Dr. Ahmed F. Khudheyer | Ali Jawad Obaid | Mazin Y. Abdul-Kareem |

ahyaja@yahoo.com | Waal_ali2002@yahoo.com | mazinyahia@yahoo.com |

Abstract

Combined free and forced convection heat transfer to a thermally developing air flow in a

rectangular duct has been studied experimentally. Experimental part deals with the laminar flow. The study was presented to steady and two dimensions flow. The heated surface was subjected to a constant heat flux while the duct short sides were kept unheated, for upper side heated only with constant heat flux and for three-duct angles of inclination -30°, -45° and -60°. In the experimental study, the heat flux applied to the heated surfaces varied from 40 to 500 W/m2. This provides a modified Grashof number

varied from 2.38*106to 2.8*108respectively, while the Reynolds number varied from 455

to 2000.

Nomenclature

De = Equivalent duct diameter, m

TB = Bulk temperature, °C

TSL = Lower surface temperature, °C TSu = Upper surface temperature, °C

Ui = Inlet velocity, m/s

Introduction

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The research paper published by IJSER journal is about AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MIXED CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER IN AN INCLINED RECTANGULAR DUCT EXPOSED TO UNIFORM HEAT FLUX FROM UPPER SURFACE 2

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An investagation of fully developed mixed convection in an inclined rectangular duct is presented. Mixed convection flows arise in many transport processes in natural and engineering devices. Atmospheric boundary layer flow, heat exchangers, solar collectors, nuclear reactors, and electronic equipments are some examples. Such a process occurs when the effect of the buoyancy force in forced convection or the effect of forced flow in free convection becomes significant. In the study of internal flows of mixed convection heat transfer, the interactions of thermal and hydrodynamic development become fairly complicated For inclined ducts, the gravity force acts in the vertical direction, and As will as the buoyancy force is in the main flow direction and induces secondary flows in the cross plane. Many works have been investigated on mixed heat transfer in laminar or turbulent flows in inclind rectangular ducts Yan [1] has studied numerically on the transport phenomena of mixed convection heat and mass

transfer in an inclined rectangular duct. He

found that the buoyancy forces distort *the velocity, *temperature and concentration distributions. Huang and Lin [2] investigated the transient mixed convection air flow in a bottom heated inclined rectangular duct. Attention wasparticularly paid to delineate the effects of the duct inclination on the flow transition with heat transfer only. W. L. Pu, P.Cheng and T. S. Zhao (1999) [3] carried out in the range of 2<Pe<2200 and

700<Ra<1500. The measured temperature distribution indicates the existence of a secondary convective cell inside the vertical packed channel in the mixed convection regime. A correlation equation for Nusselt number in terms of Peclet number Pe and Rayleigh number Ra was obtained from experimental data. A plot of Nu/Pe1/2 vs Ra/Pe exhibits the transition of heat transfer results from the natural convection limit to the forced convection limit. It is found that the following three convection regimes exist: natural convection regime: 105< Ra/Pe, mixedconvectionregime:1<Ra/Pe<105,and

forced convection regime: Ra/Pe< 1.

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The research paper published by IJSER journal is about AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MIXED CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER IN AN INCLINED RECTANGULAR DUCT EXPOSED TO UNIFORM HEAT FLUX FROM UPPER SURFACE 3

ISSN 2229-5518

Paulo and Genesio (2004) [2], studied the mixed convection heat transfer in an inclined rectangular channel. Three heat sources with finite lengths are flush mounted on the bottom surface of a channel. The Reynolds number, Grashof number and inclination angle are ranged as follows: 1 ≤ Re ≤ 1000, 103 ≤ Gr ≤ 105 and 00 ≤ γ ≤ 900. Three comparisons between experimental and numerical results were performed. It is observed that the inclination angle has a stronger influence on the flow and heat transfer for Reynolds number equals to 1000, especially when it is between 00 and 450. The cases which present the lowest temperature distributions on the modules are those where the inclination angles are

450 and 900 with little difference between them. The case where Gr = 105 and Re =

1000, is an exception where γ equals 00 is

the best channel inclination.

It is noted that the study of developing mixed convection flow in inclinedrectangular ducts is useful in practical sense, but it has not received

enough attention and the studies of

developing mixed convection flow in inclined ducts. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of inclination duct on the developing mixed convection flow in inclined rectangular ducts. The design of industrial heat exchangers in chemical. Food processing industries where problems may be encountered involving combined convection in horizontal channels. Cooling of electrical equipment. The design of certain types of solar energy collectors (flat plate heater).The estimating of energy time scale required in the case of piping failure in the nuclear power plant.

II. *ANALYSIS*

1. Problem Statement

The geometry of this problem as schematically shown inFig. 1 is a rectangular duct with inclination angle α, width w,and height h. The velocity components in x, y, and z directionsare denoted as u, v, and w, respectively. A uniform axialvelocity wo and a uniform temperature To are imposed at theinlet z =

0. Although practical flows are often

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The research paper published by IJSER journal is about AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MIXED CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER IN AN INCLINED RECTANGULAR DUCT EXPOSED TO UNIFORM HEAT FLUX FROM UPPER SURFACE 4

ISSN 2229-5518

turbulent, theentering upward flow is assumed to be steady and laminar.The temperature of the injected or suctioned fluid is the sameas that of the duct wall. The walls are imposed uniform heat flux.

Fig. 1 Schematically sketch for the rig.

The most important of the open air circuit is the test section where most of the measurements were made. The two vertical walls (shorter sides of rectangular duct) the left and right wall consist of the following , three layers arranged from the duct inside to the duct outside, a 20mm thick of asbestos sheet, a 20mm thick of glass wool sheet and a 50mm thick of a solid compressed wood, respectively. The upper and lower walls of test section were designed to be the duct side heated with a constant heat flux so the situation of upper side heated or lower side heated or both side heated can be achieved by powering the side requires. The details of these walls are shown in fig. (2). The heated surface was constructed from three layers glued together to form a composite heater. The composite heater consists of a heating element as nickrom 1mm diameter wounded uniformly flat on a 1mm mica sheet. The heating element then covered from both sides by 1mm mica sheet. The heat element with covers fixed on 0.5mm stainless steel plate to force a composite

layer heating element.

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The research paper published by IJSER journal is about AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MIXED CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER IN AN INCLINED RECTANGULAR DUCT EXPOSED TO UNIFORM HEAT FLUX FROM UPPER SURFACE 5

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Fig. (2) Test section duct composition

All thermocouples penetrate the mica layer to be fixed on the stainless steel plate. Thermocouples’ locations are mentioned in fig. (3) starting from test section entrance.

Fig (3) Distributed locations of thermocouples on the heaters plates

1. Velocity distribution study:

Three velocity profile tests have been carried out for inclined duct opposing flow

situations comprising combinations of

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The research paper published by IJSER journal is about AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MIXED CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER IN AN INCLINED RECTANGULAR DUCT EXPOSED TO UNIFORM HEAT FLUX FROM UPPER SURFACE 6

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three angles of inclination -30º, -45º and -

60º,

The results for the upper side heated only situation at -30º, -45º and -60º are shown in Figs. (4), (5) and (6).The velocity profile for α = -30º, is shown in Fig. (4), reveals a conspicuous skewing of these profiles toward the upper plate especially at the duct center and 4-cm off-center positions. The shift of the velocity profile is increased toward the upper plate as (α) increases to -45º and -60º as shown in Figs. (5) and (6). The deformation in the upper plate boundary layer with (α) shows a clear merging of transverse profiles.

m, GrDe=2.648*107, Ui=0.388 m/s, TB=20ºC, TSu=71.7ºC, TSL=32.2ºC. Inclined duct, α = -30º, upper side heated, opposing flows.

Fig. (5)Velocity profile. ReDe=2064, xmeas. =0.6 m, GrDe=2.58*107, Ui=0.389 m/s, TB=17ºC, TSu=74ºC, TSL=34.6ºC.Inclined duct, α = -45º,

upper side heated, opposing flows

Fig. (4) Velocity profile. ReDe=2060, xmeas. =0.6

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The research paper published by IJSER journal is about AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MIXED CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER IN AN INCLINED RECTANGULAR DUCT EXPOSED TO UNIFORM HEAT FLUX FROM UPPER SURFACE 7

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Fig. (6) Velocity profile. ReDe=2020, xmeas. =0.6 m, GrDe=2.58*107, Ui=0.377 m/s, TB=15ºC, TSu=69ºC, TSL=34.6ºC. Inclined duct, α = -60º, upper side heated, opposing flows.

2. **Surface temperature :**

For the upper plate heated only case. The surface temperature distribution along the plate shown in fig. (7) for α=-30° indicates a reduction in surface temperature. This reduction is the result of the upper plate inclined (with the flow free to be carried away downstream) which is dominated by the natural convection. Surface temperatures reduce further as the duct orientation moves to α = -45º as shown in Fig. (8) but the reduction in the range between -30º to -45º is lower than that obtained -30º.

Fig. (7) Axial variation of heated surface temperature, Inclined duct, α = -30°, upper side heated only.

Fig. (8) Axial variation of heated surface temperature, Inclined duct, α = -45°, upper side heated only.

The surface temperature distribution for α

=-60º in Fig. (9) show the same trends as

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The research paper published by IJSER journal is about AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MIXED CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER IN AN INCLINED RECTANGULAR DUCT EXPOSED TO UNIFORM HEAT FLUX FROM UPPER SURFACE 8

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for α =-30º and -45º with a small reduction in surface temperature in comparison with α =-45º. Therefore, duct angle of inclination changes at -30º, manifests a large improvement in the local and

average heat transfer coefficients.

-45º and -60º. At the same time, the rate of improvement of NuLat low ReDrange is higher than that for high ReD. This behavior can be attributed to natural convection behavior and its contribution to

the upper plate heat transfer process.

Fig. (9) Axial variation of heated surface

temperature, Inclined duct, α = -60°, upper side

Fig. (01) Variation of NuL

with ReD

, inclined duct, α

heated only.

3. Nusselt number

Average Nusselt number variation with Reynolds number for α=-30º, -45º and -60º are given in Figs. (01) to (01). The improvement in NuLis continued, for the same Grashof number GrDqand Reynolds

number, as the duct orientation changes to

= -30°, Upper side heated.

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The research paper published by IJSER journal is about AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MIXED CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER IN AN INCLINED RECTANGULAR DUCT EXPOSED TO UNIFORM HEAT FLUX FROM UPPER SURFACE 9

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Fig. (00) Variation of NuL with ReD , inclined duct, α =-60°, Upper side heated.

Fig. (01) Variation of NuLwith ReD, inclined duct, α =-45° upper side heated

Experimental studies have been performed to determine the effects of the secondary flow created by natural convection on a fully opposed developed air flow in a rectangular duct. The duct boundary conditions have been combined for inclined duct.

The inclined duct results reveal the following conclusions:-

1. The biasing of the velocity profile towards the heated surface as α moves to upward.

2. As inclination angle increases, the buoyancy effect increases as well which causes an unstable secondary flow resulting the fluctuation in the distribution of Nu.

3. The upper plate NuL is considerably improved as α = -30º and this improvement is lower for α = -45º and

-60º.

4. In the uniform heat flux case, Nu is increased with increasing modified

Raleigh number throughout duct.

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5. Nu is increased with increasing mixed convection parameter throughout the duct in the uniform heat fluxcase. REFERENCES

1. Yan, W. M., “Transport phenomena of

developing laminar mixed convectionheat and mass transfer in inclined rectangular ducts,” *InternationalJournal of Heat and Mass Transfer*, Vol. 38, pp. 2905-

2914(1995).

2. Huang, C. C. and Lin, T. F., “Numerical

simulation of transitional aiding

mixed convection air flow in a bottom heated inclined rectangular duct,” *International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer*, Vol. 39, pp. 1697-1710(1996).

3. W. L. Pu, P.Cheng and T. S. Zhao “An experiment study of mixed convection heat transfer vertical packed channels” AIAA journal of thermophysics and heat

transfer,Vol.13 (4),pp.517-521, 1999.

4. Paulo M. Guimaraes and Genesio J.

Menon, "Combined free and forced convection in an inclined channel with discrete heat sources", Mechanical Computational vol. XX III, pp. 2123-

2140, 2004.

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