Volume 13, Issue 3, March 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

Publication for Volume 13, Issue 3, March 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

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New Technique for Designing Highly Nonlinear Confusion Component Based on Elliptic Curve and Group Action []

The security of any block cipher heavily depends on the nonlinear component. Static substitution boxes (S-boxes) can be analyzed by attackers and in turn weaken the entire cryptosystem. Dynamic substitution box (S-box) can mitigate this problem and can resist unknown attacks. The underlying structure of dynamic S-boxes should also be strong enough to resist against algebraic attacks. In this paper we have constructed dynamic S-boxes based on elliptic curve points and group action followed by permutation applied on each of newly constructed S-boxes. The smaller key size and strong underlying structure of elliptic curves make it favorable to be used in many cryptosystems. The suggested scheme can generate many S-boxes with reasonable nonlinearity. Simple permutation can enhance nonlinearity of the all these selected S-boxes which can further be used as dynamic S-boxes for any cryptosystems. The cryptographic strength of these S-boxes is analyzed, and computational results shows that the suggested algorithm generates cryptographic strong S-boxes as compared to some existing schemes.

Monitoring and control of self-start generator using android app []

Human are busy to investigate easy ways to control different objects. Internet of things (IOTs) and home automation are the most emerging fields these days. Generators are used as backup power source of electricity. The traditional way of monitoring a generator was through regular checks on generator site several times in day. There should not be any extra load on generator because it causes to reduce its efficiency. A generator could be controlled by wired system and it could be controlled by Bluetooth system. Some other ways to monitor a generator include radio frequency. By a selected frequency a generator could be controlled. A new way to control a generator wirelessly is through android app. An efficient way to control a generator is through android app. The app has ability to turn a generator ON/OFF. It could measure fuel level, battery water level and could manage load. If any extra load is present of generator it would be automatically turned OFF. Furthermore, one could turn ON any of the loads within the specified limit. There is an option to update limit each time. It uses Wi-Fi module which has limitation as per a simple Wi-Fi device has limit. This project is applicable in industries as well as in homes & markets. This could be used in such offices which have tall buildings where it is difficult to approach a generator which is placed on ground level. It could be used in stadiums, caravans & in hospitals.

Breaking down the Economic Survey 2020 []

The year 2020-21 has been challenging one on the fiscal front. In order to meet the increased demand for resources, the target for gross market borrowing of the central government for the financial year 2020-21 was revised from the budget estimate of Rs.7.8 lakh crore to Rs.12 lakh crore. Therefore, India adopted a calibrated approach best suited for the evolving situation of the economy in contrast to front-loaded large stimulus packages adopted by many countries. In comparison, the year 2019-20 was challenging for the Indian Economy because of the decelerating growth rate experienced in the first half of the year. Amongst the various reforms introduced during the year to promote growth and investment, reduction in corporate income tax rate was a major structural reform. Going forward, the plan was to relax the fiscal deficit target. Relaxing of fiscal deficit target means that the government is planning to spend more to stimulate growth.

Adsorption Efficiency of Sawdust Activated Carbon on Congo red and Tartrazine Dye Removal from Textile and Food Industrial Wastewaters []

Conventional methods for the removal of dyes are either expensive or inadequate because of their stability towards light, oxidizing agents and resistance towards aerobic digestion, besides generating sludge with disposal problem. However, Adsorption of dyes is a relatively new technology and efficient method for treatment to remove contaminant from effluent. The study investigated the adsorption mechanisms and removal of Congo red and tartrazine dyes from textile and food industrial wastewaters onto naturally based activated carbon prepared from sawdust. It further characterized the physical and chemical properties with dye concentrations of the wastewaters before and after treatments with the adsorbent using standard methods and Ultraviolet-visible Spectrophotometer respectively. The composition of the sawdust activated carbon was determined based on the dry combustion method using Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) (VARIO EL III, Elemental Germany), Scanning Electron Microscope elemental (SEM) (High resolution SEM -Carl Zeiss) was used to study the surface morphological characteristics and structural chemical functional groups in the activated carbon was determined using the Fourier Transform Infrared technique (SHIMADZU-FTIR-8400S). Batch adsorption experiment were conducted and initial concentration (20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/L), adsorbent dosage (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 g), pH (2, 4, 6 and 8) and contact time (20, 40, 60 and 80 minutes) were optimized for Congo red and tartrazine dye using SDAC as adsorbent. Data from the initial concentration was used to test conformity with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. Adsorption efficiencies for simulation ranged from 11.11±0.00 to 85.00±0.70 and 31.57±0.00 to 66.67±1.40 for Congo red and tartrazine dyes respectively. Optimized adsorption conditions for Congo red and tartrazine dye were pH 8, 2.0 g adsorbent dosage, 80 minutes contact time and 50 mg/L dye concentration; and pH 2 for food industrial wastewater, gave removal efficiencies of 72.41% and 78.57% for textile and food industrial wastewaters respectively. Physicochemical characteristics of the wastewaters were observed to decrease after treatment with SDAC. Data best fit Langmuir than Freundlich adsorption model. Results concluded that SDAC was found beneficial for adsorption of Congo red and tartrazine dyes in Textile and Food Industrial Wastewaters.

Three-Factor Authentication using Graphical Password []

In recent times, digitization is spreading extensively in every part of modern society. One of the ways to keep this process secure is authentication. Authentication covers various areas of the digital world like online payments, communications and access rights management. Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) is a combination of various authentication methods to create a secure authentication system. MFA adds an extra layer of security in the process of authentication. This paper surveys the already existing methods that authenticate a user with the system and identifies the gaps. The survey contains the challenges from the user's perspective. The proposed method suggests a graphical authentication method as a third factor; as graphical passwords are easy to remember over a long period of time.

Visual Merchandising – a tool to develop a brand and complete the store design. An enquiry into an apparel store []

There are various ways to display a product in the store. However, if the product is presented neatly, it attracts people to get into the store. Visual Merchandising is the main factor that contributes to enhancing the store ambience. With the presence of online selling platforms like Amazon, people prefer to shop online as they are exposed to multiple options of a similar product. But what they miss out is the experience they get while shopping in a store. Online shopping at times leads to buying the wrong product, especially when buying clothes. We are unable to touch and feel the product, check the size, colour variations etc. This is why the majority of the audience still prefers a brick and mortar store where they can see, touch and feel the product before buying. In the fast-paced working environments, shopping has become a therapy for many people where they feel relaxed, going to the shops and also helps them break their routines. To attract new and old customers, retailers are making sure that their store design is up to the mark. There is no compromise these days when retailers have to invest in a physical store. Window display, in-store signage, wall and floor fixture displays, store layouts, etc. are some of the critical factors that contribute to the store ambience. The customers only enter the store, if they like the window display or the message in the window display is very clear about the brand. It is the crucial area in the store where the customer usually gets an overview of the brand. That is the reason why visual merchandisers change the window display on an average every two weeks. Window displays should be designed in a way that communicates the brand message to the customers. Along with window display, the in-store display is equally important to enhance the array of the products and store ambience. Products that are displayed thematically and neatly increases the visual impact. The above quickly leads the customer to decide whether to enter the store. This article aims to focus on the factors that help develop store ambience along with the store design. Some critical elements like a window display, displaying principles of visual merchandising, the product lifecycle and planning in-store visual merchandising are discussed.


Knowledge Management is a relatively new discipline and provides the organizations a capability to increase productivity and responsiveness, better coordination, decision making and better problem solving among the employees. The role of knowledge management has become vital for the survival of the organization and has an impact on human capital, teamwork, and overall organizational performance and effectiveness. Infrastructure development through the implementation of various construction projects in India has been given prime importance as strategic measure via various Plans, Policies and Budgetary allocation by the Government of India driven by PM Gatishakti initiative in the Budget 2022 via Seven Engines that includes Roads, Railways, Airports, Ports, Mass Transport, Waterways & Logistics infrastructure, National Master Plan, Multimodal Connectivity, National Ropeways Development Plan etc (www.india.gov.in). Further, Construction and infrastructure development is contributing more than about 5 per cent to our nation’s GDP. Under this back drop, an attempt is made to study the role of knowledge management implementation on successful completion of the projects in construction Industry across Andhra Pradesh. For this purpose, the quantitative cross-sectional study design approach was adopted, and data generated from 200 Managers & Employees from various construction organizations across major cities in Andhra Pradesh, India and analyzed the data with the help of SPSS 25. The study results have revealed that the KM Implementation helps in solving the problems in the Projects of Construction Industry, followed by improving operational efficiency in a significant manner. Further, these KM implantation outcomes solving the problems improving operational efficiency, specified in the study carry their significant influences on the Successful completion of construction projects, selected for the study.

The Effects of Gadgets Under Remote and Distance Learning on Students' Academic Performance During the COVID-19 Pandemic []

Because of the emergence of the COVID-19, the way schooling and instruction are implemented has changed dramatically. Traditional educational methods such as live interaction sessions are the data favoring Remote and Distance (RAD) learning. As a result, a way to resolve the issue is necessary. Remote and Distance learning is indeed a viable option for resolving this issue. This research assessed digital health literacy using an instrument only concentrated on data collecting. The tool was utilized to ascertain various talents, including actual competencies. It was designed to evaluate operating, navigational, knowledge acquisition, dependability, and relevancy of self-determined and created content. The purpose of this research was to ascertain how students enrolled in a university-level organization in Cebu City demonstrated their educational performance in terms of digital application and competency. The study analyzed results quantitatively using a survey online administered using Google forms to a random sample of regular nursing students stratified by age, sex, and educational achievement. The study included sociodemographic characteristics, web usage, and health-related literacy information. Statistics for descriptive purposes, T-test, ANOVA with Post Hoc Analysis, and Chi-square were utilized as a research tool. Participants, primarily girls (112) and men (18), were between 18 and 23 years old, with an educational level ranging from first to the fourth year. The findings indicated that students are more reliant on electronics to assist them in achieving their educational success. The main constituent analyses verified the self-report scale's theoretical structure (eighty-two percent of variation explained). Remote and Distance learning respondents' data and the influence of gadgets on their educational performance were analyzed using a test called chi-square goodness of fit. Additionally, its success reflects learners' ability to use technological tools in their academic achievement effectively. KEYWORDS: Educational achievement; digital literacy; Remote and Distance learning; nursing students; technologies, devices, COVID-19 outbreak

Modeling of European option with additional compound interest payments []

Solved the problem of pricing the popular European type of securities option in the case of a multivariate binomial financial market consisting of a quantity K bond and a single stock. It is assumed that the bond values are multiplied by the compound interest rate on the payments - more than one number. In the case of the built model, the risk-neutral probability is defined, the generalized formula of fair price coke, Ross and Rubinstein and the buy-sell parity formula are adopted. Recursive formulas for the fair price of an option, two-step binomial trees, and formulas for calculating the minimum hedge are built into the n- step task.Solved the problem of pricing the popular European type of securities option in the case of a multivariate binomial financial market consisting of a quantity K bond and a single stock. It is assumed that the bond values are multiplied by the compound interest rate on the payments - more than one number. In the case of the built model, the risk-neutral probability is defined, the generalized formula of fair price coke, Ross and Rubinstein and the buy-sell parity formula are adopted. Recursive formulas for the fair price of an option, two-step binomial trees, and formulas for calculating the minimum hedge are built into the n- step task.

Reservoir Charaterization and Petrophysical Analysis of “PFD” Field, Niger Delta, Using Well Log and 3D Seismic Data []

This research focuses on the reservoir characterization and petrophysical analysis of interpreted 3D seismic and well log data. Three dimensional (3D) seismic data, and a suite of two geophysical well logs from two wells located on the PFD field, Niger Delta were analyzed using Petrel software. Well log correlation led to the identification of two sandstone reservoirs with potential to hold hydrocarbon lying at depths of 10945-11115ft and 11570-11935ft within the two analysed wells. However, readings from resistivity logs showed that the deepest reservoir has the most potential to be hydrocarbon bearing, hence analysis was carried out for this reservoir alone. To ensure that the reservoir was laterally continuous, a synthetic seismogram was developed to aid tying the well data to the seismic data. The reservoir of interest was shown to be continuous across the field of study. Upon further analysis, certain petrophysical measures were analysed. These petrophysical measures included fractional volume of shale, fractional effective porosity, fractional water saturation and fractional hydrocarbon saturation. Estimated values of fractional volume of shale, fractional effective porosity, fractional water saturation and fractional hydrocarbon saturation had values ranging between 0.04-0.53, 0.04-0.30, 0.17-1.00, and 0.00-0.83 respectively. The reservoir of interest was therefore thought of as having the potential to bear hydrocarbon.

Variabilité spatio-temporelle des pluies de 1950 à 2014 dans le bassin versant de la dépression de la cuesta de Thiès (De Pout à Darou Khoudoss), Sénégal []

Cet article étudie la variabilité spatiale et temporelle des précipitations du bassin versant de la dépression de la cuesta de Thiès située à l’ouest du Sénégal. L'homogénéisation et le comblement des lacunes ont été assurés par la méthode du vecteur régional. L'application sur les précipitations annuelles (1950-2014) des tests statistiques de Pettitt Lee et Heghinian, Hubert et Buishand indique des ruptures de stationnarité en 1967 (un cas), 1969 (neuf cas) et 1970 (un cas). La distribution spatiale des précipitations annuelles moyennes sur des périodes glissantes de 30 ans montre à la fois leur décroissance vers l’ouest et la migration vers l’est des isohyètes après rupture. La période 1971-2000 est la plus sèche. Les indices pluviométriques de LAMB, étudiés, confirment cette baisse de la pluviométrie, à partir de 1970, on remarque une quasi absence d’indices positifs caractéristiques d’années excédentaires.


This paper focuses upon using modern technology in globalization for benefiting the contemporary business with an absolute advantage in Entrepreneurial ventures while seeking Government grants. Apart from the content of this report the information provided may be used for security reasons as well. This technology is based on Artificial Intelligence and the report findings provides accurate cost for the end users.

Cases on alcohol use and smoking among students []

This study aimed to investigate and explore the cases of students that engaged in alcohol use, substance use and smoking cigarette. To facilitate such concern, a survey questionnaire was used to gather the needed data and infor-mation. Frequency count and Percentage were the statistical tools used in this research. From the total of 1984 stu-dents from grade 7 to grade 12, only 350 were considered actual respondents on this study using simple random sam-pling method. The results showed that 172 or 49% of the respondents engaged in either alcohol use or smoking cigarette. En-gagement in alcohol use were on top with 123 or 35% of the populace. This was followed by smoking cigarette with 42 or 12% of the students. The age range of the students that engaged in these activities were from 15 years old to 17 years old. Friends from outside of school were the primary influence on student’s use of alcohol and smoking cigarette as the students found it of more use in getting closer to friends. Overall, the presence of youth engagement to alcohol use and smoking cigarette is observable but the students realized that it has no benefits in terms of being inspired to study and in improving family relationships.

Assessment of heavy metal pollution in the sediment of the middle reaches of River Orashi, Southeastern Nigeria []

Analysis was carried out on sediment contamination by heavy metals of the middle reaches of River Orashi. Heavy metals, namely Cd, Cr, Fe, Zn and Pb were examined from the river sediments collected from Odieke, Odiobor, Mbiama, Akinima, Oshiobele, on a monthly basis, for a period of 12 months to capture rainy and dry seasons. After preparation, samples were analyzed using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Cadmium was not detectable at all sampling stations. The average concentration of heavy metals ranged between 0.326 ± 1.13 and 2.334 ± 8.08. Average heavy metal concentrations of River Orashi sediment compared with the USEPA sediment standard, Average Shale values, and other world standards were lower than the benchmarks recommended. Assessment of the status of pollution by indices EF, Igeo, CF, DOC, PLI and NMI showed that the sediments of the middle reaches of River Orashi had low level of contamination. PLI calculated showed that Odiobor was the most polluted with heavy metals while Odieke was the least polluted, but classified the whole sediments of the middle reaches of River Orashi as unpolluted with heavy metals. Correlation coefficients showed the presence of natural and anthropogenic sources of the heavy metals.

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