International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 2, Issue 9, September-2011 1

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Privacy Anxiety and Challenges in Mobile Ad Hoc

Wireless Networks and its Solution

Krishan Kant Lavania, G. L. Saini, Kothari Rooshabh H., Yagnik Harshraj A.

AbstractMobile Ad hoc networks are recent wireless networking model for cellular phone hosts. Ad hoc networks do not rely on any stable infrastructure because they are independent. As an alternative, to remain network connected hosts rely on each other. It signifies complex distributed systems that encompass wireless mobile nodes. These nodes can freely and dynamically self -organize into uninformed and provisional, ‘‘ad-hoc’’ network topologies. This topology allows citizens to effortlessly interconnect in areas where no pre- existing communication infrastructure. In this paper, we talk about security issues, challenges and their solutions in the mobile ad hoc network. There are numerous security threats that disturb the development of mobile ad hoc network because of the exposed nature of the mobile ad hoc network. We have first studied the prime vulnerabilities in the mobile ad hoc networks, which have made our work much easier to endure from attacks than the usual wired network. The security criteria of the mobile ad hoc network and the main attack types that exist are explained in this paper. As a final point we analyzed the recent security solutions for the mobile ad hoc network [1].

Index TermsMinimum 7 keywords are mandatory, Keywords should closely reflect the topic and should optimally characterize the paper. Use about four key words or phrases in alphabetical order, separated by commas.

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An ad hoc network is a set of wireless mobile nodes that forms a momentary network with no central organization. In this situation, it may be essential for one mobile node to enroll other hosts for forwarding a packet from source node to its destination node due to the restricted transmission range of wireless network interfaces. Each mobile node op- erates as a router for forwarding packets for many other mobile nodes in the network that may not have direct communication range of each other. To discover multihop paths through network each node participates with other node in an ad hoc routing protocol. This proposal of Mobile ad hoc network is also called infrastructure less networking [2].

Ad hoc networks have a unique set of challenges and prob- lems, although mobile ad hoc networks have numerous ad- vantages over the traditional wired networks. For example the supply constraints on nodes in ad hoc networks bound the cryptographic procedures that are used for secure mes- sages. That’s why it is legally responsible to fix attacks rang- ing from passive masquerade to active masquerade. Second-
ly, mobile nodes with no enough protection are easy to con- ciliation. An attacker can listen, modify and attempt to cover- up all the traffic on the wireless communication channel as one of the valid node in the network. Thirdly, in provisions of security solution and for the vigorously changing topolo- gy static configuration is not sufficient. In conclusion, defi- ciency of cooperation and guarded ability is common in wireless MANET. In universal, due to its fundamental uni- queness of the wireless MANET, it is vulnerable.

A MANET Example

Fig. Shows MANET Example


A mobile ad hoc network is a set of wireless nodes that can dynamically be set up at everyplace and anytime without using any pre-existing network infrastructure. It is an self- sufficient system in which mobile hosts connected by wire- less links. They are free to move randomly and often oper- ate as routers at the same time. The traffic types in ad hoc

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networks are relatively different from an infrastructure wireless network, including [3]:
(1) Peer-to-Peer
(2) Remote-to-Remote
(3) Dynamic Traffic
1) Peer-to-Peer- It means communication that is between two nodes in network which are within one hop. Network traffic is usually steady.
2) Remote-to-Remote-It means communication that is be-
tween two nodes away from a single hop but which retain a secure route between them. The traffic is related to stan- dard network traffic.
3) Dynamic Traffic- Dynamic traffic usually occurs when
nodes are dynamic and moving around. Their routes must
be reconstructed. This results in a poor connectivity.


There are two types of security attacks:-
(a)Basic security attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Wireless Net- works
(b)Various other types of possible security attacks in Mobile
Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

[a] Basic security attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Wireless


They are classified into two types:
– Passive

A mean node pay no attention to necessary operations that are supposed to be Accom- plished by it (For e.g.: partial routing infor- mation hiding), or attempting to Retrieve im- portant and secure information.

– Active

Important Information is routed

through direct or indirect channel to the network in a active attack, and thus the nodes and some operation of network may be Harmed. For E.g.: spoofing, modifica tion and fabrication.

(a) Infrastructure-based wireless network

Features of MANETs

1) With minimum infrastructure support
2) Multi-hop
3) Self-organizing
4) Self-managing
5) All of the nodes in network are mobile
6) Varied network topology
7) Wireless network
8) Node is a host
9) Node is a router
10) Power restriction
11) Balance Variant
12) Heterogeneous network

3 Security Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Wireless

[b] Other Types of Possible security attacks in

Mobile Ad Hoc Wireless Networks


Nodes may be able to send false routing informa

- tion to other node.

Masquerading is also possible as some other

trusted node.

Here a mean node uses the routing protocol to pro mote itself as having the shortest path to the node whose packets node wants to intercept this attack is known as ―The Black Hole attack‖[4].

Denial of Service (DoS)

The intruder attempts to utilize batteries of other nodes by requesting routes.

The intruder also keeps busy other nodes by for

warding unnecessary packets.

Handling misbehaviors

Nodes that are selfish results in Routing-forwarding mis- behaviors.

Due to the malicious or selfish node network functioning is damaged.

A selfish node misbehaves because this node

wants to save battery life for their own com-
munication. This can be done by not executing the packet forwarding or simply not partici- pating in the routing protocol.

To contradict misbehavior of selfish node, co-

operation can be enforced.

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By reputation mechanism and watchdog we can detect selfish nodes misbehavior.

Neighborhood monitoring is a technique by which watchdog identifies misbehaving selfish nodes.

Based on the information collected by the

watchdog, the reputation system maintains a
value for each node that represents the node’s

The reputation mechanism allows nodes to se-

gregate misbehaving nodes by not serving their requests.

A different approach of countering misbeha- vior is to encourage nodes to collaborate and stay away from selfish behavior through an in- centive system.

Routing Attacks

Generating fake Route Error to interrupt a func- tioning route.

To spoof route message impersonating another node.

To misrepresent the topology marketing a forged route metric.

To Deceive others it Suppress Route Error.

To suppress other justifiable route messages it Send a route message with wrong sequence num- ber.

Flooding Route ascertain terribly as a Denial of

Service attack.

To introduce a false route it modifying a Route Re-

ply message.

4 MANET Challenges

The characteristics of MANET bring in various challenges that must be considered
With awareness before a broad commercial deployment can be expected. These consist of [5]:

a) Internetworking. Harmonious mobility management is a challenge in mobile device due to coexistence of routing protocols.

b) Security and Reliability. An ad hoc network has its par- ticular security problems due to e.g. nasty neighbor relay- ing packets in spite of accumulation to the frequent vulne- rabilities of wireless connection. Additionally wireless link features commence also reliability problems, because of the restricted wireless transmission range, data transmission errors, the broadcast nature of the wireless medium, and mobility-induced packet losses.

c) Quality of Service (QoS). It will be a challenge on pro- viding various qualities of service levels in a persistently varying environment. It makes complicated to propose

fixed guarantees on the services offered to a device due to intrinsic stochastic feature of communications quality in a MANET.

d) Routing. The concern of routing packets between any pair of nodes becomes a challenging task since the topology of the network is frequently changing. Due to the random movement of nodes within the network the multicast tree is no longer static so multicast routing is another challenge. Routing is becoming more complex and challenging be- cause routes between nodes may potentially contain mul- tiple hops, than the single hop communication.

e) Power Consumption. Power-aware routing and Main- tenance of power must be taken into consideration. For lean power consumption the communication-related functions should be optimized for most of the light-weight mobile terminals [6].

5 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Security Solu- tions

The mobile ad hoc networks become insecure due to vari- ous vulnerabilities. As a result, we require discovering var- ious security solutions to the mobile ad hoc network. We analyzed some security schemes that can be helpful to pro- tect the mobile ad hoc network from nasty behaviors.

Security Criteria

Before we analyzed the solutions that can assist secure the mobile ad hoc network, we have to find out on basis of which criteria we can judge that a mobile ad hoc network is secure or not. Further when we want to examine the secu- rity state of the mobile ad hoc network what should be en- closed in the security criteria for the mobile ad hoc net- work. So to evaluate the mobile ad hoc network is secure we commence in a few words the widely-used criteria.

1. Authenticity

To guarantee that participants in communication are ge- nuine and not impersonators Authenticity has actual effect. To guarantee authencity it is necessary for the communica- tion participants to verify their identities as what they have claimed using some techniques. The opponent could mas- querade as a gentle node and thus get right to use to confi- dential resources, or even disseminate some fake messages to disturb the normal network operations if there is not such an authentication mechanism.

2. Confidentiality

Confidentiality is that certain information or data is only accessible to those who is authorized to access it. To main- tain some confidentiality we need to keep information se- cret from all entities that do not have the privilege to access them.

3. Integrity

Integrity guarantees the identity of the messages when they

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are transmitted between sender and receiver. Integrity can be compromised mainly in two ways:
a) Malicious altering:- A message can be replayed, modified or removed by an intruder with mali- cious goal, which is regarded as malicious altering.
b) Accidental altering:- if the message or data is va- nished or its content is altered due to some gentle failures, which may be transmission errors in communication, hardware errors such as hard disk failure, then it is called as accidental altering.

4. No repudiation

No repudiation ensures that the sender and the receiver of a message cannot deny that they have sent or received such a message. If a node recognizes that the message it has re- ceived is erroneous, it can then use the incorrect message as a proof to alert other nodes that the node sending the inap- propriate message should have been compromised [8].

5 Availability

The phrase Availability means that a node should sustain its ability to make available all the designed services and re- sources apart from the security status of it. Denial-of- service attacks mainly challenge the security criteria, where every nodes in the network can be the attack intention and thus some selfish and malicious nodes make some of the network resources and services occupied, for e.g.:- the key management service.

6. Authorization

Authorization is a method in which an individual is issued a official document, which specifies the permissions and privileges it has and cannot be fallacious, by the certificated authority. It is used to allocate special and various access rights to different level of users. For example, we need to make certain that function of network management should only accessible by the network administrator. Thus before the network administrator accesses the network manage- ment functions there should be an authorization process [9].

7. Anonymity

Anonymity means that each and every information that can be used to recognize the current user of the node should not be circulated by the node itself or the system software and hence kept private. This condition is intimately asso- ciated to privacy preserving, where we try to protect the nodes privacy from arbitrary exposé to any other entities.

8. Security Criteria: Summary

To guarantee the security of the mobile ad hoc network here we have discussed various core requirements that need to be achieved. Besides, there are a number of other security criteria that are application-oriented and much more specialized, they are Byzantine Robustness, location privacy, and self-stabilization, all of these are interrelated to the mobile ad hoc network routing protocol [11].


In this research paper, we try to look over the security re- lated issues in the mobile ad hoc networks, which may be a main interruption to the operation of it. The mobile ad hoc networks are much more prone to various and all kind of security risks, like Denial of service attack, intrusion, and information disclosure, these results due to the mobility and open media nature. As a result, the requirements of security needs in the mobile ad hoc networks are much higher than in the traditional wired networks. Here we in- itiate the various security solutions for the mobile ad hoc networks that should be kept in mind. Due to this security criteria and security techniques that can help to make the mobile ad hoc networks safer from internal security threats and external security threats.


We authors wish thank to our Principal Prof. M.L. Gupta for their support.


[1] Jun-Zhao Sun ―Mobile Ad Hoc Networking: An Essential Technol-

ogy for Pervasive Computing‖

[2] Hang Zhao ―Security for Ad Hoc Networks‖.

[3] M. Frodigh, P. Johansson, and P. Larsson. ―Wireless ad hoc net- working: the art of networking without a network,‖ Ericsson Review, No.4, 2000, pp. 248-263.

[4] Data Integrity, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia,

[5] Wenjia Li and Anupam Joshi ―Security Issues in Mobile Ad Hoc

Networks - A Survey‖

[6] Anuj Joshi1, Paa llavi Srivastava and Poonam Singh‖ Security Threats in Mobile Ad Hoc Network‖ S-JPSET: ISSN: 2229-7111, Vol. 1, Issue 2.

[7] Pravin Ghosekar, Girish Katkar Dr. Pradip Ghorpade ―Mobile Ad

Hoc Networking: Imperatives and Challenges‖ IJCA Special Issue on

―Mobile Ad-hoc Networks‖ MANETs, 2010.

[8] M. Weiser, the Computer for the Twenty-First Century, Scientific

American, September 1991.

[9] Hang Zhao ―Security for Ad Hoc Networks‖.

[10] H. Deng, W. Li, Agrawal, D.P., "Routing security in wireless ad hoc networks," Cincinnati Univ., OH, USA; IEEE Communications Magazine, Oct. 2002, Volume: 40, page(s): 70- 75, ISSN: 0163-6804.

[11] J. Ahola, Ambient Intelligence, ERCIM (European Research Con- sortium for Information and Mathematics) NEWS, N. 47, October 2001.

Authors Information


Head, Department Of Information Technology

Arya Institute of Engineering & Technology, Kukas,

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Jaipur, India.

2. G.L. SAINI Student, M.Tech


Student, M.Tech


Student, M.Tech

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