International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 3, Issue 4, April-2012 1

ISSN 2229-5518

Efficacy comparison of teaching problem solving skill and communication skills on pleasure and self-esteem in third boy students of Tonekabon city

Shahnam Abolghasemi, Hamidreza Vatankhah, Nikta bazleh, Samira Safdari, Hadi Moradi

Abstract— Aim of present study is Efficacy comparison of teaching problem solving skill and communication skills on pleasure and self-esteem in third boy students of Tonekabon city. Statistical society consists of 150 third boys students of Tonekabon city that have studied in educational year of 89-90. Among them 45 people had selected classified randomly in three 15 people groups (two experimental and one control group) as a sample. In order to data collecting, it is using oxford joyful (1990), Cooper Smith self-esteem questionnaire (1967) and these data were analyzed by using statistical methods of multiple co-variance analysis, Ben Freon alpha and pursuit test, that finally below results are obtained: teaching communication skills is more effective in students’ self-esteem and joyfulness. teaching problem solving skills is effective in increasing students’ self-esteem and joyfulness. Teaching communication skills are more effective in increasing joyfulness degree than teaching problem solving skill. there is no meaningful difference between efficacy of teaching communication skills method and problem solving skill on increasing students’ self-esteem.

Index Terms— problem solving skill, communication skill, pleasure, self-esteem.

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DOLESCENCE is one of the most sensitive and hardness life period that growing child should passes it and obtains necessary skill. This period, is converting period of childhood into adulthood. Psychol- ogists called this period “third birth" due to its important
and sensitivity ( Abolghasemi, 1386).
Human beings required to functions for consistently re-
sistance to stresses, different situations and life tensions that optimized them to understanding this ability. These functions are more fundamental and are shaped in the change process. The functions such as cognitions, emo-
tions and behaviors that revealed in the structures forms like self-esteem, self- application, problem solving ability, resistance, self- understanding, social skills and under- standing document(Noori Ghasem Abadi 1377, quoted by Yari, 1386). Skill means ability to do a work. Human be- ings are required to a series of skills for being success in every field. Such as skill in producing better product, skill


Department of Psychology, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon, Iran

Department of Psychology, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University,

Tonekabon, Iran

Department of Psychology, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon, Iran

Department of Psychology, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University,

Tonekabon, Iran

Department of Psychology, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon, Iran

in education, gaining success and obtaining high scores. In training and education organization, skill means being familiar or access to knowledge. It is obvious that school cannot place its programs by emphasis on knowledge; it is not advisable to do this. Because knowledge mass has increased in a way that a long life is not sufficient for ac- quisitioning one field of sciences and techniques. Thus, training and education experts thought of teach students access way to knowledge rather than teaching knowledge and among this, considering capabilities such as thinking good, questioning truly, changing, observing and shortly find skill in problem solving were taken into account. Since by helping these skills we can solve many life is- sues. But in this way, there also was other point and that was learning living way. Because all thing is not short- ened to lesson and knowledge, so school in addition to converting student into life learner, it also should learn him better living way and cooperation to others ( Dadar,
From World health organization (WHO) point of view life skills are those skills which are taught to people for in- creasing psychological-social abilities and they enabled individual to face effectively with requirements and life
challenges. Goal of teaching life skills is increasing psy- chological abilities and finally preventing from creating harmful behaviors to health and rising mental health level (Rahmat Zadeh, 1386).
Communication skills mean the ability to effectively communicate to others that both are useful for that indi- vidual and meet another person benefits. Experts believe

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that effective communication skills are necessary for suc- cess in today knowledge-based society. (Assar Zadegan,
Problem solving skill is well-organized and sequential
approach that help person solves effectively his life prob-
lems. It is a behavioral, cognitive and emotional process in which an individual or group try to discover a solution or an effective confronting method for a special issue. Problem solving is reflective of one positive approach
toward living that is counted the opposite of helplessness. Problem solving is a process, it is not a conclusion ( Noor Mosavi, 1388).
In the psychological area, pleasure is a positive excite- ment. Pleasure is deeper than a temporary good mood. It is a constant feeling in positive excitements and under- standing life reality. Pleasure can be defined as a constant pleasing feeling and an approach. Pleasure and mental health involve positive feelings such as enjoyment, com- fort, being feeling and fascination in the life(Amani, 1385). Self-esteem is valuing, compliance, approve and confirm that a person feels about himself ( Biabangard, 1373, quoted by Rezaee, 1381). Self-esteem is an assessment, assessing his characteristic that leads to child feeling about himself and his features. It may be very low self- esteem and poor self-imagination prevent children from talents objective evaluation and their skills, because their negative view which they have from themselves converts to a glasses that they see all of the information from its behind. Low self-esteem is also a big component in im- pairment period of weak action(Creshner, 1990).
The most direct intervention method, in order to rising
social-psychological abilities, is those interventions that
are enforced individuals resistant sources and personal
abilities especially their social and mental capabilities. In
regards to children and adolescents, this kind of interven-
tion can be presented by teaching life skills in the suppor-
tive education environment that is school.
-in an investigation that conducted by Berlon and Mac-
gil(1989), they found that when there is discomfort feeling
and lack of pleasure, people’ self-esteem decreases. In
other words, there is a interaction between self-esteem
and pleasure (quoted by Poorsanaee, 1387).
-Roznberg and et al(1995) have compared the effects of
whole and educational self-esteem of 2213 students in
tenth class. They showed that whole self-esteem had
stronger correlation to joy (0/5) and negative emotion
(0/43). But educational self-esteem was obtained more
relationship to educational scores.
-Hghighi Pazhohesh and et al (1384), focused on examin-
ing the efficacy of life skills teaching on self-esteem and
mental health in boys students of first grade in third
school in Ilam city, results showed that life skills teaching
leaded to increasing mental health and self-esteem of
boys students in experimental group in comparison with testimony group.
-Poshtiban (1386) studied the problem solving style rela- tionship to students’ educational progression, self-esteem
and their way of thinking, the results showed that there is meaningful correlation between six constructive problem solving and self-esteem styles.
-in the Hemati investigation (1385) with the subject of “examining the efficacy of learning social skills on stu- dents’ self-esteem and their friendship”, this result was obtained that learning social skills caused increased self- esteem and decreased friendship in students.
-Poorsanaee in an investigation under the name of “ self- esteem, self-imagination and internal control source rela- tionship to excitement intelligence and pleasure in boys students of first grade third school in Bandar Anzali”, found that there is a relationship between self- imagination, self-esteem and internal control source to pleasure, and pleasure amount is differ in internal control source from external control source. Also pleasure amount in positive self-imagination is differing from neg- ative self-imagination.
-in Hemayat Talab and et al study (1384) that focused on
investigating pleasure amount in athletic and non-athletic
boys students in Tehran universities, they found that ath-
letic group have self-esteem, satisfaction, efficient, posi-
tive temper, mental health and generally they have plea-
sure in comparison with non-athletic group.
-Shain Berger (2010), in his study with the subject of “pos-
itive psychological, optimism and situation”, he showed
that successful people have high self-confidence and they
are optimistic. They used appropriate communication
skills techniques in encountering with their around
-Elison, (1983) in his study found losing control feeling
and creating individual dissatisfaction is one of the specif-
ic aspects of low self-esteem (Rezaee, 1381).
-Hashemi study (1374) about examining the social sup-
port, control source and self-esteem relationship to resis-
tance methods in third school students in Azerbeyjan
Sharghi province, suggested that social support is one of
the most important sources for confronting with stress.
People, who have internal control source, give impor-
tance to their values and they are able to control the envi-
ronment. More high individual self-esteem, using en-
countering strategies is more and most appropriate. More individual control source is internal, the individual have high self-esteem and social support. Received social sup- port is dependent to individual self-esteem.
-Abedi studies results (1383) suggest that optimistic people have more pleasure amount than pessimist and realistic people, and optimism is one of the increasing pleasure methods ( Moradi and et al, 1384).
-Esmaeeli (1380), focused on examining the efficacy of teaching life skills understanding in comparison with child training methods on students’ self-esteem in Ardbil province, findings showed that average self-esteem of students who passed skills course was more than stu- dents who did not passed the above course. This finding was consistent to studies results of American psychologi- cal association (1994, 1996).

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General aim of this study was comparing efficacy of teaching problem solving and communication skill on self-esteem and pleasure amount in students. Also prima- ry hypothesis of the investigation presented as follow:
-there is a difference between efficacy of teaching prob- lem solving and teaching communication skills on self- esteem and pleasure amount in boys students.
Sub-hypothesizes of the study:
1. Teaching problem solving is effective on pleasure
amount of boy students.
2. Teaching communication skills is effective on pleasure
amount of boy students.
3. Teaching problem solving is effective on self-esteem
amount of boy students.
4. Teaching communication skills is effective on self-
esteem amount of boy students.
5. There is a relationship between efficacy of teaching
problem solving and communication skills on pleasure amount of boys students.
6. There is a relationship between efficacy of teaching problem solving and communication skills on self-esteem amount of boys students.


Present study is a kind of experimental investigations that was conducted in the form of intervention. Study plan is pre-test and post-test with control group. Investi- gation statistical society consists of 150 boy students in second grade of third school in Tonekabon city who were engaged in study in 89-90 education year, among them and by using classified randomly sampling method 45 people were assigned to two experimental group and one testimony group that every group involved 15 people. In order to collecting data, it was used Oxford pleasure and Cooper smith self-esteem questionnaires. After gathering data, it is analyzed by SPSS statistical software, multiple co-variance analysis test, Ben Freon Alpha and pursuit test.


A) Oxford pleasure questionnaire (1990):
This scale created by Argyle for providing general size of
pleasure in 1990 which involves five factors: satisfaction,
positive temper, healthy, efficiency and self-esteem. Ox-
ford 29 items scale is scoring based on four degrees spec-
trum from 0-3 and testees final scores collected. Final score will be at least from 0 to 87.
Alipoor and Harris (1386), in an investigation that they conducted, estimated 0/91 amount for kronbach alpha of this test.
B) Cooper Smith self-esteem test (1967):
Cooper Smith (1967)provide this scale based on overview
which he performed on Rogers and Deymond’ scale, and
finally a questionnaire compiled with 58 items that its 50
items focuses on 4 sub-scales of family self-esteem, re-
search self-esteem, general self-esteem, social self-esteem and its 8 items are lie detector. Testees scores range are 0-
In Iran, stability coefficient of this scale has reported
about 0/79 by Zare (1386).


A) Descriptive findings:
Statistical characteristics of dependent variable compo-
nents to self-esteem and pleasure in two experimental
and control groups are presented in following table.


Problem solving group

Communication skills group

Control group

va- riabl es

mea n

Stan- dard devia- tion

mea n

Stand- ard devia- tion

mea n

Stan- dard devia- tion

Plea- sure










Self- es-











Regarding to the figures of table, there is no difference between the means of both groups of control and experi- ment in the pleasure and self-esteem's components, and these differences are an advantage for experiments group, and more than the control group.
b) Deduction findings:
It is used from multivariable co-variance analysis to test the major research hypothesis. The results of this analysis are as shown in table 2.







Meaningful level


Mixed varia- ble of pleasure and self es- teem










Self esteem




According to (table 2), the value of 0.620 suggests the ef- fect value of performed training in mixed variable. The value of effects above 0.14 or (14%), showing a large ef- fect. The results of above table suggest that there is a meaningful difference between the experimental groups

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which have been under the influence of problem solving and communicating skills training and control group which has received no training.
F (4, 74) = 30.236, P = 0.000, Eta = 0.620
Regarding to pursuit test performed between two groups,
there is a meaningful difference in means of two groups, and this difference is an advantage for experimental groups. Also about two groups which have trained the problem solving and communication skills, meaningful
difference in increasing of pleasure variable, is an advan- tage for communication skills. While in self-esteem varia- ble there is no meaningful difference. It means that effec- tiveness of both experimental methods in increasing the self-esteem is the same.
Sub-hypothesis 1&2: teaching problem solving and com- munication skills are effective for pleasure enhancing.




Communication group

Problem solving group

Control group



dent vari- able

mea n

stan- dard error

mea n

stan- dard error

mea n

stan- dard error

plea- sure







Self- es- teem







As shown in table 3, we observe that there is meaningful difference in enhancing the pleasure variable between regulating means of three groups.
F (2,45) = 6.28 , P = 0.000 , Eta = 0.758
So we conclude that teaching problem solving and com-
munication skills affect the pleasure enhancing. The fol-
lowing test showed that there is meaningful difference
between two training groups, and this difference sug-
gested that the effectiveness of communication skills
teaching in enhancing the pleasure is more than that of
the problem solving expertise.
Hypothesis 3&4: group training of problem solving and
communication skills affect the pleasure enhancing: Regarding to the results of table 2, we have:
F (2,40) = 28.8 , P = 0.000 , Eta = 0.591
Problem solving and communication skills, thus, have
been affected in enhancing the self-esteem. The results of
the following test suggested that there is no meaningful
difference about influence on self-esteem variable be-
tween two training groups, and their effectiveness in en-
hancing self-esteem is the same.
Hypothesis 5: There is difference between the effective-
ness of problem solving and communication skills teach- ing on pleasure value of boy students. There is meaning- ful difference between two training groups, suggesting the effectiveness of communication skills teaching in pleasure enhancing, and that the difference value in this group is more than that in problem solving skill group. Hypothesis 6: there is difference between the effectiveness of problem solving and communication skills on value of boy students' self-esteem. There is difference between training groups in self-esteem enhancing, but it is not meaningful; and the effectiveness of training in self- esteem enhancing is quite the same and so the above hy- pothesis refused.

5 Discussion and conclusion

present paper was performed by purpose of compar- ing the effectiveness of problem solving and communica- tion skills on boy students' pleasure and self-esteem, and following results was provided.
One of the results of this study was the effectiveness of problem solving and communication skill teaching on boy students' pleasure and self-esteem, that this finding is consistent to the findings of Tlado (1974), Gonzalez (1990), Darden (1996), Halford (2004), Hashemi (1374), Aghajani (1381), Iranpour (1382), Poshtiban (1386), Rah- mati (1387), Poorsanaei (1387), and Sanaei Zaker (1384).
In relation to this finding, it can say that, undoubtedly,
the teaching problem solving and communication skills, purposed in enriching the students' behavioral treasure, help the increasing of their pleasure and self-esteem, and that no training can completely success alone, regarding to the complex transaction of intrinsic tendencies and responses learned by human being.
What obtained from this research was influence of problem solving and communication skills teaching on the value of boy students' pleasure and self-esteem, which this result is similar to the findings of Khepg & Farnam (2004), Ebadi (1383), Bahari (1388), Jokar & Rahimi (1386), Moradi et al. (1386), Hilz & Argail (2001), and Abedi (1383).
To clear this result, it can say that solvent expertise en- tail the use of students and antecedent learned principles into a new structure. Equipping to ability and problem solving skill against the problems for human being, has a permanent influence in his achieving to peace. Also communication skills help people can to express their views, ideas, requests, needs, and thrills and that to re- quest for help when they need. Equipping to ability of communicating expertise cause to reinforce the warm relationship with others and provide social and mental health more and more and increase the pleasure.
Also it was confirmed in further hypotheses of re- search, that problem solving and communication skills

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have influence on students' self-esteem. This result is con- sistent to the researches of Rozenberg (2009), Khepk et al. (2007), Vichrovski (2000), Adib (1374) (quoted from Re- zaei, 1381), Esmaeili (1380), Fathi (1385), Mehdizade (1388), Negat et al. (1386).
Difference between the effectiveness of problem solv-
ing skill and communication skill on the volume of stu- dents' pleasure was another finding of this study, speci- fied that this difference is testimony group which has re- ceived the problem solving teaching, and suggested the major effectiveness of this training that confirms the find- ings of Kalt et al. (2005), Karor et al (20050, Rozenber (2009), Shokberger (2010), Jokar & Rahimi (1386), Bahari (1388), and Yoosefi Jooibari (1389).
The final hypothesis of research surveys the difference between effectiveness of problem solving and communi- cation skill teaching on the volume of students' self- esteem and the result was that there is difference between training groups in enhancing the self-esteem, but this dif- ference is meaningful and the effectiveness of teaching of both skill has actually same influence on self-esteem and refused this hypothesis. This result is consistent to Abni- kifard's (1382). To support this consequence, we can say that despite the difference before and after the teaching problem solving and communication skill, statistically there is no such difference in value of self-esteem, that it can depends on understanding of receivers, their sense of need and personal features. Also establishing of problem solving and communication skill in individuals depends on growth periods, environmental and family structure, and congenital features, and may needs to short time training.
Successful learning of problem solving and contrasting skills, impress learner's sense about himself and others, and moreover, achieving to proficiencies change others' thought about individual. So achieving to contrasting skills change both personality and environment and this mutual element accelerate the promotion of psyche health. Reinforcing the ability of problem solving skill cause to increase the self-esteem and flexibility against the changes and promote positive thoughts to improvement and relying on self.
Whatever social knowledge progresses, it rather specify
that the secluded, alone, and lake of communicating man subject to many social harms. It is through communicat- ing that a person can express his/her feeling to others. It is possible just through safe communicating than Nega- tive emotion could be controlled. Training of communica- tion skills make people to achieve their value and per- form positive behaviors throughout the life; and correlate to others in a way that these relations will have desirable effect and this desirability will cause to increase the dura- tion of relations. While a non-effective relation cause to
misapprehension, led to dissatisfaction, sense of loneli- ness, and conflict in family and society and disorder the individual's self-confidence during the time, and so create social and mental harms and decrease individual ability to contrast the problems.


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