use by lowest price won contracts. A literature review was carried out to identifydifferent practices and floated questionnaire survey and laboratory test was conducted for selected and expected materials. Twoalternative bid evaluation methods were discussed and suggested the better one from performance point of view. The questionnairewas distributed to contractors, clients, consultants and other related professional. Additionally, interviews were conducted with them.A total of 88 questionnaires were distributed, including laboratory test results for selected and expected materials found in JimmaTown. The data were collected and 80 valid questionnaires were analyzed by using SPSS-20, Excel, and laboratory test resultsrequirement. The study identified that the causes of poor performance of contractors were won projects with lowest price; thereforemore of the respondents do not like the lowest bidding method. Advance payment is the main solution to support financial problemof contractors, but instead of paying in cash, purchasing the necessary construction materials is seen as an alternative to protectcontractors from using the money to other uses. Obviously known that in the current bid awarding method of Ethiopia, most of thetime, in order to be the winner of the bid price should be lesser. This leads the bidder not to get adequate profit, this pushes them touse poor quality of local construction materials. Finally, this work provides valuable information to the Ethiopian government, clients,consultants and contractors and other stakeholders who desire to improve bidding methods; usage of advance payment; ways toimprove performance of contractors and to protect the project from contractors using poor quality of construction materials.

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SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF SPIN AND SPIN DOCTORS[ ]


In time of professionalization of permanent political campaigns with organized and orchestrated media campaign we are witnesses of growing importance of spin and spin doctors. This article is following academic determination and categorization of spin, spin techniques that are employed by spin doctors and their social consequences. Goal of this article is, in time of political campaign to put more attention on role of spin doctors in the design of political reality.

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Land Use Changes in the Eastern Nile Delta Region; Egypt Using Multi-temporal Remote Sensing Techniques[ ]


Sustainable development in any region depends on authoritative monitoring of land cover change information. In this study, a hybrid classification methodology and post-classification change detection techniques were applied to five temporal data sets of images Landsat images acquired in 1984, 1990, 1998, 2006 and 2015, respectively, to map and monitor land cover changes in patterns related to agricultural development, water resources management and urban expansion in the desert fringes of the Eastern Nile Delta region of Egypt. Each temporal data set consists of two Landsat scenes, which were mosaicked to cover the whole region. Four different supervised classification algorithms were implemented to produce five land use maps.

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An Assessment of Flood Preparedness & Emergency Response: A Case Study on Buraburi Union of Ulipur, Kurigram[ ]


The main purpose of the study was to explore the status of flood as well as its preparedness and emergency response mechanism of people in Buraburi union of Ulipurupazilla of Kurigram district of Bangladesh. Data were collected from December 2015 to January 2016 from among the people who are experienced by floodat least once. Buraburi union of UlipurUpazila is one of the most vulnerable unions which is prone to flood and riverbank erosion. Most of the houses of the union are located beside river channel of Brahmaputra. Most of the people of Buraburi union are living under poverty level. People of the community make their indigenous knowledge to prepare themselves and make response in the emergency situation. Women play a vital role in the process of preparedness and response and use of technology is not available here. Many of these responses have regional and location specific ramifications. People prepare early, in anticipation of a seasonal hazard flood. People safeguard their lives and livelihoods by following the way of shelter and after the flood people start their regular journey of life recovering the difficulties.

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INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERING UNDERPRICING PERFORMANCE IN MALAYSIA (LISTED ON MAIN MARKET)[ ]


The purpose of this paper is to investigate the degrees of initial public offering (IPOs) underpricing in Malaysia (listed on Main Market of Bursa Malaysia). Based on 46 IPOs data collected from 2012 until 2015 in Bursa Malaysia, the degree of IPOs underpricing was calculated and factors of IPOs underpricing was determinants. A sample of 46 IPOs listed on main market (new listing) of Bursa Malaysia from 2012 until 2015 was used. The effect of determinants factors were examined in this study is issues price, offer size, and types of industries into degrees of IPOs underpricing. The preliminary results indicate that over the study period, the initial returns of Malaysian IPOs have positive returns. The results of this study found that high underpricing in the initial trading is not determined poor performance. This study only take part in IPO companies that listed in main market from 2012 until 2015 (new listing). This study provides the general insight for investors regarding IPOs performance.

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Assessment On The Effects Of Weather Change On Road Construction Planning At Some Selected Projects In Addis Ababa And Oromia[ ]


Road construction in Ethiopia is in high demand to meet its short and long term goals in infrastructure development programs. The road network is constructed radiating outwards North-South and East-West direction of the Capital City. Some projects are experiencing weather malady due to changing weather conditions in project locations. The study area of this research was focused on some selected projects in Addis Ababa and Oromia. The research had been addressed the effects of changes in weather in the three project planning phases, namely conception planning, design planning and construction planning. Quantitative research design was used in this study. A literature review was undertaken and the result of which showed that the effects of weather changes are not extensively researched in the construction industry and there are limited references on the effects of weather change within the road construction industry. Sample data were obtained from sixty-three (63) construction practitioners through questionnaires, which were mailed to prospective respondents to assess their opinions. Questions were subdivided into three relevant areas covering demographics, experience with weather change factors, and the effects of weather change on road construction project planning.

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Analysing the Top Soil Chemistry for Environments around the Barapukuria Thermal Power Plant, Bangladesh[ ]


Barapukuria 2x125MW Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plant area is situated under Hamidpur union of Parbatipur Upazila, Dinajpur, Bangladesh where 0.72 million metric tons of coal has been consumed and 0.08 million metric tons of coal ash have been generated every year. This plant generates significantly large quantities of solid byproduct which is disposed of in two designated ponds, but currently a safe management and disposals have become a major challenge to environmentalists and scientists. In this study, the quality of the soil for environment around a thermal station is presented. The samples were taken from different distances from the thermal station. The results of the analysis reflect that the soil is acidic based because of the average pH concentration is 6.92. The average values of organic matter, N, K, Ca, Mg and Na (meq/100g) are 0.87%, 0.04%, 0.27, 5.68, 1.97 and 0.01, respectively whereas the mean concentration of other elements such as P, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn are 4.94, 51.45, 0.63, 28.62, 16.64 and 0.68 µg/g, respectively. Phosphorus around the power plant soil samples ranges from 2.08 to 9.66 µg/g, which is very low to low compared with the standard. The results of all soil sample analysis also show that all the major chemical parameters such as Na+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Ca2+, K+ are slightly varied for different samples but there is a shortage in N, P and S in soil near the thermal plant which might be the indicator of soil consequently the environmental pollution around the area at present and the day coming.

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Design andConstruction of a simple force sensing system – FELIESS[ ]


Manual force application to different parts of the human body is an essential part of physical therapy practice and ranges in intensity from gentle superficial touch to high intensity thrust manipulations. Objective of the study was to design and construct a small, low cost force sensing system for therapists to gain real time feedback of manually applied forces. The device was calibrated and evaluated within and outside the laboratory setting for the followings: (1) test of validity (2) test of reliability (3) test of practicability. The accuracy of the preliminary design in terms of the coefficient of correlation between he applied force and the resultant force as shown by the device comes out to be 0.99 with a standard deviation of ±5grams and 95% confidence interval of ±0.14 grams about the mean. FELIESS (Force evaluation, Listing and integration- electronic and software system) is a simple force sensing system with acceptable validity and reliability that can be used as a means to provide real time force feedback.

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Performance Study of Space Time Trellis Code with Multiple bit Feedback[ ]


In this paper, 1-bit, 2-bit and 3-bit feedback performances of Space Time Trellis Code in Rayleigh channel are studied. The open loop performance shows better result whereas due to complexity of trellis the performance degrades with feedback. But still with increasing the number of bits, the error rate performance improves again. In case of error rates, 3-bit feedback system has the lowest value. 2-bit feedback system needs lowest time for simulation and 1-bit feedback offers highest channel capacity.

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Serological Screening of Hepatitis B Virus Among Pregnant Women Receiving Antenatal Care At Medical Center Mararaba, Nasarawa State[ ]


Hepatitis B virus is a major public health problem worldwide and is more prevalent in developing countries which Nigeria is one. It is commonly transmitted during pregnancy, as it has been shown to pose substantial risk to pregnant women and the developing fetus which result in chronic carrier state and high mortality rate. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among pregnant women receiving antenatal care at Medical Centre Mararaba, Nasarawa State. A Randomized cross sectional study was utilized for this study. Three hundred and thirteen pregnant women were screened for hepatitis B virus. A questionnaire was designed to obtain relevant socio demographic information from the participating pregnant women. 5ml of blood samples was collected through vein puncture method into a microtitre tube containing Ethylene DiamineTetraacetic Acid (EDTA). Blood Samples were investigated for hepatitis B virus using immunochromatographic method. 20 (6.4%) of the pregnant women screened were positive for HBV. The highest prevalence rate in relation to age was found among pregnant women between the ages of 25-34 years with 4.15% seropositivity. Pregnant women in their second trimester had the highest prevalence of 5.11%, there was a significance difference between HBV and trimester at (P>0.05). There was a significant association between HBV and occupation at (P>0.05) were housewives and business women had the highest prevalence with 3.2% and 2.9%, the lowest prevalence rate 0.32% was recorded among civil servants. There was a statistically insignificant relationship between tribal marks as a risk factor and sharp objects (P<0.05) and HBV infection. There was a statistically significant association (P>0.05), between HBV infection and blood transfusion. This study confirms the prevalence of the infection in the population studied. Routine screening of pregnant women should continue in order to identify and treat the infection, thereby eradicating the risk of vertical transmission.

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Coping strategies, preparedness and emergency response of char-land peoples in Flood Disaster: A case study in Kurigram, Bangladesh[ ]


Buraburi is a rural area of Ulipur upazilla under Kurigram district which is adjacent to a canal of Brahmaputra river. Flood and river bank erosion are common problem here. The main causes of floods here are excessive rainfall during monsoon period and uneven flow of water in Brahmaputra River. Local peoples of Buraburi are aware of flood and riverbank erosion and practice some indigenous knowledge to play against flooding. They raise their house, save money and store food for upcoming flood events. They use portable stoves in their raise bed or table and reserve commonly jute sticks, straws, dry woods for cooking during flood period. As they remain jobless during flood for four to six weeks, they save money before to cope with this problem. If the condition becomes worsen they immediately take shelter in flood shelter center which is safe enough for their women and children but there is not enough space for their livestock. Some of them bound to sell their cattle in order to meet their dire needs but some of them do not sell because of lower price. They collect green leaves and straw from here and there and feed their cattle. Medical facility and sanitation is not up to date in this region. Few NGOs are helping them by providing training, facilities in rescue and shelter, supplying food and health supportive elements and funding for their betterment. The problematic factors affecting the progress of overall emergency preparedness and response are weak transportation, distance from disaster shelter center, absence of communicable technologies, political instability and indifference of community people and local government. Some development in transportation and communication can help the people to cope with these disastrous events.

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Compatibilization of Amylopectin-grafted-Poly (Hexyl Methacrylate) in Polyblend[ ]


Amylopectin-grafted-Poly (Hexyl Methacrylate) is one of the copolymer modifications based on natural polymers with synthetic polymers, which can be used to reduce fossil feedstock. Polypropylene (PP) based composites containing chicken feather fibers (CFF) were successfully prepared by simple blending procedure. Maleic anhydride-grafted-PP and amylopectin-grafted-poly (hexyl methacrylate) was used as compatibilizer to promote dispersion of CFF. To investigate the compatibilizer effect, the resultwas characterized by using FT-IR and FE-SEM. The resulting PP-based composites were characterized in term of morphology, thermal stability and mechanical behavior. The result shows that the PP/CFF/Ap-g-PHMA has less aggregation and more hydrophobic compareto the PP/CFF/PP-g-MA. However, PP/CFF/Ap-g-PHMA has lower stabilitythan PP/CFF/PP-g-MA.

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Cow Dung Augmentation Remediates Crude Oil Contaminated Soil Planted With Maize Seedlings[ ]


To evaluatethe effect of cow dung augmentation on the growth, antioxidant enzymes activity and the nutrient status of maize seedlings grown in crude oil contaminated soil.

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Epidemiology of Candida infection among pregnant women[ ]


Vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC) is a common disease in pregnant women in the last years, the infections may be cause abortion or preterm delivery , also the infections can transfer from the vagina of the infected women to the neonate, giving rise to congenital Candidiasis Therefore, the present study has been focused to isolate Candida from (50) pregnant women suffered from vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC) in AL-Batool maternity Hospital at Waist province ( Iraq) and to identify the different species involved in vulvovaginal Candidiasis. The samples were collected between July 2016 and November 2016.. Fifty samples from pregnant women (25 first - pregnancy and 25 multi- pregnancy) with CCV were examined.

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Cost Effective Method to Reduce Turbidity and pH level of Korattur Lake water situated in Chennai Metropolitan city[ ]


Clean water is absolutely essential for human survival. Changes coupled with increasing population in urban areas have the potential to impact the design and operation of future water treatment plants. It is necessary to provide clean potable water at low cost with high reliability in such areas. To accomplish these objectives. There is a great need to supply environmentally sound technology for the provision of potable water. We have developed an effective water filtration system using the coagulants such as moringa, alum, ferric alum and lime, charcoal as adsorption media. The main focus is to get the pH and turbidity levels within the permissible limits and the colour and odour are taken care such that it doesn’t affect the water quality

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Rehabilitation of Brick Walls with Openings Using Steel Wire Mesh[ ]


The brick walls with openings may be subjected to several problems after construction. When those problems occur, the walls cannot reach their ultimate load carrying capacity. However, in the present study, due to increasing the cracks in walls with openings, improvement by steel wire mesh technique is essential. Thus, rehabilitation of walls with additional external steel bars to steel wire mesh is essential to overcome the increasing forces in tension sides around openings. In addition, fixation the steel wire mesh and steel bars by cement mortar and fisher bolts should be done.

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An Effective Atlas-guided Brain image identification using X-rays[ ]


This paper explores using brain atlases for implicit identification of brain X-rays (BXRs). We developed a mechanism, which receives brain X-ray and build atlases. Developed system takes atlases as input and implicitly calculates the brain borders with formidable preciseness and capability. Apart from conventional atlas, we designed 2 two new atlases: (i) Implicitly calculated brain models by utilizing Magnetic resonance (MR) scans, and (ii) bi energy BXRs. We assess the designed system with each model on 34 BXRs from the BIRN Fmri and MRI dataset and another 34 BXRs from Alien Brain Atlas data set. We acquire an area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC), of about 96% for Alien Brain Atlas data set and 92% for BIRN Fmri and MRI datasets. Using the optimal operating point of the ROC curve, we acquired preciseness for segmentation of 87.91 ± 1.6% for alien Brain Atlas data set and 86.56 ± 2.9% for BIRN Fmri and MRI dataset. This procedure gives precise outcomes by using efficient procedures. The efficiency and reliability of designed procedure is also good.

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Financial Savviness among Women in IT Companies[ ]


The paper attempts to assess Financial Literacy of Women employed specifically for IT specific operations in IT firms. The questionnaire developed by The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has been employed for this purpose. The findings clearly indicate that the stereotypical views about women having low financial scores do not hold true, at least not in the case of young, urban, well – educated women employed and engaged in sophisticated IT jobs and earning high salaries! Such women are tech and financially savvy.

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Security of Embedded Systems Using “ISO 27002” Standards[ ]


Embedded Systems are electronic products that contain one or more than one microprocessor and software either programmable or fixed in capability, designed to perform some dedicated function within a large entity. Embedded Systems are increasingly employed in critical sectors such as in Life Critical Systems, Financial Infrastructure, Information Systems, Transportation Systems, Consumer Products and Avionics etc. Their inadvertent and malicious failures can cause dreadful consequences. The situation has become more critical due to rapid change in functional requirements of Embedded Systems particularly in terms of communication and interconnection.

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The Effect of Refinery Effluent on the Plankton and Benthic Composition of Okrika River[ ]


Background: It is evident that Ekerekana Creek in Okrika Local Government Area of Rivers State serves as the reciepient water body (environment) where petroleum Refinery effluent / run off are discharged. A study was conducted on Ekerekana Creek and its adjourning rivers (Okochiri, Okari-Ama and Ogoloma Rivers) to determine the effect of refinery effluent on plankton and benthic composition and distribution of Okrika River.

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Magneto Hydro Dynamic Generation[ ]


Magneto hydrodynamics (MHD) Generator’s working principle based on Faraday law of induction. In MHD generator, salt water is passed through duct under the presence of strong magnetic field .As a result, voltage is induced and output can be extracted by placing the electrodes in suitable positions. The mathematical modeling of MHD processes has been done then experimental results obtained through prototype model verified with simulated results using MATLAB. The MHD generator prototype that is developed and discussed in this research paper is closed cycle. MHD close cycle has been used for less consumption of electrolyte and due to cost effectiveness. The voltage induce in this prototype is 2~3v that can be improved by scaling some parameters (magnetic field effect, velocity of fluid, selection of materials and solution) carefully.

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On various generations and different applications of Current Conveyors[ ]


Many of electronic systems uses active devices like operational amplifiers, operational Transconductance amplifier uses voltage mode of operations, which have their own advantages and disadvantages. Now a day, current mode of operation is playing a vital role as compared to voltage mode of operation. In this paper, a survey on various generations of the current conveyor is conducted. It has been observed that second generation current conveyor is the most widely used one. The mathematical analysis of the second generation current conveyor is performed. Some of the applications of the current conveyor are explained with illustrations. It has been observed that using second generation current conveyors low power applications can be designed. The simulations are carried out using MULTISIM.

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A Study of Two-Phase Air-Water Flow in Horizontal and Inclined Pipelines[ ]


In this paper, we experimentally investigate two-phase air-water flow in horizontal pipeline with internal diameter (ID) of 0.0254 m. Inclination effects on the two-phase flow are investigated by means of a 30° upward inclined pipe with the same ID. Multiphase Simulation of the experimental test matrix in OLGA using the OLGAS point model is also conducted. Results obtained from experimental campaign shows a good agreement between the new OLGAS Point Model and experiments thus validating that the model is good and thereby eliminates the necessity of setting up Multiphase Dynamic simulation in OLGA for short, straight pipes with steady state flow (hence saving money and computational time).

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TEACHERS AND TEACHING[ ]


School's primary mission is equipping and preparing generations of young people with skills and values by creating anmotivating environment inclusive for all students, which is carried out by the services provided by schools, but primarily by teachers whos attitudes and actions strongly influence the education of students. The teacher has the duty and responsibility to provide education and equal opportunities for every student, regardless of economic level, family background or cultural level.This requires a better preparation of teachers in the programs of teaching, which often used the fact of preparing them with the necessary scientific and methodical skills subject to the matter and not enough on creating autonomous professionals and independents able to reflect on their knowledge asprofessional employee withtheir class, to work efficiently in a reality for better days and changes in the school system.

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