Volume 13, Issue 3, March 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication
Publication for Volume 13, Issue 3, March 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication
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Low Power and High-Speed Dynamic D Flip Flop based on Gates Tied GNRFET in 16nm Technology Length [PDF]
JAYANT KUMAR MAHANAND, Dr. S.N.SINGHD flip flops are classified into two types: static and dynamic. The dynamic D flip flop is the subject of this study. The complex design of TSPC is accompanied by clock and reset setup (True single phase clocked). When it comes to its job and switching operation, the clock and rest signal absorb a lot of power. This makes it an interesting research field where improvements to the power consumption of the TSPC-based D flip flop are needed. Power consumption increases below 16nm due to effects such as DIBL or GIBL, which must also be improved. In this paper, a new TSPC-based D Flip Flop with Gates Tied Mode (Multi-Threshold CMOS Logic) sleep signal injection is proposed for low power applications to reduce power consumption. To reduce the short channel effects in MOS, this work employs low power dependent MOS such as GNRFET. This paper focuses on low power consumption by the use of GNRFETs in 16nm technology.
Assessing Cyber Security Awareness and organisational preparedness on cyber security in audit firms: The case of the big 4 audit firms -EY, Deloitte, KPMG, PWC [ 2017 â€“ 2020] [PDF]
Dr David Foya and Pride ChifodyaAbstract
The study looked at the level of awareness and state of preparedness for organisations on cyber security. The main objective of the research was to determine the impact of cybersecurity awareness and preparedness of organisations on the security behaviours of employees. Research questions was what is the level of preparedness of organisations in response to cybercrime/attack. The study was significant as it brought out suggestions on critical issues identified on cyber security. The research adopted the qualitative approach as it sought to assess human behaviour in relation to awareness. The interpretivism philosophy was used as well as the multi case study research strategy. The researcher used interviews and questionnaires for data gathering. The major findings of the research where that the firms where ill prepared with regards to cyber security. Another major finding was that the employees where not really aware of the subject understood Resources are dedicated to aspects of the business that authorities deem more important. The researcher recommended that the firms conduct more frequent security awareness programs so that this influences the security behaviour of employees in a positive way. It was also a recommendation that the firms invest in the requisite skill sets to effectively address cyber security issues.
Keywords: cyber security, awareness, cybercrime, preparedness, firms, hacking, breach, behaviour.
A Survey on Virtual Machine Migration in Cloud Computing [PDF]
Waqas HasanCloud computing provides multiple services to users through the internet and these services include cloud storage, applications, servers, security and large network access. Virtual Machine allows the user to emulate multiple operating systems on a single computer; with the help of virtual machine migration users can transfer operating system instances from one computer to multiple computer machines. In this paper we will be discussing VM migration in cloud and also I will explain the whole procedure of VM migration. The two methods through which we can perform VM migration are Live VM migration and NON-live VM migration.VM migration also helps in managing the loads of the multiple machines and with VM we can save power consumption. People have written about cloud computing and virtual machines in previous studies, but in this research, we'll speak about virtual machine migration in cloud computing, as well as the techniques that are used in the VM migration process. I have used table to show the differences between VM migration techniques.
GREEN ENERGY PRODUCTION WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TOWARD THE USE OF COW DUNG [PDF]
Muhtari Kasim, R. Sanjeevi and Inampudi Sailaja.ABSTRACT
Green energy comes from natural sources such as sunlight,
wind, rain, tides, plants, algae and geothermal heat. These
energy resources are renewable, meaning they are naturally
replenished. In contrast, fossil fuels are a finite resource that
take millions of years to develop and will continue to
depelinished with use.
Renewable energy sources also have a much smaller impact
on the environment than fossil fuels, which produce
pollutants such as greenhouse gases as by-product,
contributing to climate change. Gaining access to fossil fuels
typically requires either mining or drilling deep into earth,
often in ecologically sensitive location.
Green energy, however utilizes energy sources that are
readily available all over the world, including in rural and
remote areas that donâ€™t otherwise have access to electricity.
Advances in renewable energy technologies have lowered
the cost of solar panels, wind tribunes and other sources of
green energy, placing the ability to produce electricity in the
hands of the people rather than those of oils, coal utility
Green energy can replace fossil fuels in all major areas of use
including electricity, water and space heating and fuel for
The ability of biomass and biofuels to contribute to a
reduction in CO2 emissions is limited because both biomass
and biofuels emit large amount of CO2 when burned.
Furthermore, biomass and biofuels consume large amount
of water. Other renewable sources such as wind, power,
photovoltaic, and hydroelectricity have the advantage of
being able to to conserve water and reduce CO2 emissions.
Comparison of the Geotechnical Properties of Lateritic Soils in Port Harcourt, Nigeria [PDF]
T. A. LongJohnAbstractâ€” This present study x-rayed the geotechnical properties of lateritic soils and their suitability as subsoil (subgrade and subbase) materials for road construction and other civil engineering works. Lateritic soil samples were collected from ten different locations in the Port Harcourt metropolis using the hand auger apparatus as the sampling tool at about 1 meter depth. The soil samples were subjected to geotechnical investigation. Results obtained from the test showed that liquid limit (LL) ranges from 32.3% to 38.6%, the plastic limit (PL) ranges from 17.6% to 21.9%, while the plasticity index (PI) is between 13.6% and 20%. The optimum moisture content ranges from 13% to 18.5%, while the results of the maximum dry density of S1 to S10 ranges from 1340kN/m3 to 1750kN/m3. Shear stress of the samples fall within 19.64 â€“ 22.86N/mm2 with an average of 20.76 N/mm2. The result of all samples showed that the percentage of clay ranges from 16% - 32%. The test results also revealed that the lateritic soil samples are suitable for subgrade for road pavement construction but would require adequate compaction and stabilization to be used for subbase and base course in road pavement construction and other civil engineering works.
Index Termsâ€” lateritic soils, geotechnical properties, foundation, CBR, road construction
AQUA LUBE SPLITTER [PDF]
Aditya Gharte, Pratiksha Naik and Anjali RathodAn Aqua Lube Splitter is a product used to separate oil and water mixtures into their separate components. There are many different types of oil-water separator. Each has different oil separation capability and are used in different industries. Oil water separators are designed and selected after consideration of oil separation performance parameters and life cycle cost considerations. "Oil" can be taken to mean crude oil, toxic chemicals and the many different hydrocarbons.
This paper includes one of the solution for seperating oil and water from oil water mixture during oil spill incidents. It also includes some calculations, design and a solution to cope up with these oil spill incidents.
Can Blood Pressure be Measured at all & Can Doctors Rely on such Measurements? [PDF]
B. G. Shiva Prasadâ€˜Blood pressureâ€™ is considered as the most important parameter in diagnosis of cardio vascular and various other diseases. The basic question for any fluid dynamycist is whether Blood Pressure inside human arteries can be measured at all and if so, how accurate can it be? Also, how good is the Blood Pressure standard? This question arises primarily because of the great difficulty in measuring static pressure in a flowing fluid even in engineering systems. More importantly, medical professionals consider hypertension as the most important cause of cardiovascular diseases, but still have not questioned seriously the basis of diagnosing a person as hypertensive or not! The main issue boils down to the question as to who is responsible for raising concerns and solving the serious problems with BP diagnosis. This paper lays out in detail, the important issues from the point of view of the fundamental sciences and the present day technology. It not only questions the present day techniques and standards used for diagnosis but also the newer techniques which are being proposed and developed.
THE EFFECTS OF A HYDRATE PLUG ON THE LAYERS OF A FLEXIBLE PIPE UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE [PDF]
GBENGA A. OWOLABIThe concept of blockages in a non-bonded flexible pipe during oil and gas mining operations have over the years shown to be a persistent problem, and the need for a standardized remediation approach is paramount. This paper studied the behaviour of a non-bonded flexible pipes with methane hydrate blockage under the influence of various loading conditions. Non-linear tri-dimensional finite element models were used based on two (2) scenarios; blocked and unblocked conditions. The models recreate a seven (7)-layer flexible pipe with two tensile armour layers, an external polymeric sheath, high strength tape, orthotropic equivalent carcass, and pressure armour layers with an internal polymetric sheath.
Several studies were conducted to verify the influence of key parameters on the instability phenomenon when the flexible pipe is under hydrate blockage. The internal pressure and compressive loads were considered as amongst the parameters, in which their variation causes a significant change in the stability response of the pipe layers. This includes a detailed description of the finite element model and a case study where the non-bonded flexible pipe is blocked by methane hydrate. The procedure of this analysis is here described, along with the results.
For in-depth knowledge of hydrate formation and its consequences in flexible pipes, this work used ABAQUS, a standard finite element (FE), in modelling, simulating, and investigating a hydrate blocked and unblocked non-bonded flexible pipe under the influence of internal pressure. The specimen is divided into two Samples, A and B, respectively, under the influence of various load conditions but focus on internal pressure in this present paper. FE model was adopted to investigate the effects of hydrate on the layers as were not detailed in America Petroleum Institute codes . This was carried out under various conditions such as pipe with and without blockage at various pressure, forces (longitudinal and compressive) values, different hydrate lengths, coefficients of friction and stiffness constants. However, this paper presents only the effect of internal pressure while other subsequent papers present the effects of other load conditions.
The studies carried out were to determine the non-bonded flexible pipes responses under certain load conditions. This determines the deformation, stress concentration on individual layers, making sure the results are within the recommended API standards, hoop, axial and radial stresses, reactive force, and contact pressure between the layers.
A simplified model was employed and a finer mesh to resolve the issue with the FE model. And progress the effect of the hydrate on the pipe layers.
Importantly, this present work considered and investigated a 7-layers 6â€ diameter non-bonded flexible pipe as a case study. The results were obtained from the investigations, analyzed, and presented accordingly. Obtained results showed a significant influence of methane hydrate on Sample A, while Sample B behaves normally under various load conditions.
The Paradox of knowledge, Media and Innovation in the Era of the Fourth Revolution [PDF]
Dr Mohammad Firas Alnaeb-Dr.Sameer BaniyassenAbstract
The quick pace of technological advances accompanied by paradoxes at all levels characterizes the era of the Fourth Revolution in which we live, and knowledge, media, and innovation are unquestionably at the forefront. Unfortunately, keeping up with censorship by diverse parties has become challenging, resulting in several contradictions. Thus, humans must recognize what they are up against in all dimensions and the negatives that accompany it before moving on to the positives. Hence, this paper explores some of the paradoxes of knowledge, innovation, and media in the period of the Fourth Revolution. Generally, the literature review aims to shed light on the opposite side of the technological revolution, namely, the inconsistencies that must be addressed for it not to represent intellectual and societal limitations.
CHALLENGES OF PEACEBUILDING IN MATEBELELAND NORTH AND SOUTH PROVINCES-ZIMBABWE (1980-2010) [PDF]
Dr David FoyaThis paper is entitled â€œThe Challenges of Peacebuilding in Matebeleland North and South Provinces. Zimbabwe (1980-2010).â€ The main objectives of this study include to establish the major factors contributing to failure of peace-building in the Matabeleland North and South Provinces. One of the research questions was what are the major reasons for the failure of peacebuilding and reconciliation processes in these Provinces? The design of the study was qualitative because the topic dealt with emotions and feelings of the people who were involved in the conflict. The research used purposive sampling technique in selecting the majority of respondents. Data was gathered through interviews, questionnaires and focus group discussions. The major findings do indicate that the government has not been sincere in peacebuilding efforts and reconciliation was not properly implemented and that the communities in Matabeleland Provinces remain divided. The study concludes that the government has not made any apology for all the killings which were done by government forces. This paper recommends that government should make full acknowledgement of all the killings and compensate the regions affected. In addition, there is need to establish Truth and Reconciliation Commission to handle all the cases of violence.
KEY WORDS: peacebuilding, conflict, peace, reconciliation, governance,
SERO-PREVALENCE OF HbSAg INFECTION AMONG NEWLY ADMITTED STUDENTS (2021/2022) ATTENDING COLLEGE OF HEALTH SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY TSAFE, ZAMFARA STATE, NIGERIA. [PDF]
Alkali Y.A. Nasma A.A. Nuara I.S. Saratu I. Hamza G.Z. Lawali S. Kasim MuhtariAbstract. Hepatitis B virus infection is among the leading public health burdens especially in developing
countries. In high prevalence areas, the most common routes of HBV transmission are prenatal and
horizontal transmission. Also heterosexual practices, unprotected sex, infection, blood transfusion as well
as sharing of sharp objects are among possible routes of transmission. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection
accounts for about 1 million deaths worldwide annually. This study was to determine the seroprevalence,
distribution of HBV, and factors associated with infection in newly admitted students(2021/2022) attending
CHST- Tsafe, Zamfara State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional clinic base study among the student was conducted
employing sampling technique. Data on demographic, social, and behavioral indicators were collected
using questionnaires and blood samples tested for HBV. The overall total of 799 were screened for HbSAg
infection. Of the 799 Students, 628 (81.3%) were males, 171 (21.4 %) were females. Out of the 628 (78.6
%) males 70 (8.8%) had HbSAg infection and 171 (21.4%) of the 171 females 9 (1.1 %) were infected with
HbSAg infection (P= 0.018), The Overall prevalence of HbSAg infection was 9.9 % (79 of 799). Statistical
analysis showed that there was a highly significant association (P= 0.02). According to the age range, the
distribution of HbSAg infection showed highest prevalence among patients aged 21-30 (64, 8.0%), however
the lowest infection was detected among aged and 11-20 (15, 1.8%) years. Based on the educational status
of the patients, frequency of HbSAg infection was higher this study has demonstrated an HbSAg prevalence
rate of 9.9 %. It therefore demonstrates the gradual increase in HbSAg prevalence among newly admitted
students in our environment as a result of absent of HB immunization. There is a gradual increase in the
prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen in our environment possibly due to the lack of awareness and HB
immunization. There is need to for awareness campaign among newly admitted students attending CHSTï¿¾Tsafe to limit the spread of the disease and the importance of Vaccine. They should be educated on the need
to adhere to treatment and adequate management of HbSAg infections.
Neuroscience and Multisensory Experiences [PDF]
Akshita AnandNeuroscience is an intriguing topic to discuss in the field of UX design. The study of neuroscience is an emerging field that helps UX designers generate a solid foundation to make better design decisions and solutions. One popular topic in UX is Multisensory Experience and interaction. Multisensory experiences are the impressions formed by specific events whose sensory elements were carefully crafted by someone. They deal with coupling multiple modalities to provide a robust, flexible, adaptable, and familiar experience to their users. The contribution of neuroscience in design and creating multisensory experiences in the reality-virtuality continuum is discussed in this study.
Assessment of Impact of Building Alteration on Residential Rental Values in D/Line, Port Harcourt, Rivers State. [PDF]
Brown, Siya Kabaka; Elenwo, Ekwuru & Johnbull, Simeipiri WenikeABSTRACT
Housing being a basic human need, that protects and acts as a form security from the weather, it is also used as a basis for societal recognition and prestige, hence the need for humans to own properties and constantly improve or alter their properties to meet their optimum need(s) to conform with modern trends. In view of this, this study is centered on the impact of building alterations in residential properties within the DLine axis of Port Harcourt, Rivers State. The study, was done by a structured field survey targeted on property owners, tenants and Estate Surveyors and valuers practicing within DLine. The Taro-Yamane formula was used to determine the sample size of 95 while the simple random method of sampling technique was used in the distribution of questionnaires to the various categories of respondents. The data obtained was analyzed by using statistical tools like table and percentages including bar chart, which contributed greatly to the findings of the study and appropriate recommendations has been made to solve the issues surrounding residential building alterations in DLine. The positive and negative impact of building alterations were identified and a conclusion drawn to remedy those impacts.
Validation of a green extraction method based on Ultrasound Assisted Aqueous Extraction from Fresh Plants of Argemone mexicana [PDF]
A F M Nazmus Sadat, Emad Hossain, Gulam Kibria, Shahidur Rahman, Nazmus Sakib, Twyabatun Nahar Nila, Roknuzzaman and Md. Rashedul IslamArgemone mexicana is a well known medicinal plant abundantly grown in arable and non-arable land all over Bangladesh. The whole plant of A. mexicana was selected for the validation of a green extraction method conducted by ultrasound treatment. The proposed aqueous Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) from fresh plants of A. mexicana was compared with the conventional methanol and decoction extraction method. Higher extraction yield was observed in the UAE method with a maximum number of phytochemicals almost similar to the methanol extract. Both UAE and methanol extracts showed moderate antimicrobial sensitivity against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi which was much higher than the extract obtained from the decoction method. Insignificant difference was observed in aqueous UAE crude extracts obtained both from fresh and dried plants give an option to avoid the time consuming drying stages of plant materials before extraction. Ultrasound mediated extraction successfully reduces the overall extraction time and cost as well as it allows aqueous solvent instead of hazardous organic solvent. Recent study indicates the suitability of the method both for laboratory and industrial setup.
Information and Communication Technology policies in Education: An urgent need to Contextualize [PDF]
Dr. Ruma RoyThe influence of ICT in all the fields and its potential to revolutionize human life is remarkable. Be it knowledge sharing, communication, accessibility, expressing views etc. had a great impact in all walks of life and specifically education. As the coming generations grow up to be predominantly techno - savvy citizens, the policies designed by the digital immigrants may not resonate with digital natives and therefore cannot foresee the possibilities. This paper envisages to lay emphasis on understanding the emotional, socio-cultural and economic context of designing futuristic ICT based policy for better dissemination. The basis of the paper is ICT in education: UNESCO, National Policy on ICT in School Education (2012) and the draft National Educational Policy (2019). It is an attempt to analyse national, technological and educational situation and feasible ICT enhanced programs for human requirements and suggest a plan to monitor its impact.
Various Aspects of Graphic Design in Digital Medias [PDF]
Dr G O ShivakumarDigital design, often called â€œlogic design,â€ is logical. No special math skills are needed, and the behavior of small logic circuits can be visualized mentally without any special insights into the operation of capacitors, transistors, or other devices that require calculus to model
A REVIEW ON RECYCLING OF THERMOSETS [PDF]
LS Jayakumari*, M Arun Kumar, B Arunbala, R SailajaThermosets are a type of plastics that pose a major problem when it comes to easy reusability and recycling because they become irreversibly rigid when subjected to progressive increase in temperatures. Epoxy resins, Phenol Formaldehyde, and Polyurethanes are a few of the many thermosets that are widely employed in several different fields. The rigid, brittle, opaque thermosets, in general, possess qualities like good mechanical strength at elevated temperatures, good chemical resistance in addition to even being self-extinguishing at times (mostly with the help of additives), with low smoke emissions, as highlighted by the British Plastics Federation. However, these properties which serve as an advantage to the end product also affect their recyclability, which is difficult and limited, because of their ability to undergo cross-linking on heating, which ultimately results in the formation of strong covalent bonds that cannot be broken easily. Several commercial techniques are now available for recycling thermosets, which include - Mechanical Processing, Thermal Processing and Chemical Processing. These methods demand higher amount of energy for offering feasible results. There are several studies that have focused on degradation (which is the essential first step that progressively leads to recycling) of thermosets. This review highlights the importance of such studies, techniques and methodologies on aspects including feasibility, cost, sustainability and technological innovation.
ANALYZING THE IMPACT OF DIGITAL MARKETING ON ONLINE MARKETS [PDF]
Raahim NajmiDigital marketing is an emerging method of marketing in todays world. One of the most important mediums of digital marketing is the internet which not only the cheapest but most effective E-marketing tool that help companies to globalize, the main objective of this study is to examine the effects of digital marketing on online market. Convenient sampling technique was used to collect the data from 234 respondents. Demographics & Exploratory factor analysis was analysed using SPSS & a confirmatory factor analysis was done using SPSS AMOS. In the end the hypothesis test summary states that we reject the null hypothesis thus resulting that there is a positive impact between digital marketing and online markets.
Principalsâ€™ Role Analysis Strategy in the Management of Stress as Correlate of Teachersâ€™ Attitude to Work and Instructional Effectiveness in Secondary Schools in Nigeria [PDF]
Patricia Chinelo UKAIGWE, Akachukwu Ignatius NWABUEZEThis study investigated principalsâ€™ role analysis strategy in the management of stress as correlates of teachersâ€™ attitude to work and instructional effectiveness in secondary schools in Nigeria. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. This study adopted a correlational survey design. The population of this study comprised all the 222 public senior secondary schools in Abia State, Nigeria, with 222 principals and 5,110 teachers. The sample size for this study was 391 principals and teachers. Multi-stage sampling procedure through cluster, stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used to draw the sample. The instruments used for data collection were Questionnaire titled: Principalsâ€™ Role Analysis Strategy in the Management of Stress Questionnaire (PRASMSQ); Attitude of Teachers to Work Questionnaire (ATWQ) and Instructional Effectiveness of Stressed-up Teacher Questionnaire (IESTQ). The instruments were face validated and the reliability of the instruments was established using internal consistency through Cronbach Alpha, which yielded reliability indexes of 0.78; 0.66; and 0.81. In analyzing the data, linear regression analysis was used to answer the research questions, and t-test associated with linear regression was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 significant level. The findings revealed that, there is a significant and high positive relationship between principalsâ€™ stress role analysis strategy and teachersâ€™ attitude to work in secondary schools. There is a significant and very high positive relationship between principalsâ€™ stress role analysis strategy and teachersâ€™ instructional effectiveness in secondary schools. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that, principals of secondary schools should ensure a positive stress role analysis strategy to improve teachersâ€™ attitude to work. Principals of secondary schools should ensure a positive stress role analysis strategy to enhance teachersâ€™ instructional effectiveness.
Investigation of Similarity Paradigms for Electronic Document Query and Retrieval [PDF]
Samuel Sunday UdohMany similarity models for electronic document retrieval have difficulties in retrieving and ranking relevant information from document repositories in response to queries. This stems from the fact that the natural language employed in queries sometimes contain ambiguous elements which sponsor the retrieval of irrelevant information. This research is aimed at investigating similarity models with a view to selecting appropriate model for deployment in document query and retrieval system. Models of Cosine, Okapi, Jaccard, Dice and Fuzzy logic-based similarity algorithms were designed and implemented using Java programming tools. My Structured Query Language (MySQL) database was designed for data repository. Course materials totaling 5025 in the Department of Computer Science University of Uyo, Nigeria were collected and stored as documents in the data repository. Queries were presented to the repository via the similarity models in the program interface. Mean score of similarity assessment obtained from three (3) human experts served as the parameter for evaluating the scores derived from the similarity models in the Java-based program. Results of similarity analysis showed a strong correlation value of 0.999 between the Expert score and the Fuzzy model followed by Okapi (0.958), Dice (0.940), Cosine (0.936) and Jaccard (0.757). In the document ranking analysis, Cosine model had the least correlation value of 0.767, while Fuzzy model had the highest correlation value of 0.978 and the least error value of 0.01. Fuzzy model is therefore considered the closest model to human Expert result in the domain of document query and retrieval.
Stream Flow Response due to Land Cover Change in Megech Watershed, Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia [PDF]
Zemenu AddisThe main focus of the present study was evaluating the impacts of land cover change on the stream flow of Megech river basin. Land sat 1(1973), Land sat 5 (1986) and Land sat 8 (2015) satellite images were used for land cover classification by using ERDAS Imagine 2011 to detect land cover changes in the watershed. In order to assess the impact of land cover change on the stream flow HBV-96 semi-distributed hydrological model was used. The result of Landsat image analysis for the land cover of the watershed indicated that the forest lands cover decreased by 20% during 1973-1986 and by 37% during 1986-2015. There was great expansion of agriculture land by 7 %( 1973-1986), and60 %( 1986-2015) respectively in the same period. The HBV-96 model results indicated reasonable model performance for periods of calibration (NS=0.7) and validation (NS=0.66). During total recording period from (1987-1995) stream flow volume was decreased by 27%. The peak flow increased by 0.34m3/s and the base flow in the dry season also decreased by insignificant changes during the first period. For the record period the peak flow increased by 31% while base flow decreased by 38%for period of 1986-2015 during the land cover change. Generally, the analysis indicated that flow during the wet season has increased, while the flow during the dry season decreased. On account of land cover change in the watershed environmental flow is decreasing trend. This would likely have a direct effect on the Angreb (source of drinking water supply for Gonder town) and planned Megech dam (for irrigation) in the future. Therefore, there is a need to develop a new water management scenario to balance the stream flow due to the land cover changes. Effective Biological soil and water conservation practices with community participatory approaches would likely be used as one of remedial action for rehabilitation of the degrading environment from the land cover change in the watershed.