International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 6, June-2013 73

ISSN 2229-5518

A Survey paper on Secure AODV protocol in MANAET using RSA algorithm and Diffie-hellman algorithm

Prasad P. Lokulwar1 , Prof. Yogadhar Pandey2

1 INTRODUCTION:

WIRELESS ad hoc networks[6] are comprised of Mobile Nodes (MNs) that are self-organizing and cooperating to ensure routing of packets among themselves. They provide robust communication in a variety of hostile environments, such as communication for the military or in disaster recovery situations when all infrastructures are down.

• *Prasad Lokulwar is currently pursuing masters degree program in computer science & engineering in RGT university, India, E-mail: *prasadengg16@gmail.com

• *Prof. Yogadhar Pandey is currently working as asst prof. in SIRT,Bhopal in RGTUniversity, India,*

. E-mail: p_yogadhar@yahoo.co.in

Since the network topology of ad hoc networks is unstable and changes frequently with nodes mobility, traditional routing protocols in static networks are not efficient for ad hoc networks. Routing protocols for ad hoc networks can be

classified broadly as either proactive, reactive, or hybrid (combining both behaviors).

Proactive protocols continuously exchange network topology information so as to constantly monitor topology changes and use that knowledge for efficient, low latency data transmission. In their turn, proactive protocols can be classified into two categories: link state routing and distance vector routing. Common proactive routing protocols include Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance- Vector Routing (DSDV)[2], Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR), Multicast Optimized Link State Routing (MOLSR), etc.

Reactive protocols were introduced to remedy the above shortcomings. These adopt a *lazy *approach to communication requirements, where nodes reacts only on-demand to data transmission requests and perform path finding operations only when needed. Reactive protocols do effectively save channel and battery power usage as they generate fewer control packets when there is no demand for transmission. **The most common reactive protocols include Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV)[3]**, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Source Routing-Based Multicast Protocol (SRMP), etc.

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 6, June-2013 74

ISSN 2229-5518

Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV)

[3][9] routing is a routing protocol for mobile ad

hoc networks and other wireless ad-hoc networks.

It is jointly developed in Nokia Research Centre of

University of California, Santa Barbara and

University of Cincinnati by C. Perkins and S. Das.

It is an on-demand and distance-vector routing

protocol, meaning that a route is established by

AODV from a destination only on demand.AODV

is capable of both unicast and multicast routing. It

keeps these routes as long as they are desirable by

the sources. Additionally, AODV creates trees

which connect multicast group members. The trees

are composed of the group members and the nodes

needed to connect the members. The sequence

numbers are used by AODV to ensure the

freshness of routes. It is loop-free, self-starting, and

scales to large numbers of mobile nodes .AODV

define three types of control messages for route

maintenance:

INTRODUCTION

Encryption is the act of encoding text so that others

not privy to the decryption mechanism (the "key")

cannot understand the content of the text.

Encryption has long been the domain of spies and

diplomats, but recently it has moved into the

public eye with the concern of the protection of

electronic transmissions and digitally stored data.

Standard encryption methods usually have two

basic flaws: A secure channel must be established

at some point so that the sender may exchange the

decoding key with the receiver; and There is no guarantee who sent a given message. Public key encryption has rapidly grown in popularity (and controversy, see, for example, discussions of the Clipper chip on the archives given below) because it offers a very secure encryption method that addresses these concerns. In a classic cryptosystem in order to make sure that nobody, except the intended recipient, deciphers the message, the people involved had to strive to keep the key secret. In a public-key cryptosystem. The public key cryptography solves one of the most vexing problems of all prior cryptography: the necessity of establishing a secure channel for the exchange of the key.

In cryptography, **RSA **(which stands for Rivest, Shamir and Adleman who first publicly described it) is an algorithm for public-key cryptography. It is the first algorithm known to be suitable for signing as well as encryption, and was one of the first great advances in public key cryptography. RSA is widely used in electronic commerce protocols, and is believed to be secure given sufficiently long keys and the use of up-to-date implementations.

OPERATION

The RSA algorithm involves three steps: key

generation, encryption and decryption.

RSA involves a public key and a private key**. **The

public key can be known to everyone and is used

for encrypting messages. Messages encrypted with

the public key can only be decrypted using the

private key. The keys for the RSA algorithm are

generated the following way:

1. Choose two distinct prime numbers *p *and

q.

o For security purposes, the

integers *p *and *q *should be chosen uniformly at

random and should be of similar bit-length. Prime

integers can be efficiently found using a primality

test.

2. Compute *n *= *pq*.

o n is used as the modulus for both

the public and private keys

3. Compute *φ*(*pq*) = (*p *− 1)(*q *− 1). (*φ *is Euler's

totient function).

4. Choose an integer *e *such that 1 < *e *< *φ*(*pq*),

and *e *and *φ*(*pq*) share no divisors other than 1 (i.e. *e*

and *φ*(*pq*) are coprime).

o e is released as the public key

exponent.

o e having a short bit-length and

small Hamming weight results in more efficient

encryption. However, small values of *e *(such as

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 6, June-2013 75

ISSN 2229-5518

e = 3) have been shown to be less secure in some settings.

5. Determine *d *(using modular arithmetic)

gruence relation

.

o Stated differently, *ed *− 1 can be

evenly divided by the quotient (*p *− 1)(*q *− 1).

o This is often computed using the

o d is kept as the private key

exponent.

The **public key **consists of the modulus *n *and the

public (or encryption) exponent *e*. The **private key**

consists of the private (or decryption) exponent *d*

which must be kept secret.

Destination node transmits its public key (*n*,*e*) to

Source node and keeps the private key secret. then

source wants to send message **M **to Destination

It first turns **M **into an integer 0 < *m *< *n *by using an

agreed-upon reversible protocol known as a

padding scheme. It then computes the cipher text *c*

corresponding to:

This can be done quickly using the method of exponentiation by squaring. Source then transmits *c *to Destination.

Destination can recover *m *from *c *by using her

private key exponent *d *by the following

Given *m*, Destination can recover the original message **M **by reversing the padding scheme. **Example Of RSA Algorithm**

Example of RSA with small numbers:

p = 47, q = 71, compute n = pq = 3337

Compute phi = 46 * 70 = 3220

Let *e *be 79, compute d = *79-1 mod 3220 = 1019*

Public key is *n *and *e, *private key *d, *discard *p *and *q.*

Encrypt message *m = 688, 68879 mod 3337 = 1570 =*

c.

Decrypt message c *= 1570, 15701019 mod 3337 = 688*

= m.

Thus RSA is very useful algorithm in order to obtain the security aware AODV protocol as it uses both the public key as well as the private key.

enable two users to exchange a key securely thatcan then be used for subsequent encryption of message. The algorithm is limited to the exchange of keys. The diffie hellman algorithm depends for its effectiveness on the difficulty of computing discrete logarithms.

The steps for Diffie Hellman key exchange algorithm are:

Step 1 : GLOBAL PUBLIC ELEMENTS Select any prime no : 'q'

Calculate the primitive root of q : 'a' such that a<q

Step 2 : ASYMMETRIC KEY GENERATION BY USER 'A'

Select a random number as the private key XA

where XA < q

Calculate the public key YA where YA = aXA mod q

Step 3 : KEY GENERATION BY USER 'B' Select a random number as the private key XB where XB < q

Calculate the public key YB where YB = aXB mod q

Step 4 : Exchange the values of public key between

A & B

Step 5 : SYMMETRIC KEY (K) GENERATION BY USER 'A'

K= YB XA mod q

Step 6 : SYMMETRIC KEY (K) GENERATION BY USER 'B'

K= YA XB mod q

It can be easily be proved that the key K generated by this algorithm by both parties are the same.

In this paper, we design a security to the protocol

to provide reliable efficient data transfer. Here we

implement the Ad hoc On Demand Distance

Vector protocol and provide the security by using

Asymmetric technique. The AODV network

protocol establish at the time of broadcasting. To

prevent the data loss and misuse of data we have

implemented the security using Asymmetric

technique. The encryption and decryption are used

for the security in AODV protocol. The

Asymmetric technique uses the RSA algorithm

encryption method for the encoding of the data to

be sent. For more security reason we are using the

diffie helman algorithm for only the key exchange

at the sender and destination node. Thus with the

use of broadcasting methods of AODV the

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 6, June-2013 76

ISSN 2229-5518

network is established and data packets are sent to the destination nodes.

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ml - United States

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