Settlement Analysis of Single Granular Pile with Stiffened Top [ ]

As per the various theoretical and experimental investigations, an axial load applied at the top of long granular pile is limited by bulging within a depth of 2 to 3 diameters from the top. The radial displacements of granular pile (GP) are prevented by the confining stresses generated by the surrounding soil. The capacity and thus the overall response of GP can be enhanced by restraining or strengthening the top 2 to 3 diameter length of the granular material where the lateral confining stresses are the least. The response of single GP with consideration of radial and vertical displacements compatibility along its interface is obtained with the provision of stiffer upper part of GP vulnerable to bulging based on elastic continuum approach. The overall responses of a single GP with stiffened top in terms of settlement influence factors namely for top and tip settlement influence factors and radial displacement influence factor are evaluated in the present paper.