International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 3, Issue 3, March -2012 1

ISSN 2229-5518

A Distributed Transaction Model for a Multi- database Management System

Omar Baakeel and Abdulaziz Alrashidi

AbstractThis paper examines the distributed transaction issues that are present in multi-database management systems (DBMSs) and how the distributed transaction in database technology differs from other distributed processing systems. Some common issues that arise with the distribution of transactions over a multi-DBMS while dealing with concurrency control and recovery are highlighted, such as site failure, network failure, and time failure. This study proposes an exceptional distributed transaction model for processing transaction queries in multi-DBMS based on the idea that a complete database can be constructed at any stage.

Index Terms— Database management system (DBMS), distributed transaction, transaction management, transaction network


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ENERALLY, a distributed transaction is defined as a trans- action that updates data on two or more networked computer systems. Different conceptual structures for processing transaction elements are required to meet certain needs of applications that must update distributed data in terms of peer to peer connection. Developing a transaction model is difficult because most of these techniques are custo- mized for a single transaction point, and many types of fail- ures, such as client failure, server failure, and network connec- tion failure, can occur. Furthermore, connecting different dis- tributed points requires the presence of advanced network security technology to detect and recover from network con-

nection failure [1].

Recently developed transaction applications have optimized various security integrations so as to secure the transaction be- tween client and server by detecting and managing the change action, such as a database update, before the transaction can occur. A transaction processing network is considered a compli- cated process because of the multiple security issues that exist in these networks. The performance of a transaction between a single database management system (DBMS) and a multi- DBMS requires coordination with other network parts for the components involved. A distributed transaction coordinator carries out this coordination and functions as a transaction manager for each computer that manages transactions.

Algorithms have been developed to serve specific needs in various areas including banking, investment environments, and enterprise applications [1]. When computers communicate with each other, a transaction manager sends, prepares, commits,
and aborts messages to all of its subordinate transaction manag-


Omar Baakeel is currently a Ph.D candidate at the College of Business and Public Management, University of La Verne, California, USA. E-mail: ob-

Abdulaziz Alrashidi is currently a Ph.D candidate at the College of Busi- ness and Public Administraation, University of La Verne, California, USA. E-mail:

ers [2]. The steps for performing a distributed transaction are as
1. The client begins the transaction by calling the transac-
tion manager. This application allows for the transac-
tion to be deployed.
2. While the transaction manager processes the client re-
quest, an update is saved so that the deployed transac-
tion can carry out the process based on the client de-
3. After processing the client request, the transaction
manager keeps a sequential transaction log so that its decisions to commit or abort will be durable. These de- cisions are based on whether all components are pre- pared, whether any component cannot be prepared,
and whether a component remains prepared but is not committed or aborted.


Previous research has addressed problems that arise during the distribution of transactions over a multi-DBMS while dealing with concurrency control and recovery. Most of these problems occur in the distributed databases [3]. These problems can be classified as follows:
1. Site failure: This action happens when one or more sites in a distributed database management system (DDBMS) fail. When a site failure occurs, it is the re- sponsibility of the transaction manager to restore the transaction updates.
2. Network problems: This action occurs when the com- munication network fails because of a unclear transac- tion. This type of network failure indicates that one or more sites are cut off from the rest of the sites in the distributed database.
3. Data duplication: This problem occurs when the same multiple copies of data in the database cannot be ade- quately tracked so as to maintain consistency.
4. Distributed transactions: This problem arises when a distributed transaction happens in multiple sites.
5. Distributed deadlocks: During a transaction, a dead- lock may occur in a single site or multiple sites.

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Ensuring the consistency of data also becomes a problem in the transaction management of a distributed environment when site/network failures occur. Various transaction protocols have been developed so as to provide a more stable transaction per- formance in a network. Moreover, different problems have been addressed in securing the transaction elements in a network.


Because of the importance of database transactions, new trans- action technologies must be developed and adopted. In their
2006 study, [4] developed a new transaction mechanism based on the use of agent systems to provide improved transfer relia- bility among different distributed algorithms. They developed a transaction algorithm for solving distributed constraint satisfac- tion problems (DCSPs) by dividing agents in the system into two groups, Variables’ Agents and Controller Agents, thus al- lowing the reformulation of different inter-agent communica- tion algorithms in their framework. The proposed model can also be used to treat non-binary constraints and to manage the transaction according to its original destination. The instantia- tion of these variables can be carried out by negotiation so as to separate the sub-problems into totally independent ones. Fig. 1 presents the proposed classification based on the agent systems [4].

Fig. 1. Constraint network (a) with or (b) without controller agents [4].

In their 2007 study, Qiming and Umesh [5] described trans- action issues that exist in e-commerce applications. They custo- mized the computing environment for distributing a limit transaction through DBMSs among a large number of auto- nomous service requesters. These authors also predicted that the increasing automation of e-commerce applications will lead to the use of transaction agents that cooperate to perform busi- ness transaction activities. From the notion that peer-to-peer protocols based on inter-agent communication are required for cooperative transactions, they developed a cooperative multi- agent transaction model that includes peer-to-peer protocols for commit control and failure recovery. This model could help facilitate the agent tasks required for transferring data elements through channel queries. Fig. 2 shows the proposed model
structure with the database components [5].

Fig. 2. The proposed model structure with the database com- ponents [5].


Current developments in distributed computing have generated new techniques for retrieving and representing data elements in a grid. Structured query language (SQL) is one such technique. It can perform a high level processing of client queries for a set of processes that seek to achieve some form of cooperation in the database. Moreover, executing a different conceptual repre- sentation can simplify the processes of a distributed system. This simplification occurs when some processes stop operating, for instance, as a result of crashing or being disconnected.
SQL server provides sustainable database processing. The first SQL statement begins the transaction. A transaction begins with the execution of one of two SQL statements: COMMIT statement or ROLLBACK statement. This transaction carries out a different meaning for the grid contents when it is committed or rolled back.
The next step is to extract the transaction concept by consi- dering a certain procedure for carrying out a successful transac- tion along with the database elements. For example, when one or many customers transfer a certain amount of money to an account, it is directed to the savings account or the checking account. There are several important operations involved in carrying out that transaction, such as decreasing the amount of money in the savings account, adding other elements to the checking account, and recording the steps of the transaction by saving its actions.
SQL databases allow a huge number of transactions to be performed when all the SQL operations can be applied to main- tain the accounts in proper balance. However, if there is a prob- lem with the transaction (e.g., an invalid transaction number, software/hardware failure) that prevents the completion of one or two of the statements in the transaction, the transaction can- not be carried out. In this situation, the transaction is rolled back so that the correct balance is obtained in each account.
Fig. 3 describes the transaction mode in the SQL database, while Fig.4 presents the SQL transaction statement perfor- mance.

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tion, a new distributed transaction based on the SQL
statements for the cooperative processes can be started.
4. A collaborative transaction may require not only
agreement on the requested actions but also execution
of the transaction queries.

Fig. 3. The transaction mode in the SQL database.

Fig. 4. SQL transaction statement performance.

Furthermore, the enhancement of SQL components, which enables the rapid processing of different statements among dif- ferent transactions, has generated a lot of interest in the transfer of distributed systems to a wide area network (WAN) environ- ment. This kind of transfer can be provided by Internet services or wireless technology.
It is important to develop new mechanisms to facilitate the distributed transaction process over DBMSs with specific re- quirements. Some recommendations for achieving a successful transaction over SQL database components include the follow- ing:


Based on the problems associated with distributed transaction applications that have been discussed in this paper so far, and based on previous findings of related works, we propose an exceptional distributed transaction model for processing trans- action queries in multi-DBMSs. This model provides sustainable communication between the client and the server so as to per- form the client queries in a more secure and reliable way. In addition, the proposed model might reduce the number of er- rors that occur during the transaction process, thus optimizing multiple transactions across servers. By adopting advanced network communication, this model reduces network failure, which occurs during transactions. Fig. 5 shows that distributed communication indirectly depends on the database query, which grants high privileges in the transactions.
1. To allow a stable transaction for certain elements over SQL statements, SQL transaction statements must in- itially agree on the client request by classifying the transaction details into several points with common formats for reprocessing the transactions.
2. A successful data exchange can be easily achieved by
using several alternative methods of analysis to deter-
mine the required actions for the unknown transac-
tions in the grid.
3. Through the establishment of a collaborative transac-

Fig. 5. Proposed distributed database model.


The proposed model is expected to produce the following re-

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ISSN 2229-5518

sults: 1) directly address transaction problems by looking into the history of transactions, 2) discover dependencies among services in historical transactions, 3) determine the execution time period data for multiple transactions among DBMSs, and
4) monitor instrumentation over multi-DBMSs.


This paper examines various issues that exist in database trans- actions among multi-DBMSs as well as the techniques that help in distributing a database in different fragments. Moreover, this study adopts a new way of resolving site and network failure problems that occur during a database transaction in a multi- DBMS. This paper proposed a new distributed transaction model for performing and managing transaction details more efficiently. In developing the proposed model, we have taken into consideration previous findings of related studies.


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[2] C. Bessiere and I. Brito, “Asynchronous Backtracking without

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[5] C. Qiming, and D. Umesh, “Multi-Agent Cooperative Transactions

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