International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 4, April-2015 1293

ISSN 2229-5518

Design and Development of New Architecture for Reconfiguration and Processing of Automation Industrial Control System

Suvidh P. Gohane, Ganesh S. Khekare

Abstract— In most Automation Industrial Process System, the processes such as manufacturing, processing, packaging etc. are performed with automation conveyor mechanism system with some particular processing pattern, If in real time there is need to use this same system to execute another process with some different modified processing pattern. There is a need of reconfiguration of the system to execute modified processing pattern. Traditionally to achieve this, new system has to be developed with new configuration, this will require programming expertise to meet modified processing pattern and are costly. So above problem taken into consideration, the design of a real time reconfigurable industrial system has been developed. The term ‘reconfigurable’ here indicates that the system consisting of various industrial machines and nodes can be configured to change its mode and sequence of operation, thus changing the work process. Such systems may be used in industries where a series of manufacturing operations and processes are implemented to obtain a finished product. Reconfiguration may be needed here to change the design or manufacturing process, to obtain or fulfill the requirements of another final product. To demonstrate the concept, a system resembling an industrial assembly line have been created, consisting of a conveyor belt mechanism and sensors with various other mechanisms operating alongside the conveyor over goods and objects being carried by the conveyor. To enable reconfiguration, new Motion Description Language Architecture (MDLA) schemes that allow the user to describe the set of processes and tasks in the form of a script that the machine understands have been proposed and designed, also developed Application Programming Interface (API) Graphical User Interface (GUI) based software where the user can write the scripts, which are then translated into MDL codes and sent to the machine which starts functioning accordingly.

Index Terms— Application programming interface (API), Automation, Industrial embedded System, Microcontroller, Motion Description

Language Architecture (MDLA), Reconfigure, Sensors.


—————————— ——————————
n most of the automation industrial control system, such as a refinery, thermal power plant, automation plant pa- per production plant. There are present hundreds or
thousands of sensors and actuators along with embedded con- trol system which automatic monitor and control functionali- ties of more advanced and complicated hardware. Due to some environmental changes or any other technical changes,
malfunction in devices or in sensors may occur. Traditionally,
these devices must need to design again or replaced. This in
turn causes, increase in the cost and very time consuming. So
the systems must provide easy and convenient system recon-
figuration with specially designed software for its hardware.
Usually Software for embedded control systems is designed
and implemented with a set of functions, such as device driv-
ers, control functions and algorithms. Sometimes Components
threshold/reference value may need to be added, adjusted,
removed, or modify in real time in such manner to meet new
product requirements in industry. This emerging trend calls
for reconfigurable embedded system, in which software that reuses or modifies existing hardware components to generate the reconfiguration software for each new application very quickly. This will result in turn to allow a way out for low-cost
product development and Maintenance.
So proposed developed work aims to design a new Motion
Description Language Architecture (MDLA) schemes for re-
configuration of WSN nodes, in most easy and without having
prior knowledge of programming, in which Application pro-
gramming interface (API) will have to designed wherein each
nodes contains various code to be assigned to node parameter and reconfiguration can be achieved using simple reconfigur- ing commands.
This paper is organized as follows. Section II discusses the related work described concerning about methods/ tech- niques to configure and program wireless network embedded devices and to connect those to external applications to inter- net. In Section III, the proposed system architecture is de- scribed. It explains the architecture of wireless node compo- nents present and what are the parameters to achieve remote easy reconfiguration flexibility of any industrial wireless em- bedded systems. Section IV describes methodology for recon- figuration of automation conveyor process system. In Section V design and implementation of the system, hardware imple- mentation and software implementation have been explained. What are the outcomes explained in Section VI. Finally, con- cludes the paper in Section VII.


The approach proposed in this paper provides reconfigura- tion capabilities for embedded devices such as WSN nodes. Using it, distributed sensor and actuator nodes can be man- aged without any custom programming, with only simple configuration commands. Related work includes strate- gies/techniques to configure and program sensor network devices and to connect those to external applications via inter- net.

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In the literature, there present several works that address reconfiguration. In paper [1], Author aims at designing a well- defined MidSN, standard components and formats exist that are followed by any node and in order to deploy a system ar- chitecture for deploying and configuring the servers and em- bedded devices with operations at the beginning of deploy- ment, providing configuration flexibility prior to operation through remote configuration. The proposed MidSN architec- ture builds an intermediate computing layer which will serve as an abstraction hiding the different hardware implementa- tions from embedded devices networked applications.
In [13], [14], HW reconfiguration is design by ad hoc recon- figurable devices. a new approach based on the tight coupling of processor with a dynamically reconfigurable function unit which is optimized for wireless sensor network Devices. Dy- namic reconfiguration is part of the regular operation mode and the key concept to achieve a small approach that provides sufficient performance, high adaptivity and good energy- efficiency. But it is prepared to be adapted for only prerecord- ed applications.
Paper [2] designs and realizes a reconfigurable smart sensor interface for industrial WSN in IoT environment. This design presents many advantages, First CPLD is used as the core con- troller to release the restriction on the universal data acquisi- tion interface, and realize truly parallel acquisition of sensor data. It has improved the sensor data collection efficiency of industrial WSN, Secondly, a new design method is proposed multisensor data acquisition interface that can realize plug and play for various kinds of sensors in IoT environment. The design system applies the IEEE1451 interface protocol stand- ard that is used for smart sensors of automatically discovering network.
Paper [3] provides a detailed description of the implementa- tion two new rateless-based OAP protocols. Shed light on the various trade-offs that arise in implementation of rateless OAP on a sensor networks, such as the tradeoff between the size of program pages and the size of the underlying finite field used for computation. It provide extensive numerical results evalu- ating the performance of protocols, based both on real net- work experiments with Tmote Sky sensors and also on simula- tions.
Approaches related with Macro-programming and mid-
dleware are proposed in [4] and [5]. These approaches use a
middleware to reprogram the network. Most consist of mobile
agents which run over virtual machines. Typically, the agent
code is developed by specific frameworks. Specific communi-
cation protocols are also designed to upload the code.

Work described in [6] is the first mobile agent middleware

works for reconfiguration of a WSN implemented entirely in

TinyOS. This paper present an in-depth case study of Agilla

using a fire tracking application. In this application, mobile
agents are deployed to dynamically form and maintain a pe-
rimeter around a fire as it spreads through a network com- prised of 26 MICA2 motes. This paper makes three primary contributions. First, it demonstrates how a mobile agent mid- dleware can be used to facilitate the development and de-
ployment of a nontrivial application. Agilla able to rapidly
create and deploy the entire fire tracking application by inject- ing 47-byte fire agents and a 100 byte tracker agent. Second a set of application-level performance results that demonstrate the reliability and efficiency of mobile agents and tuple spaces in a highly dynamic application. Finally, it provide new in- sights into, and lessons about, mobile agent programming techniques for WSNs.
The works described in above papers have some issues to handle the distributed configuration. There is need for soft- ware to burn completely static and node-specific code into each device for reconfiguration. Most of the reconfiguration architecture are mostly targeted at hardware changes and fails to offer the application configuration flexibility and are costly. Also they are only for Specific operating system. There is no such a software architecture which offers computation solu- tions to provide flexibility to adapt to industrial process changes efficiently. Each time user needs to develop the new code, for node reconfiguration which requires programming expertise.


Proposed system set up shown in figure 3.It consists of control base station at server side and Industrial set up consists of wireless network of three nodes i.e. Sensor Alarm Monitor Unit, Actuator unit and Reconfigurable Exhaust System.

Fig. 1. System architecture

3.1 Node 1 Sensor Alarm monitor unit

Fig. 2. Deployment of Sensors

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Fig. 3. Actuator node

In Industry such as thermal power plant, mining, oil re- finery different sensors are used to sense the data and raise the alarm according to set threshold value. Sensor Alarm monitor unit shown in figure 4, is a collection of Controller Circuit, LCD, Battery, Zigbee wireless module for Communication Medium through cluster node, where all the sensors are con- nected to controller circuit. It is built of using AVR16 Micro- controller. The Parameters which reconfigure at Sensor Alarm monitor unit will be:-
1. Its Threshold value
2. Reboot the system at real time

3.2 Node 2 Actuator unit

In most of the Industrial control system such as Automa- tion Actuator unit, AVR16 Microcontroller based DC motor controlled conveyor belt mechanism shown in figure 5, is used for manufacturing purposes. The parameters which will be reconfigured at actuator unit i.e. DC motor controlled convey- or belt mechanism will be:-
1. Speed for particular distance
2. No. of halts
3. Time duration of halts
4. Delay
5. Direction
At run time to make it reconfigurable.

3.3 Node 3 Reconfigurable exhaust pipeline system set up

Fig. 4. Reconfigurable exhaust pipeline system set up

Fig. 5. Reconfiguration of Industrial control system

Figure 6 is reconfigurable exhaust pipeline system set up in this node, a network of exhaust pipes and ducts will be devel- oped that will connect all chambers and rooms within the in- dustry. Using multiple exhaust fans fit across every intersec- tion, with directional control at server side API based recon- figuring software, will be able to reconfigure the route of the exhaust and suction system. In this way, the user would be able to choose the exact path from the point of suction to the point of throw-out.

3.4 Reconfiguration of Industrial control system

Proposed work shown in figure 7 will develop, the API based reconfiguration software at sever side and loaded in sever PC. This Reconfiguration software will be developed on Dotnet programming language. API will be created using Vis- ual basic Studio (VB6). This will consist to use controls like – Button, List view and Labels Major controls were – Serial Port and Button. The advantage of using this language, it is event driven programming language and provides interface for ap- plication programming development. Control base station is nothing but a board having TX/RX Capabilities. AVR16 Mi- crocontroller is connected to circuit using CP2101(USART) Buzzer and various input pins will also be provided in the Base station for communication and testing. Along with one LCD 2x16 will be interfaced. It continuously monitors the in- dustrial wireless nodes functions. Zigbee wireless protocol used as COMM module for communication medium. Master base station acts as a middleware between server and indus- trial set up for configuration decoding and updation. Recon- figuration is done by simple API based reconfiguring com- mands for example R_config temp();



The following Reconfiguring of Automation Conveyor Process System model to be constructed aims to provide user friendly access.

To Develop the API Reconfiguring software on Server side.

To create the Base station which acts as a middleware between server and nodes.

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To create the embedded process nodes.

To design these nodes as Reconfigurable.

To provide the wireless communication between

server and Reconfigurable nodes.

To develop the configuration command and data


To test the entire system.

To analyze the results.

The Algorithm and flow is shown below which shows how

the whole system works for configuring node.

Fig. 6. Flow Diagram of MDL Architecture


received by channel state. These pulses are in feedback loops with control state to data transmit state. Control state controls the pulses according to MDL codes send by users.

Algorithm For Reconfiguration of Run Time Process

1. Start
2. Check Continuously to receive command by user
If commands received go to step 3 otherwise repeat
Step 2
3. Decode the command in MDL codes & transfer it to
character variable
4. Checking the entered MDL code command to per-
form reconfiguration process
i. if((mybyte[q]>=65)&&(mybyte[q]<76))
movefw(mybyte[q]-65); Move conveyor belt
in forward direction for specified time, if not
matched go to ii
ii. else if((mybyte[q]>=110)&&(mybyte[q]<120)) movebw(mybyte[q]-110); Move conveyor belt backward direction for specified time, if not matched go to iii
iii. else if((mybyte[q]>=48)&&(mybyte[q]<60));
perform process 1, if not matched go to iv
iv. else if((mybyte[q]>=77)&&(mybyte[q]<87));
perform process 2, if not matched go to v
v. else if((mybyte[q]>=88)&&(mybyte[q]<98));
perform process 3, if not matched exit
5. Stop.



The control state diagram is explained in figure 7. It shows how the control flows from one state to another via feedback loop.

Fig. 7. Control state Diagram

Master state machine generates the reconfiguring command transfers to channel trigger state and data transmit state. Channel state triggers the pulses according to the command
In this section design of hardware implementation and software implementation have been explained with specifica- tion and snapshots are shown.

5.1 Hardware Implementation

The model is divided into two parts i.e. hardware part and software part Firstly, Hardware part is also divided into two industrial test bed, sensor alarm monitoring system unit and Conveyor Process System unit.

5.1.1 Implementation of Sensor Alarm Monitoring


In sensor alarm monitoring system unit a circuit diagram is designed which consist of Microcontroller (ATMEGA 16), Temperature sensor (LM35), Gas sensor (MQ-6) and Serial Communication (RS232).Two sensors are interfaced using Re- lay to microcontroller ATMEGA16. Port D is used in which pin no. 2 & 3 is used for connecting serial communication i.e. RS232 for transmission and reception of data. LCD is inter- faced with port A of Atmega 16 on which real time corre- sponding reading is shown, Alarming buzzer is connected to port B.

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Gas pipeline re-routing has been shown using three solenoid Valves connected in Y arrangement.

In and Out of Solenoid Valve has been controlled us- ing ON/OFF, corresponding with Relay and Com- mands received from Base Station.

6.1 Software Implementation

6.1.1 Creation of API based GUI

Fig. 8. Snapshot of Sensor alarm Monitoring Unit

Sensor Node consist of two Sensors interfaced:

1. Temperature
2. Gas Sensor

Temperature Gives Reading from 100-800

Gas Sensor Gives Digital Output

5.1.2 Implementation of Actuator Unit

Fig. 11. Snapshot of API based GUI

API has been created using Visual Basic Studio (VB6)

API consist use of controls like – Button, List View

and Labels

Major controls were – Serial Port and Buttons

Fig. 9. Snapshot of Actuator Unit

Node consist of Conveyor Belt Mechanism driven us- ing 60 rpm motor

In order to configure conveyor belt speed, direction, delay, PWM has been generated on PORT D of At- mega 16 through driver IC L293D.

RF has been interfaced at (Tx/Rx) Pin of Controller working with 2.4 Ghz

5.1.3 Implementation of exhaust pipeline system set up


This section shows the experimental test bed for reconfigu- ration of Industrial assembly line System and discusses how the proposed developed system reconfigure the process pat- tern on real time and how effectively it achieves the reconfigu- ration of system through MDLA architecture.

Fig. 12. Snapshot of Achieving Reconfiguration of Industrial

Proessing System

Fig. 10. Snapshot of exhaust pipeline system set up

Here, the paper production industrial test beds having six automation processes are defined to process with any real time pattern. Process one is a cutting process used in paper

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production industries, process second is drying process, pro- cess third is light heating treatment process and conveyor belt movement forward, backward and delay process. Figure 12 shows how reconfiguring software which is loaded in PC achieves the reconfiguration of system model.

verify its accurate implementation, wirelessly via a remote server.

System Performance

Fig. 13. Snapshot of GUI for Achieving Reconfiguration of

Industrial Processing System

Fig. 13 Graphical Analysis

The GUI for reconfiguration of industrial test bed has shown in figure 13. Here anyone can easily reconfigure the processing system with this GUI without having much more knowledge of programming. Table 1 shows generation of MDL code commands run time reconfiguration of process pattern. For example if there is need to perform action of delay in between already running process pattern, simply open the reconfiguring software GUI, click on the halt caption button also can able to select how much delay want produce, select- ing scroll bar of units. In this way following codes transfers to the processing model system to perform reconfiguration de- pending upon the command transfer.




No. Of Base Units Code




















3.5 Second








Process 1







Process 2







Process 3









End of



Upon implementation, this proposed system will enable factory engineers, supervisors and even users, who do not have that much knowledge of programming to be remotely monitor / reconfigure the operation of various machines, and
The Graphical analyses are shown with the help of Figure
13. The system has then check the performance with the exist-
ing Manual Hardware Reprogramming Architecture system,
considering the parameters of command passed and time tak-
en to respond for corresponding process. Both the above pa-
rameters are tested in the proposed system and it is found that
event is triggered at same time and proposed systems, re-
sponse time is very low i.e. in seconds as compared to Manual
Hardware Reprogramming Architecture system.


Experimental set up achieves the effective reconfiguration through proposed MDLA architecture schemes. The main aim behind the proposed developed system approach is to provide such architecture which uses Application programming inter- face (API) for easy and uniform configuration and processing over wireless networks comprising embedded devices and nodes such as sensor actuator units or control stations. Pro- posed system has described the detail explanations about each wireless industrial node components. In wireless sensor net- works, a combination of high energy-efficiency, flexibility, interoperability, low cost and user friendly interface is re- quired, which is difficult to achieve with classical architec- tures. So uniform API based MDLA reconfiguration software architecture is developed, has the potential to offer a much better interface than to adapt for hardware changes solutions, which are found in most of related work.
The work presented here encourages researchers and de- signers to develop such protocols and algorithms that are based on fast and efficient computation to make future sensor nodes smarter and more efficient. The approach for a flexible, low cost and efficient sensor node presented in this paper is based on the combination of a controller with uniform recon- figurable functional unit, for industrial applications, can also have to consider web support applications could be imple-

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mented using Internet of things (IoT) concepts for reconfigura- tion functional unit operations. For future research it might be very useful to analyze the development of tools for heteroge- neous mixed wireless sensor network and wired network that could automize and prioritizes these tasks.


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