Volume 14, Issue 1, January 2023 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

Publication for Volume 14, Issue 1, January 2023 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

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Optimization of Active Suspension of a Vehicle with Limited Acting Forces []

Suspension is an essential component in vehicle design, whether it is used as a passenger, utility or high-performance vehicle. The main objective of suspension is to provide the vehicle with stability and passenger comfort. This means reducing vibrations from the road or other sources, and preserving the vehicle body structure from the forces generated by vibrations. This study focuses on the active suspension system. The work evaluated the usability of this type of suspension in a passenger car through analysis of a complete vehicle model with seven degrees of freedom. In this case, an anti-windup proportional integral derivative (PID) controller was used. During the fine tuning of the PID controller, the determination of parameters was made by a genetic algorithm implemented in Matlab software. The results show that the active suspension system considerably reduces the oscillations in the bodywork, providing greater comfort for the passengers. The anti-windup constraint guarantees a limited actuator force and reasonable required power.

Analysis on Telecommunication Tower Sharing Among Mobile Network Operators Due to Telecom Tower Providers in Pakistan []

This is an elaborative study based on a quantitative research model done with Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) and tower companies (TowerCOs also known as TTPs-Telecom Tower Providers) operational in Pakistan. It focuses on the impact analysis of infrastructure sharing (tower sharing) in Pakistan and its relative connection to the advent of 4G and 5G technologies. MNOs in Pakistan, such as Jazz, Telenor, Ufone, and Zong are now expounding more and more on the adoption of the infrastructure sharing model. Since, the focus of the telecommunication sector is now on the tower sharing model, which is a new concept for Pakistan’s telecommunication sector, there is very limited literature available that provides thorough research on the impact of infrastructure sharing on the economy, mobile network operators, and the tower companies. The increase in the use of 4G and 5G across the globe has made the MNOs in Pakistan realize the importance of having a rather strong and reliable infrastructure model. It is very important to note that maintaining active and passive infrastructures on a personal basis is difficult considering the increase in OPEX and CAPEX it incurs. Furthermore, it is practically impossible for every MNO across the country to have the access to all geographical locations with potential users. All these factors combined, there was an increased requirement of having a third party where the services for maintaining the infrastructures could be leased out or purchased from another company. Hence the advent of tower companies in Pakistan. The research found that MNOs have been excessively active in getting the infrastructure from the tower companies on the basis of rent and shared revenue slabs. The reason for this approach is very simple, the MNOs are more focused on reducing their costs without compromising on the quality of services.

Aerodynamic Optimization and Electrification of Auto-Rickshaws []

Auto-rickshaws are among the most widely used public transportation means in most Asian cities, providing fast and inexpensive end-to-end connectivity. The rickshaws, however, contribute to large amounts of environmental pollution despite the introduction of compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) models. The poor aerodynamic design of the auto-rickshaws lowers the vehicle's performance, making it highly energy-inefficient. However, very few studies have explored how the design can be made more aerodynamically efficient. By switching from an internal combustion engine to an electric vehicle powertrain, auto-rickshaws can be made more energy efficient and environmentally sustainable as they produce no emissions. This work aims to identify the shortcomings of the existing design and ways in which it can be improved. An in-depth analysis of the existing auto-rickshaw is carried out, and the drag force is calculated from the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations on SimScale CFD. Possible design shortcomings are listed from aerodynamic principles and validated using the results obtained from the simulations. An optimized design is made using SOLIDWORKS to overcome these shortcomings, and it is validated on SimScale CFD. Electric vehicle powertrain calculations are then performed for this improved design using MATLAB and Simulink. This paper provides new insights into an aerodynamically-optimized design of an electric rickshaw to improve the energy-efficiency to provide environmentally sustainable transportation.

Online Teaching in Private University :An analytical case study on the context of Cov-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. []

In the realm of higher education, the term "online teaching" has become quite popular. Today, one of the most essential educational strategies is online teaching. It has grown in popularity around the world and has steadily established itself as a significant category of school education. Numerous good examples of online education have emerged, resulting in far too many valuable online education experiences. Countries all over the world are actively exploring how to effectively teach people through the Internet, and many good examples of online education have started to emerge, resulting in many valuable online education experiences (Longjun and others, 2020). Online education has gained traction as a viable means of transacting and exchanging information and learning materials on demand, anywhere and at any time. It refers to the distribution of material over all electronic media, such as the internet, intranets, satellite transmission, audio/video tape, interactive television, and CD-Rom (Urdan & Weggen, 2000). Online education, according to Poehlein, has sparked a lot of interest both inside and outside of higher education. It has the capacity to reach new audiences for some, although it has the possibility to radically revolutionize learning provision and the competitive landscape for others.Following the onset of the coronavirus pandemic in 2020, Bangladesh's education system, like that of most other nations throughout the world, saw significant changes as a result of widespread use of online learning. Despite the fact that the contents were poor and the workforce's ability was doubtful, experts claimed that the concept of online learning changed the way a school, college, or university could impart education by utilizing multiple online platforms. They also claimed that the digital learning process had heralded a new era in the country's educational system.

Our life and problems of simplification []

Simplification by different ways is used to find different numbers in different positions ,which may be bounded or not. Any simplification can be a problem to find out new variables from known , by taking any number as fixed we get others. In a total problem we can set a simplification such that from there we can get another one. In our life if we set our problem as a relationship with other problems then after solving one problem we can solve others. Like below we can set simplification problems and solve them. 3+5[4-{5+6-(7-8)}]=3+5x, x=4-y, y=5+6-z, z=7-8 . This is the actual thing that occurs in a simplification

In-house development of Modified Binders for Boiler Pressure Parts Hot Reheater & Cold Reheater Coils to prevent failure and misalignment during operation []

In Boiler, tube failures in Reheater section is very common, one of the best practices done in Maithon Power Limited for Failure of the boiler water-wall tube is presented in this work. In order to examine the causes of failure, various techniques were used and one of the reason for tube failures in Reheater section were happening due to overheating and attachment weld failures of Male-Female type connector binders. To eliminate this failure, we have developed Binders that does not necessitates welding between boiler tubes and Binder components. We have also provided additional binder especially in lower section of HRH and CRH coil to eliminate over heating due to misalignment of coil tubes. Misalignment of tubes causes Tube overheating and leads to Tube failures.

Mechanism of ABCA12 gene Mutation & its severity with improved management & Treatment. []

Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is a devastating skin disorder with an unknown underlying cause. Abnormal keratinocyte lamellar granules (LGs) are a hallmark of HI skin. ABCA12 is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family, and members of the ABCA subfamily are known to have closely related functions as lipid transporters. ABCA3 is involved in lipid secretion via LGs from alveolar type II cells, and missense mutations in ABCA12 have been reported to cause lamellar ichthyosis type 2, a milder form of ichthyosis. Therefore, we hypothesized that HI might be caused by mutations that lead to serious ABCA12 defects. We identify 5 distinct ABCA12 mutations, either in a compound heterozygous or homozygous state, in patients from 4 HI families. All the mutations resulted in truncation or deletion of highly conserved regions of ABCA12. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that ABCA12 localized to LGs in normal epidermal keratinocytes. We confirmed that ABCA12 defects cause congested lipid secretion in cultured HI keratinocytes and succeeded in obtaining the recovery of LG lipid secretion after corrective gene transfer of ABCA12. We concluded that ABCA12 works as an epidermal keratinocyte lipid transporter and that defective ABCA12 results in a loss of the skin lipid barrier, leading to HI. Our findings not only allow DNA-based early prenatal diagnosis but also suggest the possibility of gene therapy for HI.

Effect of the drying mode of three varieties of sweet potato on their nutritional potential, energy values and phytochemical compositions (Daloa, Cote dIvoire) []

Abstract: The objective of this work is to develop sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) in the form of flours and to highlight the nutritional and therapeutic potential of these flours. The study concerns the impact of the drying method on the physicochemical properties of flours from three varieties of sweet potatoes: white skin (BB), purple skin (VB) and yellow skin (JO). To do this, the potatoes were cleaned, cut up and then dried in the sun for a week and in an oven at 45°C for two days. The flours obtained after grinding were characterized by conventional methods. It results from this study that the content of biochemical compounds was relatively high in the flour of the BB variety dried in the oven. This flour was richer in carbohydrates 92220.00±0.03 mg/100g, in polyphenol 79.15±0.19 mg/100g, in flavonoids 38.90±0.20 mg/100g mg/100g, in acid gallic 2.94±0.02 mg/100g in glutamic acid 64.80±0.02 mg/100g, in alanine 16.35±0.02 mg/100g, in lysine 42.93± mg/100g and in arginine 83.71±0.01mg/100g. On the other hand, the JO variety dried in the oven at 45°C was richer in protein 6174.00±0.04 mg/100g, lipid 1212.30±0.03 mg/100g, reducing sugar 2080.56± 0.05 mg/100g and total sugar 4330.64±0.55 mg/100g, in fiber 7802.3±0.02 mg/100g, in ash (1210.11± 0.02 mg/100g). In general, the energy values varied from 323.67 ± 0.33 Kcal/100g to 351.50 ± 0.33 Kcal/100g. The two drying modes gave similar energy values. In short, the flours of the three varieties obtained after drying in an oven at 45°C showed the most interesting physicochemical properties for food formulations. Key words: sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas, sun drying, oven, physicochemical and phytochemical composition

Optimal placement of electric vehicle charging station with DG and DSTATCOM using Whale Optimization Algorithm []

Abstract Due to their decreased greenhouse gas emissions, electric vehicles are anticipated to become the dominant means of transportation in the future. The large increase in electric load penetration in, on the other hand, causes a multitude of difficulties such as disturbance of generation demand equilibrium, increased network power loss, voltage profile deterioration, voltage margin deterioration. The more power losses and drops in voltages in distribution feeders are mainly due to the high ratio of reactance to resistance. These losses for sure effect the efficiency and stability of the system and moreover effect the financial system. Optimal integration of electric vehicle charging stations is required to overcome the aforementioned concerns. We can reduce the power loss by using compensating devices .DG and DSTATCOM are incorporated into electric vehicle charging station to mitigate the impact of electric vehicle charging demand .This effort links charging stations with DG and DSTATCOM, which encourages the use of electric vehicles. To do a detailed analysis of nodes suited for electric vehicle charging station and DGs, this work employs a suitable method for finding the optimal positioning of above mentioned devices globally. For this, we use Whale Optimization Algorithm. Also assessed are the load-oriented reliability indices for this system. Keywords:- Electric vehicles ,Green Technologies, DG,DSTATCOM, Whale Optimization Algorithm.

Chest Pain (Angina) as an Atypical Manifestation in a Repeated COVID-19 Patient []

We present a case of a 44-year-old man who came to the emergency room of Permata Hati General Hospital with the chief complaint of chest pain and tingling. The patient denied any complaints of fever, cough, runny nose, sore throat, and decreased sense of smell. The ECG showed a sinus rhythm with a heart rate of 88 beats per minute. The Patient was consulted by the cardiologist for the first time because of chest pain complaint. The patient was finally diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia and vasospastic angina. The patient was treated with the same complaint in October 2021 with an ECG examination found a bigeminy PVC arrhythmia fragment, echocardiography and troponin I got results within normal limits. Patient also diagnosed with COVID-19 infection again at that time. With the global COVID-19 pandemic, there are few cases that appear with symptoms of a heart attack due to infection with SARS-CoV-2. Although COVID-19 generally presents with respiratory symptoms, some also appear without respiratory system involvement. This case illustrates that COVID-19 can present with atypical symptoms and affect other organ systems.

Leaf Diseases Detection and Classification Using Image Processing and Deep Learning Techniques []

- In India's economy, agriculture is essential. To avoid crop loss and future disease transmission that could endanger consumers, early detection of plant illnesses is crucial. Most plants, including apples, tomatoes, cherries, and grapes, have apparent disease symptoms on their leaves. It is possible to recognize these obvious patterns to accurately predict the disease and take preventive action to stop its spread. Deep learning and machine learning methods can be used to get around this. We therefore provide a technique for identifying plant diseases using photographs of their leaves. Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest, and deep learning techniques are used in this instance to carry out the operation.

Mathematical Relationship Between the Fine-Structure Constant (α) and Golden Ratio, Euler’s Number, Pi & Fibonacci Sequence []

Since the inception of the Fine-Structure Constant (α), for the last hundred years, scientists have been trying to explain its origin using other mathematical constants, as it is considered as one of the fundamental constants of nature as well as it is dimensionless. The value is very nearly equal to 1/(137.036) and for reasons of convenience, the reciprocal value of the fine-structure constant is often specified. The 2018 CODATA recommended value is given by α−1 = 137.035999084 [1]. In this article, a simpler way was devised to obtain the inverse of this cosmological constant, with no more care given to physical dimensional analysis by using Golden Ratio (Φ = 1.618034), Euler's number (e = 2.718282), Pi (π = 3.1416) and Fibonacci sequence. Upon implementation of fractal dimensional analysis, with only 0.00022% error it can be claimed that, [〖log〗_(2^3 )⁡〖eπΦ/(0.0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 610 987...)〗 ]^(2^2 )= α^(-1)-α However, a more elegant yet less accurate relationship with 0.00077% error can be formed by introducing a new constant K = (π + π.Φ + Φ). This introduction of K = 9.84283033... also helps to avoid the Fibonacci sequence. √(e^K )- (Φ )/(K+ (Φ )/(K+(Φ )/(K+(Φ )/(K+(Φ )/(K+(Φ )/(K+Φ/(K+Φ/(K+Φ/(K+Φ/(K+⋯))))))))))=α^(-1) Again, by using Stirling’s formula to figure out factorial it has been observed that, (π.ϕ)! – (e/ϕ)!! = 137.04. And √([(π+e+Ф)+(1+√2)/(2(π+e+Ф))]!)=137.022 Last but not the least, [(1 + γ) + (2 + γ) + (3 + γ) + …… + (16 + γ)] = 137.04, here, γ= √2/√3×1.1/eπϕ=0.065

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