International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 1, January-2015 29

ISSN 2229-5518

Determining the Direction for Rapid

Transportation by Maximum Cover Method: Case

Study in Sydney, Australia

Siavash Shahsavaripour*

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia

Abstract— Routing for public rapid transportation is defined as determining the optimized location or position of stations and direction of route in a city. This problem can be solved as an optimization problem with target function of maximizing the cover of stations and distance of stations and length of direction as constraints. At the other hand, researchers have interested by heuristic or explorative methods due to their simplicity and fast performance in solving various problems. In the current paper, an heuristic method is represented for step by step developing of direction based on maximizing the criterion of population covered by stations and accessibility to important urban locations so that it is expected that the trip cover of direction – as target function – is maximized. The solving method is originated from two previous methods of population cover and trip cover. The population cover, trip attraction, diametric direction and length of direction are used as criteria. The proposed method is used in network of Sydney as case study. 20 answer directions with selected departure point are constituted by this method and two previous ones and the trip cover and their population are calculated and identified by comparing the results. The trip covers of directions in new method are increased compared to two previous methods. The maximum trip cover produced by one of the directions proposed by new method and by trip cover method is 58869 and 46962 trip, respectively. Comparing the new method and population cover method is showed that the population covered by the proposed method is 21.4% lower than the original method and the trip cover is 3.3 times greater than the original method. The answers of the proposed method have more trip cover than the maximum cover trip method as about 16.5%. For more precise concluding, a comparison is made between directions with same trend proposed by the presented method and the maximum trip cover method and it shows that for each of 4 same trend directions, trip cover is increased between 12 and 67%.

Index Terms— Heuristic Method, Attractive Trip Points, Trip Cover, Population Cover, Rapid Transportation, Maximum Cover Method, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, Public Transport

—————————— ——————————


se of rapid public transportation systems are rapidly growing; since these systems cause to increase in speed and decrease in rush and blockade in urban system and
also reduce the increasingly problems in big cities [1-25]. Se- lecting the route for these systems have definitely a great ef- fect on their function from speed, reduce in delay and increase in capacity points of view [25-39]. Determining the direction for rapid urban transportation systems is principally an opti- mization problem which is usually solved using non- systematic methods due to its complexity and large time con- suming of the solving process [40].
Routing for rapid public transportation systems, which is named as “locating the rapid transit line” in some papers, is generally a problem for determining a direction for movement of rapid public vehicle in a city with high efficiency and low difficulty [41-67]. The recent activities for routing of rapid sys- tems are frequently used from heuristic and meta-heuristic methods [68, 69]. No need to time consuming network anal- yses and performing customary optimization algorithms with massive calculations are the advantages of such methods [70,
73, 74]. In this regard, after studying these methods, a solution


*Siavash Shahsavaripour, Corresponding Author, M.Sc. in Civil Engineer- ing, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

is presented in the current paper based on a heuristic method named as maximum cover.
Current et al. studied a route with maximum cover and minimum length by a multi-purpose research [71-77]. Thereaf- ter, more heuristic methods were used as progress of investi- gations [78]. For example, Dufourd et al. proposed a method which used from new algorithm of Tabu search [79-83].
Bruno et al. proposed another model which was more real and assumed that the personal instrument mode is rival for rapid public system [84-87]. Bruno et al. proposed a new mod- el which was a two step method for routing the metro system [88, 89]. Laporte et al. introduced the concept of trip cover of station by defining the various types of direction cover in dif- ferent methods [90-93]. They solved the problem using a heu- ristic method and maximum length of direction as constraint [94, 95].


The interest of developing urban metropolitan regions is thor- oughly related to the provision of sufficient and proper trans- portation services. There is a critical need to business activi- ties, education, employment and recreational opportunities in an increasing urban population. Urban planning is based on the locating of these services and the providing of suitable transportation infrastructure including freeways, mass transit, and parking accommodation. Regional patterns of develop-

IJSER © 2015

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 1, January-2015 30

ISSN 2229-5518

ment, economic viability and environmental impacts are large- ly influenced by transportation system. However, the preserv- ing of acceptable level of life’s quality in society also depends on the transportation system. Hence, governments use more and more resources, continually, to efficiently plan and devel- op transportation services, as high as possible. Although there is not necessarily a clear path from policy specification to sys- tem implementation, establishing and using some processes to monitor and measure the performances and achievements are very important.
Regarding the planning for expected future growth and de- velopment in Sydney region, transportation service provision is a building block of social, economical and environmental sustainability. Specifically, ensuring about the viability of dis- tribution of goods and services and also reasonability of social activities and networking the region are very significant. Combination of population growth and urban form make ra- ther frightening challenges for transportation system. Moreo- ver, some means should be established by transportation planners to evaluate and monitor the transportation system so that it can be ensure that the sustainability or achievability of short and long term goals.
Number of components involved in the transportation plan- ning process and their complexities are rather important. The process ranges from the planning of major infrastructure pro- jects such as interstates, freeways, bus ways and light and heavy rail systems to the regulation of pollutant emissions. A very important element of transportation planning process is getting confidence about the availability of certain modes of public transport for use. The importance of public transport services in a successful transportation system is widely recog- nized as the most important reason for it is assurance of long term sustainability in terms of resource consumption and the environment. Other important reasons are providing a trans- portation option for those without access to a motor vehicle and a travel alternative to commuters in order to decrease stress on current infrastructure. As a whole, this strongly mo- tivates the public transport services.
To provide public transportation, two interrelated issues of access and accessibility to this mode of travel should be ad- dressed. Access is defined as the opportunity for utilizing the system based on the proximity to the service and its cost. By increasing the distances or barriers to access a service at either the trip origin or destination, the possibility of recognizing the service as a mode of travel decreased. Similarly, the applicabil- ity of service reduced as its cost increased.
An accessible public transport system ships a passenger from its start point of trip to its destination in a reasonable time. Therefore, accessibility covers the operational function- ing of a system for regional travel. However, access deeply affects the public transportation system and complements ser- vice accessibility. Accordingly, access to public transportation is clearly differs from the accessibility of the public transport system. Further, access and accessibility are mutually depend- ent to each other, if the public transport system is to be suc- cessful and well utilized. Although both are important, only access will be considered presently.
Evolving of metropolitan regions critically depends on the transportation planning. Parameters including trip purpose,
temporal and spatial distributions of trips, modal splits of travel, and costs should be taken into account by transporta- tion planning. These considerations will affect current and future infrastructure as well as the environment. A big picture perspective suggests influences on mobility which fits into a more general interpretation of sustainability that includes so- cial, economic and environmental factors. The economic de- velopment can be grown on the basis of transportation sys- tems. It also is a useful means to interact the society. An inef- fective transport system and associated urban forms will limit economic and social opportunities. However, it should be pointed out that the greatest transportation implications for the sustainability of a region is due to the energy and envi- ronmental consequences of excessive traveling of single vehi- cle automobiles.
The implications for urban forms designed for motor vehicle transport are an inefficient use of nonrenewable resources, congestion and noise and air pollution externalities. One of the critical aspects of regional growth and prosperity is transpor- tation planning which is closely connected to policy formula- tion and implementation.
The existence of some approaches for monitoring, evaluating and modeling system performance, in order to better inform and understand policies and regulations associated with transport services are very important. Associated with this has been the continued development and application of analysis approaches and models for identifying and assessing alterna- tives for achieving mandated reductions. This is essential to assess effects on facilities and various modes of travel result- ing from the regional growth and change.
Geographical information system (GIS) is a key component to better understand of transportation processes in the emerg- ing methods and techniques. Whether it is used to evaluate broad scale regional policies or link specific capacity, GIS is proving to be valuable for transportation management and modeling platforms. As a result, considerable investment has been made to establish transport planning approaches and relevant data to help the monitoring, evaluation and modeling processes.
Since 1960s, a program of continued road building was ad- dressed in Australia due to the increased transportation de- mands associated with the rapid expansion of metropolitan areas.
However, government agencies have, recently, interested on
public transport planning and provision. It is due to the inter-
est of community to provide a transport option for those lack-
ing a private vehicle and the increased awareness of the prob-
lems associated with automobile dependency. Therefore, pub-
lic transport service provision should be included in sustaina-
ble regional development, as a component of the transporta-
tion planning process. The public transport service is an inter-
connected combination of bus, rail or ferry services subsidized
by local, state and/or federal governments. In fact, the Clean
Air Act discussed above has critically focused on the public
transport provision. Numerous details including the best placement of stops and routes, the frequency of operation, and the connectivity of the transport network for regional service delivery should be classified in providing or managing this
form of public assistance. The Integrated Regional Transport

IJSER © 2015

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 1, January-2015 31

ISSN 2229-5518

Plan for Sydney aims to identify a future for transportation system so that it will meet anticipated demands without sacri- ficing desirable aspects of quality of life.
However, it is not desired in developing metropolitan re- gions to increase the percentage of private vehicle trips. Alt- hough public transport is only one of the components of a transportation system, it is expected that supporting this mode of travel lead to great advantages for urban regions, both in terms of mobility and sustainability. Monitoring the efficiency of public transportation performance, and hence, its method of implementation, is of critical importance as a tool for evaluat- ing the policy goals as well as planning for future improve- ments.
Availability of public transportation is the opportunity for utilizing the system which can be interpreted in terms of prox- imity to the service and the its cost. The current paper is fo- cused on the proximity to public transportation. Specifically, how does the location of public transport facilities such as bus, train or ferry stops serve the needs of the population? Motivat- ing this interest further is the Integrated Regional Transporta- tion Plan for Sydney. The policy goal specified by the plan for public transport in the region of at least 90% total population coverage within 400 meters of a bus, rail or ferry stop. The focus is thus on origin based access. This goal is one of the designed criteria for improving the operation of public trans- portation and its attractiveness, through enhanced service quality. Another important goal is ensuring the suitable ser- vice coverage due to the great influence of the time taken to reach a public transport stop on total travel time, which in turn affects the potential patronage. The reason for choosing
400 m coverage distance or threshold is that people can walk comfortably this distance under normal conditions. However, the distance criterion could be dynamic so that it suits specific circumstances or terrain. Unfortunately, many long term strat- egies, goals and policies, such as providing suitable coverage, are mainly based on the political desires rather than thorough and detailed analysis. However, the most important thing is the proper, rigorous and replicable assessment and monitor- ing of these goals and policies. Technical issues about the evaluating a policy goal like suitable access coverage are ever present. One issue is that information about the exact resi- dence or location of individuals is not available. The census data, reported at some aggregate scale, is the most precise available geographic information. For the Sydney region, cen- sus data at the collection district level is the most disaggregate form of spatial information. Thus, this information is an ag- gregate representation of the actual location of individuals in the region. As the final goal is evaluating the public transpor- tation access, use of such data could be potentially led to wrong estimates. Because of the form of obtained data that is out of control of an analyst or planner, handle of the issue is hard. However, this is an important concern which should be recognized. Evaluating access to public transport is of particu- lar interest in policy making as well as the locational siting of specific dwelling types. For instance, good access to public transport is an interesting advantage for high occupancy buildings or perhaps public housing. How can access be esti- mated? If access is defined to be a specified distance (or travel time) to a public transport stop, then it is possible to identify
all of the areas within the threshold distance of all stops. Knowing these areas, the total number of individuals in a re- gion having suitable access may be determined. This does cre- ate the need for some sort of areal interpolation process, as partial coverage of spatial units is very likely. Comparing the distance from a spatial reporting unit, namely a collection dis- trict, to the distance from its nearest stop would be an alterna- tive. If this distance is within the threshold, coverage is achieved. Although both approaches are potentially errone- ous, they are contrasting perspectives and combining of them provide a means for ensuring that estimates of access are reli- able and stable. It is worthwhile to note that based on the above discussion, there may be implications for the scale and aggregation issue, but further empirical analysis would be necessary.
The policy goal of providing 90% of the total population ac- cess within 400 m of a bus, rail or ferry stop in the Sydney re- gion is actually a common transportation planning objective in Australia. According to bus, rail and ferry stop locations sup- plied by New South Wales Transport; the public transport access coverage in the greater Sydney region was assessed by means of a commercial GIS. Population data from 2001 and
2006 at the collection district level (the most disaggregate form available) was utilized. It is revealed, by examining the 400 m coverage criterion using the 2006 census data, that only 55.25% of the population in the region (or approximately 954,000 peo- ple) has suitable access to public transport, which is clearly lower than the stated objective of 90% total population cover- age. An interesting question may be raised is regarding the sensitivity of the threshold distance in evaluating access cov- erage. What if the distance was 350 m or 450 m, how would this alter coverage?
In fact, 90% goal can be gained if the threshold distance is increased up to 8.8 K, which is far beyond the stated distance of 400 m.
According to the logarithmic relationship between popula- tion coverage and suitable access to a public transport stop, it can be concluded that there need considerable distance to ac- cess a public transport stop as the population is so dispersed in certain areas. In fact, this is shown that extending the ac- ceptable threshold distance often has little net impact. For in- stance, approximately 83% of the population is considered suitably covered at three kilometers.
Relaxing the threshold distance to 7.5 K only provides addi-
tional regional population coverage of 6%. The ability to real-
istically achieve the 400 m service objective for the entire re-
gion is questionable at best. They are primarily administrative
sub-regions with little political power, but the regional deline-
ation does reflect the urban structure of the city. In 2006, about
37.8% of the total population of the region was located in Syd-
ney sub-region. Accordingly, regional transport coverage has
considerably influenced by Sydney sub-region. It is not entire-
ly surprising that most of the total population provided ser-
vice in this region is in or around the city.
This is due to the rural nature of these areas which lead to more difficulty in providing public transport coverage since their populations are dispersed. Moreover, it represents an area where many people are deciding to spend their retire-
ment, indicating a high proportion of people with a potential

IJSER © 2015

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 1, January-2015 32

ISSN 2229-5518

need for public transport services. Such issues should be high- ly considered in the planning and provision of these services at the sub-regional level. The processes such as the Integrated Regional Transport Plan for Sydney are designed to satisfy the future short and long term demands of regional transporta- tion. However, comparing the results of 2001 and 2006 census- es about the performance of the public transport system and the planning for the region are very disappointing. Thus, little attempt or gain to improve public transport access appears to have been made in this period of time. Without a concerted and deliberated effort to improve access opportunity over pe- riods of time, it would not seem realistic that public transport usage could be expected to increase.
It is demonstrated in the previous section that the level of public transport service in Sydney region is far from the de- sired level.
Improvements of regional services are examined in this sec- tion. As some people are not likely going to ever use such ser- vices, focus on that parts of people which will be possibly uti- lize the public transportation would be more beneficial. As an example, the inland areas away from the populated coastal sub-regions are predominantly rural in Sydney. It is difficult to envisage public transport services capable of meeting the needs and requirements of people in the rural areas at reason- able operating costs. Therefore, it makes sense to adjust the notion of service coverage to reflect the spatial, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of potential patronage rather than attempting to set public transport goals for the entire re- gion. In addition, when setting performance goals, it should be evaluated that how much of costs must be recovered by public transport services. Accordingly, the standards of coverage would be more realistically modified.
The main concern of public transportation services is chosen depending upon the policy objectives; it may be the improving access to areas that contain a high proportion of transport dis- advantaged groups (such as the elderly, invalid pensioners, low income earners) or areas which contain a high probability of increasing public transport patronage. This approach works based on the principle of providing service access to those that would most likely use it not based on the improving of service to the entire population.
The improving of service is also followed based on the strengthening and extending the coverage of the transport system. As suggested by the Integrated Regional Transporta- tion Plan for the greater Sydney region, many of the im- provements are focused on increasing the quality of public transport such as increasing travel speed through the addition of separate bus lanes. This may potentially lead to increase of system utilizing by making existing service more efficient, and thus an attractive travel alternative. However, this approach is extremely rough and may have little net effect. Providing new public transport corridors, as an extension to the current sys- tem, over the next 25 years is considered by a few projects in the Sydney transport plan. However, it reveals, through the examining of impacts of such extensions on regional coverage in Sydney, that these corridors will provide service access to at most an additional 3% of the population. As a result, even long term strategic goals have not reach by such a myopic and uncoordinated view on service provision planning. Further-
more, the first major transportation project announcement following the Integrated Regional Transport Plan was not one of the strategic transport opportunities considered in the plan and will only enhance public transport in areas already pro- vided relatively good public transport access. Sustainability is the major goal of improving service provision and perhaps increasing system coverage.
These aspects of sustainability are largely affected by the efficiency of the public transport system. Specifically, fuel con- sumption would be decreased as stops are well placed and service routes are good. Thus, it is important to examine the efficiency of transport stops and travel routes in terms of re- dundancy and suitability. That is, can the same level of service provision be obtained by reducing the number of stops main- tained, coupled with new route design in the current service system. In Sydney, suburbs within a five kilometer radius of the central business district have been particularly well served by public transport. Routes and stops have been added incre- mentally through the years. This is due to the growing of population and service expansion, often implemented by sep- arate planning agencies. However, the process is highly sus- ceptible to inefficiencies.
The efficiency and sustainability of a public transport system would be affected by strategic decisions associated with relo- cating stops in order to increase the total population served by the system.
Better planning and designing of stop locations and route networks significantly improve the service coverage and sys- tem efficiency which in turn, lead to improving the perfor- mance and sustainability of the system. However, location and routing optimization model size will certainly prove to be challenging. For the Sydney region, there are 3,793 collection districts and 10,911 public transport stops; so the problem magnitude is quite significant.
However, costs of increasing the public transportation ser- vice coverage necessitate more creative options. Incorporating the personalized public transit options is an interesting alter- native for improving regional coverage. This is a means of providing patrons (or potential patrons) with a range of price differentiated public transport options. For example, a person at a personalized public transit stop has numerous options including taxi, multiple fare taxi, mini-bus on a flexible route or conventional bus on an established route. A personalized system would provide the patron with real time information, showing available services and anticipated arrival times. The ability of a personalized system to provide the customers with choice and control, which makes public transit use more at- tractive, is one of its advantages. More importantly, numerous stops can be established for personalized service in low densi- ty areas, where scheduled public transport services are expen- sive and underutilized.
It is worthwhile to note that personalized systems are costly despite these appear to be an attractive solution for the provi- sion of additional public transport services. First, need of per- sonalized services to global positioning system (GPS) and communications technology makes these services expensive. However, such technologies are already commonplace in most taxi services, at least in Australia. Second, the fares of the al- ternative would have to be structured so that they were signif-

IJSER © 2015

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 1, January-2015 33

ISSN 2229-5518

icantly lower than the cost of calling a taxi. In other words, surviving a personalized system in low density areas depends on its need to ongoing subsidies, although these subsidies may well be lower than the cost of increasing public transport ac- cess through the approaches detailed above.
High cost of transport access and weak demand for public transport services in low density areas are its main problems.


It should be pointed out that it is necessary to consider more practical access goals for sub-regions due to the probable fail- ure of the targets of public transport access specified in the Integrated Regional Transportation Plan for Sydney. In a spe- cial manner, providing public transport access for people who have more interesting to utilize such services should be con- sidered as an explicit policy objective. Such factors are includ- ing spatial location, urban and rural features, demographics, and socioeconomic status.
It should be concerned that high number of residents in the region are elderly. As the closeness to public transport services is a critical issue for this group, access goals should be more detailed rather than overly generic.
In the current analysis, access to public transport is studied as a single distance or threshold measure of proximity from populated areas to public transport stops. It may be possible to develop a greater representation of public transport access by combining more detailed spatial information such as roads and service route locations and topography, on the basis of dynamic and more realistic travel distances or times.
Another important issue which should be considered is ex- tending the interpretation of service access. The proximity to public transport system was studied in this paper. However, this service has a temporal component as well. How often and at what times is a particular access stop visited? Does this sat- isfy the people that are likely to frequent this stop? Some pub- lic transport stops in the Sydney region have fewer than four services per day. The service opportunity should be included in a more accurate measure of access.
However, destination access also is a critical issue. As the travel patterns are not well understood, such analysis is diffi- cult. For example, numerous stops may be occurred during a trip from home to work or work to home to accomplish per- sonal or work related tasks, such as going to the bank and shopping for groceries. It, which is known as trip chaining, makes the analysis of travel behavior quite complex. As a re- sult, more detailed travel pattern information is required than only knowing the residential locations of individuals.
Moreover, it should be pointed out that residential infor- mation is corresponded to where individuals live not where they work or often travel to and from. However, sub- destinations of individuals during their travel is of critical im- portance in utilizing the public transport system and hence, it should be considered as more as possible, if demand for pub- lic transport is to be increased.
The effect of land use configurations is a final consideration in the planning of effective public transportation. The ad- vantages taken from suitable access to public transport by cer- tain land use categories (high density dwellings and public
housing) are discussed previously. Urban form is closely relat- ed to land use and transportation. Therefore, it would be nec- essary to accomplish the efficiencies resulted from providing the better public transport through coordinated land use planning and policy development.
Reaching to regional sustainability is critically related to de- veloping an adequate public transportation system. The prox- imity of public transport stops to the regional population will be very effective for the performance of a public transport sys- tem.
Altering the placement of stops and modifying route service may be useful for improving the performance of public transport system in areas with high public transport access. Combining of more dynamic proximity measures, service con- siderations, demographic and socioeconomic factors can im- prove the evaluation of public transport access. Ensuring about providing the sufficient and proper regional public transportation service can be achieved by higher efficiencies identified through advanced monitoring and evaluation pro- cesses.


The current paper tries to present a new method for determin- ing the direction of a public urban transportation system based on the cover method. The proposed method used the maximum population cover and urban attractive trip points as criteria so that, finally, the resulted directions have high trip cover. It was clear that the average trip cover of directions re- sulted from the proposed method were improved comparing to previous methods. A comparison was made between the proposed method and the population cover method. Accord- ingly, the population cover in the proposed method is lower than the other method and conversely, a significant improve- ment is obtained in producing directions with higher trip cov- er. The answers of the proposed method have higher trip cov- er than the answers of the maximum trip cover method and this improvement is 16.5%. In addition, the maximum trip cover which resulted from one of the directions of proposed method is 58869 trips compared to 46962 trips resulted from the maximum trip cover method while these two directions are approximately according to each other. For more precise concluding, a comparison was made between similar direc- tions from the proposed method and the maximum cover method. Accordingly, increase in trip cover is at least 12% in every four directions. Solving the problems with heuristic methods will not provide a guarantee to produce the best an- swer. However, passing the obtained direction through the populous regions and city centers provide credit for its an- swers and its fast running and simplicity lead to prefer this method compare to other routing methods.


[1] C. Leahy, H. Chen, R. Batley, Reliability Equivalence in Public

Transport Contexts, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume

IJSER © 2015

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 1, January-2015 34

ISSN 2229-5518

138, 14 July 2014, Pages 185-192.

[2] L. Mejia-Dorantes, K. Lucas, Public transport investment and local regeneration: A comparison of London׳s Jubilee Line Extension and the Madrid Metrosur, Transport Policy, Volume 35, September 2014, Pages


[3] U. A. Khalid, S. Bachok, M. M. Osman, M. Ibrahim, User Perceptions of Rail Public Transport Services in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: KTM Komuter, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 153, 16 October 2014, Pages 566-573.

[4] L. Nurhadi, S. Borén, H. Ny, A Sensitivity Analysis of Total Cost of Ownership for Electric Public Bus Transport Systems in Swedish Medium Sized Cities, Transportation Research Procedia, Volume 3, 2014, Pages 818-


[5] S. Jain, P. Aggarwal, P. Kumar, S. Singhal, P. Sharma, Identifying public preferences using multi-criteria decision making for assessing the shift of urban commuters from private to public transport: A case study of Delhi, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Volume

24, May 2014, Pages 60-70.

[6] E. Rodríguez-Núñez, J. C. García-Palomares, Measuring the vulnerabil-

ity of public transport networks, Journal of Transport Geography, Volume

35, February 2014, Pages 50-63.

[7] J. Elvy, Public participation in transport planning amongst the socially excluded: An analysis of 3rd generation local transport plans, Case Studies on Transport Policy, Volume 2, Issue 2, September 2014, Pages 41-49.

[8] A. Adamski, DISCON: Public Transport Dispatching Robust Control, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 111, 5 February 2014, Pages 1206-1216.

[9] A. A. Nunes, T. Galvão, J. F. e Cunha, Urban Public Transport Service Co-creation: Leveraging Passenger's Knowledge to Enhance Travel Expe- rience, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 111, 5 February

2014, Pages 577-585.

[10] L. Redman, M. Friman, T. Gärling, T. Hartig, Quality attributes of public transport that attract car users: A research review, Transport Policy, Volume 25, January 2013, Pages 119-127.

[11] M. L. D. Jalón, M. A. S. de Lara, A.G. Ortega, Financiación del servicio público de transporte urbano: un estudio empírico en las empresas espa- ñolas, Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa, Volume 20, Issue 3, September–December 2014, Pages 151-162.

[12] G. Monchambert, A. de Palma, Public transport reliability and com- muter strategy, Journal of Urban Economics, Volume 81, May 2014, Pages


[13] C. V. Fiorio, M. Florio, G. Perucca, User satisfaction and the organiza- tion of local public transport: Evidence from European cities, Transport Policy, Volume 29, September 2013, Pages 209-218.

[14] M. Jaśkiewicz, T. Besta, Heart and mind in public transport: Analysis of motives, satisfaction and psychological correlates of public transporta- tion usage in the Gdańsk–Sopot–Gdynia Tricity Agglomeration in Poland, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Volume

26, Part A, September 2014, Pages 92-101.

[15] S. Kallbekken, J. H. Garcia, K. Korneliussen, Determinants of public support for transport taxes, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Volume 58, December 2013, Pages 67-78.

[16] A. Vitale, D. C. Festa, G. Guido, D. Rogano, A Decision Support Sys-

tem based on Smartphone Probes as a Tool to Promote Public Transport, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 111, 5 February 2014, Pages 224-231.

[17] M. Salonen, T. Toivonen, Modelling travel time in urban networks: comparable measures for private car and public transport, Journal of Transport Geography, Volume 31, July 2013, Pages 143-153.

[18] M. D. Guillen, H. Ishida, N. Okamoto, Is the use of informal public transport modes in developing countries habitual? An empirical study in Davao City, Philippines, Transport Policy, Volume 26, March 2013, Pages


[19] M. C. Ferreira, H. Nóvoa, T. G. Dias, J. F. e Cunha, A Proposal for a Public Transport Ticketing Solution based on Customers’ Mobile Devices, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 111, 5 February 2014, Pages 232-241.

[20] C. Gordon, C. Mulley, N. Stevens, R. Daniels, Public–private contract- ing and incentives for public transport: Can anything be learned from the Sydney Metro experience?, Transport Policy, Volume 27, May 2013, Pages


[21] L. de Grange, F. González, J. C. Muñoz, R. Troncoso, Aggregate esti- mation of the price elasticity of demand for public transport in integrated fare systems: The case of Transantiago, Transport Policy, Volume 29, Sep- tember 2013, Pages 178-185.

[22] S. Pensa, E. Masala, M. Arnone, A. Rosa, Planning Local Public Transport: A Visual Support to Decision-making, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 111, 5 February 2014, Pages 596-603.

[23] Á. Costa, S. Ebert, T. Stanislau, Impact Analysis of Managerial Deci- sions on the Overall Performance of a Public Transport Operator: The Case of STCP, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 111, 5 Febru- ary 2014, Pages 410-423.

[24] L. Sagaris, Citizen participation for sustainable transport: the case of “Living City” in Santiago, Chile (1997–2012), Journal of Transport Geog- raphy, Volume 41, December 2014, Pages 74-83.

[25] Y. Wang, J. Guo, A. Ceder, G. Currie, W. Dong, H. Yuan, Waiting for public transport services: Queueing analysis with balking and reneging behaviors of impatient passengers, Transportation Research Part B: Meth- odological, Volume 63, May 2014, Pages 53-76.

[26] B. Caulfield, D. Bailey, S. Mullarkey, Using data envelopment analysis as a public transport project appraisal tool, Transport Policy, Volume 29, September 2013, Pages 74-85.

[27] A. Ceder, S. Chowdhury, N. Taghipouran, J. Olsen, Modelling public- transport users’ behaviour at connection point, Transport Policy, Volume

27, May 2013, Pages 112-122.

[28] L. Hansson, Hybrid steering cultures in the governance of public transport: A successful way to meet demands?, Research in Transportation Economics, Volume 39, Issue 1, March 2013, Pages 175-184.

[29] Q. XU, Z. ZU, Z. XU, W. ZHANG, T. ZHENG, Space P-Based Empiri- cal Research on Public Transport Complex Networks in 330 Cities of Chi- na, Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Tech- nology, Volume 13, Issue 1, February 2013, Pages 193-198.

[30] J. Walters, Overview of public transport policy developments in South

Africa, Research in Transportation Economics, Volume 39, Issue 1, March

2013, Pages 34-45.

[31] A. Mouwen, P. Rietveld, Does competitive tendering improve custom- er satisfaction with public transport? A case study for the Netherlands, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Volume 51, May 2013, Pages 29-45.

[32] D. Xenias, L. Whitmarsh, Dimensions and determinants of expert and public attitudes to sustainable transport policies and technologies, Trans- portation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Volume 48, February 2013, Pages 75-85.

[33] J. SAMI, F. PASCAL, B. YOUNES, Public Road Transport Efficiency: A

Stochastic Frontier Analysis, Journal of Transportation Systems Engineer- ing and Information Technology, Volume 13, Issue 5, October 2013, Pages


[34] C. Willoughby, How much can public private partnership really do for urban transport in developing countries?, Research in Transportation Economics, Volume 40, Issue 1, April 2013, Pages 34-55.

[35] H. Schalekamp, R. Behrens, Engaging the paratransit sector in Cape Town on public transport reform: Progress, process and risks, Research in Transportation Economics, Volume 39, Issue 1, March 2013, Pages 185-190. [36] J. Holmgren, The efficiency of public transport operations – An evalu- ation using stochastic frontier analysis, Research in Transportation Eco- nomics, Volume 39, Issue 1, March 2013, Pages 50-57.

IJSER © 2015

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 1, January-2015 35

ISSN 2229-5518

[37] S. Jäppinen, T. Toivonen, M. Salonen, Modelling the potential effect of shared bicycles on public transport travel times in Greater Helsinki: An open data approach, Applied Geography, Volume 43, September 2013, Pages 13-24.

[38] H. Badland, S. Hickey, F. Bull, B. Giles-Corti, Public transport access and availability in the RESIDE study: Is it taking us where we want to go?, Journal of Transport & Health, Volume 1, Issue 1, March 2014, Pages 45-49. [39] Q. Runhua, C. Hua, Z. Ruiling, L. Yuanxing, Design Scheme of Public Transport Comprehensive Dispatching MIS based on MAS, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 96, 6 November 2013, Pages 1063-


[40] M. Mokonyama, C. Venter, Incorporation of customer satisfaction in public transport contracts – A preliminary analysis, Research in Transpor- tation Economics, Volume 39, Issue 1, March 2013, Pages 58-66.

[41] E. Taniguchi, Y. Imanishi, R. Barber, J. James, W. Debauche, Public Sector Governance to Implement Freight Vehicle Transport Management, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 125, 20 March 2014, Pages 345-357.

[42] J. D. Nelson, C. Mulley, The impact of the application of new technol-

ogy on public transport service provision and the passenger experience: A focus on implementation in Australia, Research in Transportation Eco- nomics, Volume 39, Issue 1, March 2013, Pages 300-308.

[43] M. Liu, Y. Jiang, L. Yang, Z. Zhang, An Elastic Analysis on Urban Public Transport Priority in Beijing, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sci- ences, Volume 43, 2012, Pages 79-85.

[44] D. Agostino, B. Steenhuisen, M. Arnaboldi, H. de Bruijn, PMS devel- opment in local public transport: Comparing Milan and Amsterdam, Transport Policy, Volume 33, May 2014, Pages 26-32.

[45] A. Jones, A. Goodman, H. Roberts, R. Steinbach, J. Green, Entitlement to concessionary public transport and wellbeing: A qualitative study of young people and older citizens in London, UK, Social Science & Medi- cine, Volume 91, August 2013, Pages 202-209.

[46] F. Filippi, G. Fusco, U. Nanni, User Empowerment and Advanced Public Transport Solutions, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 87, 10 October 2013, Pages 3-17.

[47] A. A. Batabyal, P. Nijkamp, Ought a green citizen to bicycle or take public transport to work? Ecological Economics, Volume 86, February

2013, Pages 93-96.

[48] D. Rojas-Rueda, A. de Nazelle, O. Teixidó, M.J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Health impact assessment of increasing public transport and cycling use in Barcelona: A morbidity and burden of disease approach, Preventive Medicine, Volume 57, Issue 5, November 2013, Pages 573-579.

[49] B. Otto, N. Boysen, A dynamic programming based heuristic for locat- ing stops in public transportation networks, Computers & Industrial En- gineering, Volume 78, December 2014, Pages 163-174.

[50] R. Merkert, D. A. Hensher, Regulation, trust and contractual incen- tives around transport contracts – Is there anything bus operators can learn from public air service contracts?, Research in Transportation Eco- nomics, Volume 39, Issue 1, March 2013, Pages 67-78.

[51] T. Nordfjærn, Ö. Şimşekoğlu, T. Rundmo, The role of deliberate plan- ning, car habit and resistance to change in public transportation mode use, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Volume

27, Part A, November 2014, Pages 90-98.

[52] T. Nordfjærn, Ö. Şimşekoğlu, H. B. Lind, S. H. Jørgensen, T. Rundmo, Transport priorities, risk perception and worry associated with mode use and preferences among Norwegian commuters, Accident Analysis & Pre- vention, Volume 72, November 2014, Pages 391-400.

[53] S. Müller, P. Wilhelm, K. Haase, Spatial dependencies and spatial drift in public transport seasonal ticket revenue data, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Volume 20, Issue 3, May 2013, Pages 334-348.

[54] K. Paunović, G. Belojević, B. Jakovljević, Noise annoyance is related to the presence of urban public transport, Science of The Total Environment, Volume 481, 15 May 2014, Pages 479-487.

[55] S. Hassold, A. Ceder, Public transport vehicle scheduling featuring multiple vehicle types, Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Volume 67, September 2014, Pages 129-143.

[56] A. Delbosc, G. Currie, Using Lorenz curves to assess public transport equity, Journal of Transport Geography, Volume 19, Issue 6, November

2011, Pages 1252-1259.

[57] R. Buehler, J. Pucher, Making public transport financially sustainable, Transport Policy, Volume 18, Issue 1, January 2011, Pages 126-138.

[58] C. J. Venter, M. Molomo, M. Mashiri, Supply and pricing strategies of informal rural transport providers, Journal of Transport Geography, Vol- ume 41, December 2014, Pages 239-248.

[59] C. H. Sørensen, F. Longva, Increased coordination in public transport—which mechanisms are available? Transport Policy, Volume 18, Issue 1, January 2011, Pages 117-125.

[60] S. Farag, G. Lyons, To use or not to use? An empirical study of pre- trip public transport information for business and leisure trips and com- parison with car travel, Transport Policy, Volume 20, March 2012, Pages


[61] G. Currie, A. Delbosc, Exploring the trip chaining behaviour of public

transport users in Melbourne, Transport Policy, Volume 18, Issue 1, Janu- ary 2011, Pages 204-210.

[62] J. Corcoran, T. Li, D. Rohde, E. Charles-Edwards, Derlie Mateo- Babiano, Spatio-temporal patterns of a Public Bicycle Sharing Program: the effect of weather and calendar events, Journal of Transport Geography, Volume 41, December 2014, Pages 292-305.

[63] A. Wittmer, B. Riegler, Purchasing a general ticket for public transport

– A means end approach, Travel Behaviour and Society, Volume 1, Issue 3, September 2014, Pages 106-112.

[64] B. Bureau, M. Glachant, Distributional effects of public transport poli- cies in the Paris Region, Transport Policy, Volume 18, Issue 5, September

2011, Pages 745-754.

[65] A. Delbosc, G. Currie, Modelling the causes and impacts of personal safety perceptions on public transport ridership, Transport Policy, Volume

24, November 2012, Pages 302-309.

[66] S. Moore, Understanding and managing anti-social behaviour on public transport through value change: The considerate travel campaign, Transport Policy, Volume 18, Issue 1, January 2011, Pages 53-59.

[67] J. P. M. Miguel, C. S. de Blas, I. C. J. Barandalla, Estudio empírico so- bre la utilización del transporte público en la Comunidad de Madrid como factor clave de movilidad sostenible, Cuadernos de Economía, Volume 37, Issue 104, May–August 2014, Pages 112-124.

[68] R. Prud'homme, M. Koning, L. Lenormand, A. Fehr, Public transport congestion costs: The case of the Paris subway, Transport Policy, Volume

21, May 2012, Pages 101-109.

[69] C. Jaramillo, C. Lizárraga, A. L. Grindlay, Spatial disparity in

transport social needs and public transport provision in Santiago de Cali (Colombia), Journal of Transport Geography, Volume 24, September 2012, Pages 340-357.

[70] R. Merkert, B. O’Fee, Efficient procurement of public air services— Lessons learned from European transport authorities' perspectives, Transport Policy, Volume 29, September 2013, Pages 118-125.

[71] M. Langford, G. Higgs, R. Fry, Using floating catchment analysis (FCA) techniques to examine intra-urban variations in accessibility to public transport opportunities: the example of Cardiff, Wales, Journal of Transport Geography, Volume 25, November 2012, Pages 1-14.

[72] M. Börjesson, Valuing perceived insecurity associated with use of and access to public transport, Transport Policy, Volume 22, July 2012, Pages 1-


[73] M. Attard, Reforming the urban public transport bus system in Malta: Approach and acceptance, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Volume 46, Issue 7, August 2012, Pages 981-992.

[74] M. de Fátima Teles, J. F. de Sousa, Environmental Management and

Business Strategy: Structuring the Decision-Making Support in a Public

IJSER © 2015

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 1, January-2015 36

ISSN 2229-5518

Transport Company, Transportation Research Procedia, Volume 3, 2014, Pages 155-164.

[75] J. Stanley, A. Smith, Workshop 3A: Governance, contracting, owner- ship and competition issues in public transport: Looking up not down, Research in Transportation Economics, Volume 39, Issue 1, March 2013, Pages 167-174.

[76] A. Tibaut, B. Kaučič, D. Rebolj, A standardised approach for sustaina- ble interoperability between public transport passenger information sys- tems, Computers in Industry, Volume 63, Issue 8, October 2012, Pages 788-


[77] P. Graham, C. Mulley, Public transport pre-pay tickets: Understanding passenger choice for different products, Transport Policy, Volume 19, Issue

1, January 2012, Pages 69-75.

[78] D. Tsamboulas, A. Verma, P. Moraiti, Transport infrastructure provi- sion and operations: Why should governments choose private–public partnership?, Research in Transportation Economics, Volume 38, Issue 1, February 2013, Pages 122-127.

[79] D. P. Ashmore, A. D. Mellor, The 2008 New Zealand public transport management act: Rationale, key provisions, and parallels with the United Kingdom, Research in Transportation Economics, Volume 29, Issue 1,

2010, Pages 164-182.

[80] P. Wilkinson, The regulatory cycle stalled? An assessment of current institutional obstacles to regulatory reform in the provision of road-based public transport in Cape Town, South Africa, Research in Transportation Economics, Volume 29, Issue 1, 2010, Pages 387-394.

[81] Y. Koo, M. Lee, Y. Cho, A point card system for public transport utili- zation in Korea, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environ- ment, Volume 22, July 2013, Pages 70-74.

[82] T. Xia, M. Nitschke, Y. Zhang, P. Shah, S. Crabb, A. Hansen, Traffic- related air pollution and health co-benefits of alternative transport in Ade- laide, South Australia, Environment International, Volume 74, January

2015, Pages 281-290.

[83] M. Cabrera, A. Suárez-Alemán, L. Trujillo, Public Private Partnerships in Spanish Ports: Current status and future prospects, Utilities Policy, Vol- ume 32, March 2015, Pages 1-11.

[84] L. Hansson, Solving procurement problems in public transport: Ex- amining multi-principal roles in relation to effective control mechanisms, Research in Transportation Economics, Volume 29, Issue 1, 2010, Pages


[85] C. Kamga, Emerging travel trends, high-speed rail, and the public reinvention of U.S. transportation, Transport Policy, Volume 37, January

2015, Pages 111-120.

[86] B. Amberg, B. Amberg, N. Kliewer, Increasing Delay-Tolerance of Vehicle and Crew Schedules in Public Transport by Sequential, Partial- Integrated and Integrated Approaches, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20, 2011, Pages 292-301.

[87] Z. Li, D. A. Hensher, Crowding and public transport: A review of willingness to pay evidence and its relevance in project appraisal, Transport Policy, Volume 18, Issue 6, November 2011, Pages 880-887.

[88] I.J. Donald, S.R. Cooper, S.M. Conchie, An extended theory of planned behaviour model of the psychological factors affecting commuters' transport mode use, Journal of Environmental Psychology, Volume 40, December 2014, Pages 39-48.

[89] A. Ljungberg, Local public transport on the basis of social economic criteria, Research in Transportation Economics, Volume 29, Issue 1, 2010, Pages 339-345.

[90] K. Solecka, J. Żak, Integration of the Urban Public Transportation System with the Application of Traffic Simulation, Transportation Re- search Procedia, Volume 3, 2014, Pages 259-268.

[91] B. Finn, J. Walters, Workshop report – Public transport markets in development, Research in Transportation Economics, Volume 29, Issue 1,

2010, Pages 354-361.

[92] R. Mu, M. de Jong, B. Yu, Z. Yang, The future of the modal split in

China's greenest city: Assessing options for integrating Dalian's fragment- ed public transport system, Policy and Society, Volume 31, Issue 1, March

2012, Pages 51-71.

[93] A. Alonso, A. Monzón, R. Cascajo, Comparative analysis of passenger transport sustainability in European cities, Ecological Indicators, Volume

48, January 2015, Pages 578-592.

[94] M. Percoco, Quality of institutions and private participation in transport infrastructure investment: Evidence from developing countries, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Volume 70, December

2014, Pages 50-58.

[95] S. Nocera, F. Cavallaro, The Ancillary Role of CO2 Reduction in Urban

Transport Plans, Transportation Research Procedia, Volume 3, 2014, Pages


IJSER © 2015