International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 3, Issue 3, March -2012 1

ISSN 2229-5518

Data Broadcasting Model for Mobile Video-on- Demand Systems

Abdulaziz Alrashidi and Omar Baakeel

AbstractThe future development of data broadcasting is expected to involve the efficient dissemination of data items in a mobile com- puting environment that relies on the data dissemination method to improve the scalability of systems and to indicate reliable patterns for dynamic user access. The rapid growth of time-critical information in emerging applications presents a number of challenges. There is an increasing need for the system to assist convenient data dissemination for multiple parties. This paper discusses the main challenges and techniques of mobile video broadcasting and proposes a model for mobile video systems involving time-critical on-demand data broadcasting.

Index TermsData broadcasting, demand systems, mobile wireless, network techniques


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HE current deployment of different wireless communica- tion networks over mobile devices has brought to light the need for suitable services in terms of reliability. Moreover, a wireless communication system that is used in different envi- ronments adopts certain broadcasting elements so as to deliver information to the client. The implementation of these elements can be carried out without generating additional cost [1]. Some issues associated with the use of point-to-point services include signal response time and the conservation of power and band- width usage. Few studies focuses on reducing the time of deli- very of broadcast data through personal digital assistant (PDA) devices [2]. The most important challenges involving the deli- very of data elements through mobile devices are access effi-
ciency and power conservation in the PDA system [3].
The required period for retrieving and representing data and
the speed of performing a request must be specified to gain
access efficiency. Power conservation involves reducing a mo-
bile client's power consumption while accessing the desired
data [4].
The communication structure of broadcast data could help
users to create a different range of broadcast data communica-
tions. This type of action may reduce access time and power
loss for mobile clients, which ranges from only a few hours to
about half a day under continuous use. A number of research- ers, including Dewri et al. [2] have addressed the communica- tion behavior of such an environment by describing the access time between the moment when a query is issued and the mo-
ment when it is satisfied.


To retrieve a data item in data broadcasting, a mobile client must continuously monitor the broadcast until the data item of interest arrives. For this type of action to occur, time is required to access the data sources in the server. Various solutions have been introduced to overcome this problem. The most common solution has focused on indexing the data elements so as to provide better broadcast access. One drawback of this solution is that the broadcast of any video data is lengthened as a result of the additional indexing information. Therefore, data access and access time become issues in this type of situation.
The complexity of accessing broadcast data through PDA devices in a network is exacerbated by the following three forces: the exponential growth in demand from users for richer network services, the desire of providers to utilize network re- sources fully, and the complexity of the interactions between advanced networking components, which are themselves be- coming more complex.


The main focus of this paper is reducing the time for broadcast- ing through PDA user devices. This paper follows the recom- mendations put forth by Chen, et al. [1] to formulate in detail how data are streamed/broadcast to users. The process of broadcasting video over networks is also adapted from the find- ings of Kim and Kang [10]. Based on their findings, we conclude that PDA devices have a high level of network ability to deal with different protocols. Fig. 1 presents the main components of the adopted broadcast video delivery networks.


Abdulaziz Alrashidi is currently a Ph.D candidate at the College of Busi- ness and Public Administraation, University of La Verne, California, USA. E-mail:

Omar Baakeel is currently a Ph.D candidate at the College of Business and Public Management, University of La Verne, California, USA. E-mail: ob-

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ISSN 2229-5518

researchers have highlighted the features of this technique, par- ticularly how it allows a mobile operator to achieve the highest level of performance for a mobile video stream by reducing the amount of data traffic and how it consumes a great deal of op- erator spectrum for deployment [7-8]. Fig. 3 depicts the features of a Broadcast and Multicast Service (BCMCS).

Fig. 1. Components of broadcast video delivery networks.


The main techniques for retrieving and delivering mobile video that significantly affect operators are reviewed in this paper. Video delivery networks can be categorized as follows:

4.1 Unicast Video Delivery Networks

This type of service requires various technologies, such as Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP), Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), and Adobe Flash-based streaming servers, to deliver a unique video stream to each subscriber [5].

Conklin et al. [7] and other researchers have described the importance of this type of service in the delivery of video data, which allows a service manager to limit the video access time and to provide access within a fixed range. Those researchers justified the time factor in processing the broadcast data. They found that unicast video allows a mobile operator to deliver an individual experience to the subscriber, which relies on not only technical considerations (e.g., availability of bandwidth in a cell tower and optimization of video codec) but also subscriber pre- ference (e.g., targeted advertising) [5-6]. Fig. 2 shows how a un- icast video delivery network works.

Fig. 2. Unicast video delivery network.

4.2 Multicast Video Delivery Networks

This type of video delivery network is found in the configura- tion of some wireless services such as Third Generation Partner- ship Project (3GPP), Third Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2), and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) forum. It has not been optimized in a lot of fields for operating and facilitating data delivery over networks. Many

Fig. 3. Broadcast and Multicast Service (BCMCS).

4.3 Broadcast Video Delivery Networks

In their [9] study, Kim and Kang examined the reliability of this technique in delivering video components to user wireless de- vices based on overlay networks and a separate spectrum for the delivery of video services to devices. The main drawback of this technique is the need for specifying the data elements to be executed in video broadcasting.
Receiving a video signal in these networks requires separate radio components [9]. Therefore, with such a large number of points of presence (PoPs) (i.e., cell towers) in the mobile net- work, its imposed data must be broadcasted slowly. It can be shown with the Digital Video Broadcasting-Handheld (DVB-H; see Fig. 3) and Qualcomm MediaFLO.
In their 2007 study, Schierl, Stockhammer, and Wiegand [10]
introduced a data representation model for video accessing (Fig.
4). Their goal was to report on the streaming media process
over mobile devices and on delivery networks for video signals.
They also discussed the critical issues in managing the delivery
period of data in a continuous stream of packets to the mobile
device [8]. Fig. 4 shows that some of these packets are delayed
in routing and that some are lost during transmission.
A streaming media session may include a flow of status con-
trol for the information from the receiving device to the server
and an indication of the quality of the streaming data connec-
tion. In this study, we found that obtaining such a process may
allow the media server to adjust its data transmission rate so as
to accommodate changing transmission characteristics.

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Fig. 4. Streaming media.

The issues involving data delivery have prompted many re- searchers to design and develop techniques that specify the main aspects of delivering video content over wireless network services. In their [11] work, Bria, Karrberg, and Andersson demonstrated this phenomenon by developing a new mobile TV business model, which comes with new dimensions [10]. They also addressed difficulties associated with the technology, market behavior, and industry strategy domains (see Fig. 5).

Fig. 5. On-demand architecture towards data accessing [2].

In his [12] article, Picard studied the potential of streaming audio and video services to mobile handsets from the perspec- tive of consumer behavior. He maintained that consumer choice rather than technology or supply side activities determine the success of these services. In addition, Picard claimed that con- sumers who are currently using mobile audio and video servic- es with other technologies for data delivery enhancement large- ly determine the demand for mobile broadcasting services [11].


In the present study, we create a data broadcasting model for mobile video-on-demand systems based on the findings of the aforementioned research studies, particularly those of Dewri, Ray, and Whitley [2]; Chen, Chan, and Li [5]; and Kim and Kang [6]. The proposed model, which is formulated to deliver broadcast data efficiently, includes the following components: Evolution Data Optimized (EVDO), a third generation (3G) high speed wireless broadband standard; time-division multiplexing (TDM), which enables different conversions between multicast Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) and unicast (RTSP), User Datagram Protocol (UDP), and Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP); and public data networks (PDNs), which are used to or- ganize the load balancing of resources for live and on-demand services. The proposed model is designed to meet the specific requirements of delivering broadcast data over mobile video on-demand systems or operators. This model—with its use of EVDO, TDM, and PDNs for controlling video broadcasting through a high- speed network—differs from existing tech- niques.

Fig. 6. Proposed data broadcasting model for mobile video on- demand systems.

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The main objective of this paper is to decrease the broadcast time for users, based on the proposed mechanism level, which in turn could reduce the access time. Specifically, this paper investigates a new mechanism for retrieving data elements from mobile devices and for delivering data elements to mobile de- vices during the broadcasting process. The proposed model is formulated to reduce the time required for delivering broadcast data and to provide high quality in content delivery.


This paper reviews the current challenges in video broadcast- ing, with a particular focus on time-critical issues in delivering on-demand data broadcasting. The main techniques for mobile video broadcasting are also discussed. A model for data broad- casting in mobile video is introduced, based on the recommen- dations of the reviewed broadcasting techniques for on-demand systems. The expected advantages of the customized model are highlighted.


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