Volume 13, Issue 2, February 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

Publication for Volume 13, Issue 2, February 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

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Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials have been used in the field of civil engineering constructions especially in corrosive environment. They can be used as internal reinforcement for beams, slabs, and pavements, or as external reinforcement for rehabilitation and strengthening different structures. One of their innovative applications is the concrete-filled FRP tubes (CFFTs) which are becoming an alternative for different structural members such as piles, columns, bridge girders, and bridge piers due to their high performance, durability and resistance to corrosion. In such integrated systems, the FRP tubes act as stay-in-place forms, protective jackets for the embedded concrete and steel, and as external reinforcement in the primary and secondary direction of the structural member . This study investigates the flexural behaviour of square filament-wound FRP tubes filled with concrete, without any steel bars. The FRP tubes were fabricated by filament winding process and hand lay-up technique. Several test variables were chosen to investigate the effect of the fiber laminates structure, and the different ratios of axial-and-transverse fiber on the flexural behaviour of such CFFT beams. The beams were tested under four-point loading system. The results of the tested CFFT beams indicate significant gain in strength, stiffness, cracking moment and energy absorption with increasing the axial fiber percentage and by increasing the thickness of the FRP tube.


The main disposal method for municipal solid waste in Nigeria is open dumps. Generators of waste either burn their waste or dispose the waste in the nearest open land, road sides, or drains. This has been found to not only be unsustainable but leads to environmental, health, and aesthetic damage, as well as depletion of natural and economic resources. Systematic study was conducted in University of Benin, Ugbowo campus for quantification, determination of composition, study of existing solid waste management practices and biogas potential from solid wastes. The total waste generated over a month period is about 10,144.4kg. Based on this, the per capital waste generation rate is 0.33Kg/cap/day. 10.244tonnes of organic fraction of municipal solid waste is generated in University of Benin daily. This will result in an expected 968.30m3 of biogas to be generated in total from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste of the University of Benin, Ugbowo metropolis per day. Considering the characteristics of waste generated in the University of Benin, Ugbowo campus, a systematic blend of management options in the waste management with biogas technology consideration as the best biowaste treatment method would be more suitable than the unsustainable collection and final dumping system that is presently been practiced. Besides the biogas and generated renewable energy, the digestate can serve ad biofertilizer which can be used to cultivate crops.


Storing data in a third party’s cloud system causes serious concern on data confidentiality. In order to provide strong confidentiality for messages in storage servers, a user can encrypt messages by a cryptographic method before applying an code method to encode and store messages. The threshold proxy re encryption scheme supports forwarding, and perfect decryption operations in a distributed way. The user forward his data in the storage servers to another user without retrieving the data back. The proxy re-encryption scheme supports encrypted messages as well as forwarding operations over encoded messages. This method fully integrates encrypting and forwarding. The tight integration of encryption, and forwarding makes the storage system efficiently meet the requirements of data robustness, data confidentiality, and data forwarding. Accomplishing the integration with consideration of a distributed structure is challenging. This system meets the requirements that storage servers independently perform re-encryption and key servers independently perform perfect decryption. This setting allows more flexible adjustment between the number of storage servers and robustness. By using the cryptographic scheme data confidentiality of the user’s information is achieved. It also allows various operations over the encrypted data. In future revocation can be performed by making the entire application web based.

Speed control of BLDC motor drive using LUO converter []

This project is especially used to Speed control the BLDC motor by Luo converter. The LUO converter is employed to boost (step-up) the input dc voltage. The Luo converter output voltage is directly proportional to the converter’s duty cycle. The BLDC motor has high efficiency, high reliability, high torque, low radio frequency, and less maintenance.

Analysis of Training Optimization Algorithms in the NARX Neural Network for Classification of Heart Sound Signals. []

A trained neural network classifier is commonly used to predict cardiac abnormalities by the classification of heart sound signals, also known as phonocardiogram (PCG) signals. On the other hand, the best training optimization algorithm for this variety of classification problem is nevertheless up for discussion. In this study, we explore the use of the Nonlinear auto-regressive networks with exogenous inputs (NARX) network for the classification of many different features extracted from labelled PCG signals. The classification performance of the trained NARX model is explained in terms of three separate optimization algorithms that are used to train the classifier. The specified results on testing PCG signals confirm that the NARX classifier is better when trained with the Bayesian regularization (BR) algorithm than when trained with the Leven-berg-Marquardt (LM)or Scaled Conjugate Gradient (SCG)optimization algorithm. significantly, this classification model performs outperforms a standard approach.

compliant mechanisms- an overview []

Compliant mechanisms provide specific benefits for usage that can address many of the problems with rigid mechanisms now in use. This paper gives a theoretical brief about compliant mechanisms and the vast concepts involved for scholars that need to grasp the concept before moving forth to mathematical modelling and analysis, and also help propel awareness and research on this engineering concept. This article examined the forms of optimizations and syntheses, as well as the benefits and drawbacks of compliant mechanisms. Various parts describe and apply the notion of pseudo-rigid bodies and pseudo-rigid body modelling. The author provided a concise overview of current material selection and modelling approaches, systematic synthesis methods that have been classified over time, as well as the issue of component fatigue life and dynamic analysis in compliant mechanisms. Compliant system manufacturing is also a crucial part in the development of such a product which has been briefed.


Many trends have emerged as a result of globalisation in our daily lives, ranging from increased commodity and person flows to the expansion and diversification of financial deposits, from the development of communication, network knowledge, and relationship and increasing disparities. However, in some cases, globalisation has been limited to the type of business management and the meaning of sustainability. Now, while globalisation has numerous creative and dynamic features, overall outcomes remain well behind expectations and promises. Foreign direct investment (FDI) is essential to the development of globalisation. The FDI boom, on the other hand, has not become a worldwide phenomenon. Over 73 percent of global FDI inflows go to only ten nations, while almost 100 countries attract barely $100 million in FDI each year on average. It was preceded by very unequal distributions of gains and costs among nations, resulting in marginalisation in certain circumstances. Income concentration has grown during the last decade. People's, corporations', and governments' resources and wealth. Globalization has put pressure on and squeezed non-market activities that are critical to human growth. It has also impacted labour care, which is the unseen heart of human development. The next is chronic environmental deterioration, which is today's quiet crises and is endangering the entire planet. The globalisation team, which means that industries are using the environment as a punching bag, is taking a harsh stance. They are persuading everyone about the possibilities of a liberalised economy, assuming unjustified authority over exotic island rainforests, and so on. Water and sanitation, energy, agricultural production, biodiversity, and human development are the five primary areas of attention for the world summit on sustainability. Many aspects of this are covered by something or other, but the last factor that is frequently overlooked is human growth, since we are sustaining for ourselves and for the future, and globalisation also occurs for the betterment of humans. This article will mostly examine how globalisation affects long-term development.


KNOWLEDGE BASED ON ANTIDEPRESSIVE DRUGS USE S.Bilalli 1 N.Nuhii 2 ,D.Selmani 2 ,Sahmedin Salii 2 Jehona Xheladini 2 1 Institute of Clinical Biochemistry, Skopje, North Macedonia 2 Faculty of Medical Science, University of Tetova, North Macedonia • Antidepressants are drugs used to treat major depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, chronic pain and help manage some addictions. [1]The use of antidepressants is increasing over the years. Antidepressants usually are used on doctor's recommendation to relieve the symptoms of various conditions emotional and mental to maintain health and well-being or to promote and improving emotional and mental health. Given the fact that use and misuse of antidepressants is not studied as well, aroused interest to accumulate data on their use and misuse, as important preparations for the best possible functioning of mental health. The purpose of this study is to analyze the use of antidepressants with or without a recommendation to the doctor and awareness about the use of antidepressants among the respondents in Tetovo and surroundings. A total of 223 patients of both sexes aged 25-65 years were surveyed. 75% of respondents have used antidepressant on doctor's recommendation, where most of the users of antidepressants were female, while 25% used antidepressants without the recommendation of doctor according to which awareness should be raised that their use is based on the recommendations of a doctor. Most have used benzodiazepines without a doctor's recommendation though benzodiazepines are most commonly prescribed to treat disorders of anxiety, insomnia, seizures and as a sedative before surgery. 63% are aware of the side effects while 37% do not. A small number of plant products have been used in these condtions due to the difficulty of finding and scant knowledge of them. To avoid misuse of antidepressants we recommend not to use without the specialist's recommendation and adhere to his instructions should also be raised awareness of the side effects of antidepressants and strictly prohibit their administration through the pharmacy without a perscription. • Keywords: Andidepressants, Herbal products, Benzodiazepines, Mental conditions.


The motivation behind this research was to learn more regarding the properties of soil strengthened with marble dust and cornsilk fiber, which are industrial waste products and corn products, respectively. The use of these waste materials reduces pollution and human reliance on natural resources, resulting in a more sustainable construction approach.The consequences of cornsilk and marble dust fiber on soil strength prospect for silty clay soil are investigated in this study. Cornsilk was mixed with soil at various rates in this study, including.4 %,.8 %, 1.2 %, and 1.8 %. Furthermore, the length of 40mm long fiber was used in the study. After that, the marble dust was blended in various amounts with the best soil fibre mix, including 5%, 15%, 25%, and 35%. The investigation of an influence of marble dust and cornsilk fiber on Atterbers limits, C.B.R., U.C.S., O.M.C., and D.D. was done. Adding marble dust and cornsilk fiber improved the U.C.S. and C.B.R. As per experimental results, the ideal value of C.B.R. and U.C.S. was at 25 % marble dust, 74.6 % soil and 0.4 % cornsilk fiber

Implications of the Brexit on Global Procurement Strategy []

Chaos is not a pit, chaos is a ladder. At least that is how an optimist sees it. United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union, which is commonly referred to as Brexit, has certainly thrown a chaotic challenge amongst most of the business streams in the EU and across the globe. It certainly did impact the Global Procurement chains and their strategies. To discuss the disruptions caused by the implementation of Brexit, we need to understand how the United Kingdom market operated when it was part of the European Union’s free/single market and how does the public and private sector’s procurement chains predicted and prepared for the impact of Brexit on their respective businesses and what is the current scenario after Brexit rolls out. The academic work on this topic is very limited as Brexit is something that happened not so long ago, most of the academic work is limited to public procurement and its policies, but a lot of researched insights were made available by various renowned mass communication media organizations through documentaries and online articles. This review was focused on the Public Procurement function in major and explored the research and analysis available on the private manufacturing and service sector’s procurement operations. Even though the below review was done to discuss the available literature on the impact caused by Brexit, since the Covid-19 pandemic and Brexit has hit the UK, EU and global economies at the same time, the statistical data to analyse the actual impact caused by Brexit alone on supply chains is highly difficult.

Determining the root causes of poor ratings from patients and users in the Emergency Departments (EDs) of the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) and Leavy Mwanawasa Hospital (LMH) in Zambia. []

The purpose of this study is to determine the root causes of poor ratings from patients and users in the Emergency Departments (EDs) of the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) and Leavy Mwanawasa Hospital (LMH) in Zambia. It has been evidenced that the EDs of UTH and LMH have continued having several long- standing problems regarding; overcrowding, extended length of stay, prolongs waiting time, excessive patient flow time, and patients who leave without being treated. The study wishes to discuss and propose suitable methodologies to fight these problems. This study will be guided by the following objectives: Identify the potential root causes of the long-standing problems in the ED at UTH and LMH. Analyze the findings by using a fishbone Diagram and Six sigma DMAIC measurement tool regarding overcrowding in the EDs of UTH and LMH Prepare a new process flowchart for the ED Discuss the importance of clinical governance implementation in the ED Definition of the long-standing problems of the UTH and LMH


This paper presents an experimental study of an Alternative methods of mechanical bonding between FRP tube jacket with Concrete surface on concrete filled rectangular FRP tube beams under flexural behavior by the way of fasting steel anchors and screws. Eleven beam specimens, 2000 mm long, were tested under a four-point bending load, All the beams were cast with the same concrete patch with different cross sections. Three Control specimens with out any bond strengthening and Eight beam specimens bonded with different methods of mechanical bonding strengthened using Anchors and Screws with Various anchors spacing and distributions. All The CFFT-beams that strengthening in bonding using anchors and screws, show greater flexural resistance than the CFFT-beams without any bond strengthening, while the CFFT-beams that strengthening in bonding using anchors, show greater stiffness than the CFFT-beams that contain screws.

Elevating urban quality through Urban Legibility (case study of Al Zamalek neighbourhood) []

Abstract— the quality of urban life is one of the least considered aspects of urban developments in our local urban communities. Although the urban environment is supposed to be the reflection of the lives of its users. Their culture and history, their needs, dreams and desires. In our local Egyptian communities, there has been great loss of the expression of our character and identity within the waves of blind modern urbanism of the current built environments, or the new developments following western fashion trends of architecture.An urban environment that is easy to be realized and perceived is called a legible environment. Legibility is one of the most important factors for urban quality of life. A legible environment does not only mean the ability to read its spaces, but also means the organization of its urban elements with a certain visual imagery or a coherent pattern. It is a process that requires knowledge of both the physical spatial qualities and distinctive visual traits that creates a specific feeling or a mental image. This research paper discusses the elements of urban legibility in both physical aspects of study and their effect on urban quality of life. Then it analyzes a case study of Zamalek district to detect the effect of those elements over the quality of urban life.


Declarations of the European Union envisage diplomatic resolution of the Israeli – Palestinian conflict. The diplomatic resolution includes the use of diplomatic and economic tools, compliance with international law, as well as considering the rights for self determination of Jews and Palestinians. Despite the fact that conducting negotiations of the Palestine and Israeli government officials with the EU is one of the ultimate ways of achieving piece in the region, the analysis, conducted in this research paper shows the significant gap between the declared political role of the European Union and its actual one. In other words, concentrating on the legal framework of the Israeli – Palestinian conflict, rather than on the international law and human rights seriously undermines the realization of the diplomatic peace with the EU mediation in the region. Keywords: European Union; Israel; Palestine; conflict; Constructivism


The goal of this study was to examine the impact of capital, raw materials, technology, and labor on the output value of micro-enterprises in Magetan Regency. The population in this study consisted of 32 micro-enterprises in Magetan Regency that were chosen based on specific criteria. Documentation is used in data collecting strategies. The data analysis approach employs multiple linear regression analysis, regression coefficient analysis, determination analysis, and hypothesis testing (t test and F test). The study found that (1) capital has a positive and significant effect on the production value of micro-enterprises in Magetan Regency; (2) raw materials have a positive and significant effect on the production value of micro-enterprises in Magetan Regency; (3) technology has no positive and significant effect on the production value of micro-enterprises in Magetan Regency; and (4) labor has a positive and significant effect on the production value of micro-enterprises in Magetan Regency

FPA Findings for Flutter against the existing Development Frameworks []

Rise of web/mobile applications running different operating systems, the problem arises to cater to their needs. The need of cross-platform development comes into play. These platforms ease the complexity for the developer by allowing them to write a single code that would work on multiple OS. However, cross-platform development comes at a cost of trading native speed and accuracy for portability. Nevertheless, Flutter is an open-source Software Development Kit (SDK) that combines high performance and reliability for Android, iOS and now with the advent of Flutter 2.0 Web Applications into one package. Cost/ budget effectiveness can calculated for the differentiation with Effort calculation, productivity index measurements by weighting factors in PL size depending upon Functional Point Analysis technique.

The Role of Exchange Rate on Export, Import and Trade Balance: Empirical Evidence []

The major findings of this article are: (i) Effect of exchange rate on export, import and trade balance. Other significant factors that influence trade balance such as domestic income expresses a long run negative relationship between trade balances, and foreign income indicates a long run positive relationship (ii) the real exchange rate is a significant factor to the trade balance, and devaluation will enhance trade balance in the long run. Globalization has influenced the connection between the trade balance and the real exchange rate in two processes. On the one hand, the extension of trade taking place within industries assembles the balance of trade more reactive to real exchange rate development. On the other hand, a higher degree of upright specialization and more international supply chains act to minimize this responsiveness. According to the projection granted in this article, changes in the real exchange rate could play a substantial part on trade balance in the case of Chile, New Zealand and Argentina. This confirms that real exchange rate amendment is only part of the solution for worldwide rebalancing, and requires to be attended by other policy actions.


Abstract No progress was achieved by a country without considering the active participation of its women in the economic and social sectors. Microfinance was an imperative device used by microfinance institutions (MFIs) to reduce poverty through the promotion of women’s livelihood. The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of Islamic microfinance on the socioeconomic status of poor women. In a cross-sectional survey; primary data was collected from 175 women with SMEs from Burao district, Somaliland. Decision making; education for children, women’s access to social media, and economic were four dimensions measured relating to socio-economic status of women. Found microfinance had a significant positive impact throughout thirteen indicators of the socio-economic status of women. P (0.000). The performance of the small-medium enterprise (SMEs) as mediating factor between Islamic microfinance and the socioeconomic of women. Further studies on clients’ attitudes on micro-financing as well as the behavior of MFIs were recommended.

Rate of adoption and Factors influencing the rate of conservation agriculture adoption in the Bawku Municipality, Ghana. []

Conservation agriculture (CA) serves as an alternative to conventional farming practice. This study seeks to investigate the factors influencing the rate of conservation agriculture adoption. The study was conducted in the Bawku Municipality of the Upper East Region of Ghana. Data was gathered through a cross-sectional farmer household field survey, using a structured questionnaire. Out of the 20 variables estimated, 11 of them were statistically significant and 9 insignificant. Conclusion: The factors that influence the rate of CA adoption in the Bawku Municipality are grouped into socio-economic, farm biophysical factors, institutional and exogenous factors. The research Recommend that, in planning for the farmer to adopt CA, farmers, NGOs, governments and all relevant stakeholders should make relevant use of the above categorisation of the factors to increase the rate of adoption KEYWORDS: conservation agriculture, alternative production, food productivity. Rate of adoption.

Federal Debt & US National Interest,How US Government can reduce its debt and increase its revenue []

Hello , Enclosed pls find my research work on US Debt, Why it is increasing and how it can be reduced . I did Masters in Accounting from CA USA.

Experimental and Parametric Research on the Behavior of CFS-Zee Section Under Monotonic Axial Load []

Currently, the cold-formed Steel sections (CFS) are increasingly used in light and mid-height buildings. So, this research examined the axial compression mechanical behavior of CFS thin-walled Zee-shaped section under pure axial monotonic loading. This study conducted full-scale tests on three specimens to investigate the three main modes of failure: local buckling, distortion buckling, and global buckling modes. The Specimens were selected CFS Zee sections with 600mm, 1000mm, and 2500mm. The imperfection of the CFS sections was captured by the 3D scanning before testing and implementing in the FE models. Then, the pure axial load was applied monotonic. The failure modes and axial capacity are discussed in detail. In addition, this research investigated the axial load-displacement responses and the axial load capacity. The energy dissipation with strength degradation was thoroughly investigated. A Finite Element Model FEM was conducted and verified by the experimental results. Finally, the FE analysis was extended to study the behavior of the Zee-section with a different range of dimensions to predict the optimized section under axial monotonic load

Determinants of labor wage: A study on cement manufacturing industries in Bangladesh []

Manufacturing industries are playing a pivotal role in the labor market of Bangladesh. Among all other manufacturing industries, the cement manufacturing industries are the rapidly growing industries in Bangladesh. This study inspects the determinants of labor wage of cement manufacturing industries in Bangladesh using the model of econometric program SPSS (20.0). The variables are knowledge of information technology, education, job experience, and age. The regression results show a significant impact in all variables. The main findings of this study are education, age, and job experience positively invigorate labor wage, and knowledge of information technology has a negative impact on labor wage.

bedwettingamong school children in Sokoto state,Nigeria: A psychological Approach []

Abstract The issue of bedwetting also referred to as nocturnal enuresis is an under-researched area in Sokoto state, Nigeria. Many children and mothers are faced with stigma and worries about the bedwetting condition. It is not considered to be a serious health issue but it has some adverse consequences. This survey research method used 200 mothers of children who bed wet. They were sampled using the snowball method of sampling. Four research questions were raised and simple descriptive statistics was used for item analysis of data collected using a questionnaire. The psychometric property of the questionnaire used was obtained through the content, face, and construct validity by experts in the field. The reliability test yielded an index 0.76. The result shows that some of the misconceptions held about bedwetting is that it is caused by laziness of mothers to wake children, stubbornness on part of children, spirits and improper parenting. The study revealed associated stigmatizations and use of punitive measures on children that bet-wet. Some parents do not consider bedwetting as a medical problem until it exceeds six years and above. The study recommends the use of proper management therapies, positive reinforcement, physical and psychological support to bed wet children and their mothers. Sensitization and enlightenment should be used to address issues of stigmatization, punishment and negative attitudes to children who bed wet. The need for psychological and medical intervention is also suggested.

Impact Of Work Load On Nursing Patient Interaction In Tertiary Care Hospital Punjab []

This study was done to assess the nursing knowing among nurse-patient workload by stratified random sampling. A total of 100 samples was selected and given the self-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. The data was collected and analyzed by using percentages and frequency. It is found that there is positive communication among Nurse- Patient. There is no significant (p<0.005) relationship between communication with age, sex, and education. But there is a significant relationship of quality of communication with the number of times patient was admitted in tertiary care Hospital

Gene Expression Infection Detection, Analyzation and Prediction System []

DNA Microarray is a laboratory tool that utilizes florescence to quantify Gene Expression after hybridization and/or genetic manipulation. Strands of DNA with known nucleotides are used to check the level of expression of certain genes and their efficacy. The following system takes input data from a Dataset of DNA Microarray samples and performs a multi-layered analysis using Image Manipulation, Computer Vision, Exploratory Data Analysis, Machine Learning and Color Space Manipulation to produce the Ratio of Expression of certain Genes in a given sample, an analysis of Gene Expression in a given Sample Space / Dataset as well as predicts the Ratio of Gene Expression in a larger sample space. This has many industry applications in the field of scientific computation, medicine and agriculture.


Queuing theory is a major topic of applied mathematics that deals with phenomenon of waiting and arises from the use of powerful mathematical analysis to describe production processes. This study examines the use of production capacity of facilities in Fujitsu Components (M) Sdn. Bhd. based on queuing theory. The aim of this study is to achieve an appropriate queuing analytical model and determine its performance measures by analyzing the capacity requirements and estimating manufacturing cycle times. Field study has been conducted in several production departments in Fujitsu Components (M) and production data has been collected through self-timing, past collected data and recorded data approach. The production processes has been simplified into seven independent series of stations, which are Stamping, Riveting, Cutting, Bending, Packing and two Inspection stations. The capacity requirement has been determined by utilization factor where the benchmark equal to one. This study then represents the data in form of queuing analytical model to analyze the performance measures. The queuing analytical model later identified that all stations having enough capacity (uj <1) to achieved the production planned with slightly higher utilization occur in stamping and riveting stations. Several suggestions have been discussed in order to improve the performance measures. Results for this study clearly show that queuing theory is very useful and practical in evaluating the capacity requirement of the production system facilities.

Role of Science, Technology and Innovation Policy in Transforming National STI Ecosystem: Indian STIP Study []

Science, technology and innovation (STI) are the key factors driving socio-economic progress worldwide. The emergence of a pandemic has forced the countries to reorient their STI frameworks to successfully push around the effects of COVID19. India, through its STI Policy initiative has made an effort to reinvigorate the STI ecosystem and make it technologically self-reliant. The STIP draft has brought out principles catering to various themes and domains such as ‘Open Science, Capacity Building, Financing STI, Research, Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Technology Development and Indigenisation, Equity and Inclusion, Science Communication and Public Engagement, International S&T Engagement, STI Governance and STI Policy Governance’ that fall under the STI umbrella. The Draft includes individual chapters that provide aspirational inputs for strengthening each theme to achieving technological growth in tandem with national needs. The present article discusses the strengths and lacunas of the STIP draft along with articulating the additional policy recommendations and implementation points.

Bottlenecks of Quality Early Warning information management and Integration of Indigenous Knowledge []

Quality early information management guide informed decision of disaster preparedness and prevention, but often early warning information’s receiving from community are inconsistence, incomplete and not timely, even disparities among sectors office information observed. Thus, it has been concerning to use that information since sometimes not fairly represent real situation of area. Further hardly integrated with abundance of indigenous knowledge that community have been using and Borena community globally known for it. Hence disaster preparedness and prevention forum organized to unlock key bottleneck and take corrective action to improve subsequent disaster preparedness and prevention work. Hence major bottle neck identified were information aren’t timely, incomplete and inconsistent, weak leadership buy-in, less resource and shortage of skill labor, weak coordinator between development sector, lack of good system to analysis and interpret and use information and weak integration with indigenous early warning system. 32 participants which consists of Early Warning Experts, development sector representative and indigenous knowledge Leader attend the for forum for three days

Mapping the stratification of vegetation classes in the Miombo forests and assessing the accuracy of their classification in Katanga province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo []

The mapping of the stratification of vegetation classes in the Miombo forests was carried out with the aim of assessing the land-use dynamics of these ecosystems in the Upper Katanga Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), which are facing one of the strong anthropogenic pressures due to slash-and-burn agriculture, galloping exploitation of fuelwood (carbonization), late bush fires, artisanal exploitation of minerals and, to a large extent, demographic pressure. Landsat 8 images from June 2018 were processed and analyzed in this study. To ensure the quality of the accuracy of the vegetation class classification, 516 points from random and stratified sampling were generated using the Random tool in ArcGIS. In addition, high-resolution Google Earth images and data collected in the field were used as a reference (ground truth) during the analyses on the validation of the stratified vegetation class map of the Miombo forests. By comparing the reference data (Ground Truth) and the spatial map resulting from the classification, it was possible to make a statistical validation of the produced map. The analysis on the assessment of the accuracy of the different strata of the Miombo forest vegetation classes was performed using the Kappa index (Goshen coefficient) calculated from a confusion matrix. As shown in the Confusion Matrix Table (see Table 8), of the 519 control points, 343 points were correctly classified. This gives a mapping accuracy of 70% (343/516) and a Kappa coefficient of 0.58. However, it should be noted that there are some difficulties in discriminating certain classes, such as between degraded and non-degraded open forest and savannah and anthropogenic areas. Overall, with reference to Cohen's (1960) [2] table on the Kappa index, the results of the mapping of Miombo forest strata in Haut-Katanga Province can be considered consistent (good). The mapping of the stratification of plant classes in the Miombo forests revealed three (3) main strata: (1) Non-degraded open forest (primary forest), (2) Degraded clear forest (Secondary forest) and (3) Savannah zones (which include shrubby savannah, grassy savannah, savannah forests and agricultural zones) and Other land use classes: Water and entropized area.

Effects of Cost Recovery Limit on Nigerian Production Sharing Contract under the Proposed 2018 PIFB []

After identifying that the proposed Petroleum Industry Fiscal Bill (PIFB 2018) does not explicitly state a particular Cost Recovery Limit (CRL) which gives rise to speculations and uncertainty on the path of the contractor when dealing with Nigerian Production Sharing Contracts (PSCs), this research observed the impact of varying CRL on the profitability of PSCs and determined an optimal value that is beneficial to both the contractor and the host government. It achieved this by developing a cash flow model that complied with the provisions of PIFB 2018 while initially using a CRL of 80%, ran a Monte Carlo Simulation to account for uncertainties, a Sensitivity Analysis to observe the impact of the varied CRL on the PSC, and a CRL Optimization, using the Crystal Ball Software. Results from the sensitivity analysis showed the regressive effect of CRL on the contractor’s Net Present Value: the higher the CRL value, the lower the NPV. The study also discovered that a CRL value of 66% not only maximizes the NPV of the contractor at a 50% certainty but also maximizes the government and contactor’s take to up to 83.9% and 15.7%, respectively.

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