Volume 13, Issue 12, December 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

Publication for Volume 13, Issue 12, December 2022 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

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Obstacles of Foreign investment and their solutions Case study Bangladesh []

Bangladesh is a small country with great possibilities. In South Asia, Bangladesh is the fastest-growing country. In this growth, one of the essential parts is Foreign Direct Investment. Foreign Direct investment refers to the investment which happens by a company of one country to another country in the form of controlling ownership in a business or a project. The interest in this investment lasts long. Bangladesh has seen remarkable inflows of FDI till 2019. However, covid creates a downslope to this inflow. Despite rapid economic growth, Bangladesh is still in a minor position in the global rank of FDI. Multiple obstacles must be addressed to attract FDI from different countries. The hindrances are mostly policy level. Such as taxation problems, inability to fulfil the business's commitments, not getting proper justice, bureaucratic involvement, No good brand image, lack of infrastructure development, etc. These are one of the significant backblocks to this country's development. BIDA is working to overcome these complexions. Still, there are good opportunities for Bangladesh to attract FDI by showing the promising opportunities in Bangladesh. The changes need to make at in policy level and using the KPI of Bangladesh's economy. This paper identifies the significant problems and provides possible and practical solutions to overcome the situation and increase the inflow of FDI.

A novel approach to Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5/p25 inhibitors: A potential treatment for Alzheimer’s disease []

Based on the earlier results of our in -house database and compound library, a series of novel clubbed thienyl methyl -triazoles was designed which may emerge as potential cdk5/p25 inhibitors, for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. A benign synthesis was planned so as to take an advantage of MAOS (Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis) method. Evaluation of the SAR of this series have allowed the identification o f compounds 4, 5, 7 and 8 from series I while 13, 14, 16 and 17 from series II as significant cdk5/p25 inhibitors and thus have potential as possible treatments for Alzheimer’s disease.

Potential Assessment of 80 kW Floating Solar Photovoltaic System (FSPV) at Kaptai lake, Bangladesh []

Based on the massive amount of electricity generated, the world's lifestyle and economy have greatly expanded. However, due to the scarcity of fossil fuels, the provision of power is under pressure in this country. Renewable energy provides an exception at this point, and solar energy—among all the renewable energy sources—plays a prominent role because it is environmentally friendly and indestructible. The cost and accessibility of land, however, poses a significant obstacle to the construction of land-based, large-scale solar power plants in Bangladesh. In a riverine nation like Bangladesh, a floating solar photovoltaic system offers a solution with a lot more possibilities. This research will outline the potential for floating solar photovoltaic systems in Bangladesh's Kaptai lake area and discuss feasible investigations with location prospect, FSPV costs, project revenue, environmental aspects and further research opportunities. The potential investigation for the establishment of FSPV based on financial parameters will be validated in this paper using RET-screen energy management software.

BIM Maturity Level of Architectural firm BIM Operators in Lagos State Nigeria []

The four levels of project collaboration also known as BIM Maturity Levels has increasingly become the criteria for assessing the BIM compliance of firms and project teams. The study provides an insight into the four BIM Maturity Levels and seeks to identify the BIM Maturity Level of Architectural Firms in Lagos State, Nigeria. A non-experimental research design approach was adopted for the study which involved the collection of quantitative data from 140 Architectural Firms in Lagos State. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and findings were presented in form of tables and charts to illustrate the level of BIM Maturity of Architectural firm BIM Operators in Lagos State. Chi-Square Test of association was also used to confirm the relationship between the four BIM Maturity Levels and Firm’s Information Technology (IT) Infrastructure and the level of relationship that exists between them. The findings revealed that 14.3% of the sampled firms have the IT Infrastructure requirements of BIM Maturity Level 3 which is the highest BIM level where the full collaborative benefits of the BIM tool can be optimized. Of the 14.3%, only 3.6% are BIM Level 3 compliant in their project documentation processes. The remaining 10.7% have the IT Infrastructure requirements but are not BIM level 3 compliant with their project documentation processes. The study also revealed that 62.1% of the sampled firms have the IT Infrastructure requirements of BIM Maturity Level 2 which is a partial collaborative platform for BIM. Of the 62.1%, only 22.1% are BIM Level 2 compliant in their project documentation processes. The remaining 40% have the IT Infrastructure requirements but are not BIM level 2 compliant with their project documentation processes. The chi square test of association conducted between the relationships of the BIM Maturity levels and IT Infrastructure revealed that BIM Maturity level 3 has a significantly large relationship with Firm’s IT Infrastructure with the omega coefficient (ω) of 0.533 which is above the 0.5 benchmark for a large relationship determinant. This means that a full BIM collaborative benefit will not be experienced by BIM Operators without a dependable and functional IT Infrastructure setup. Similarly, a large relationship was confirmed between BIM Level 2 and Firm’s IT Infrastructure with the omega coefficient (ω) of 0.498. Medium relationship was confirmed between BIM Level 1 and Firm’s IT Infrastructure with omega coefficient (ω) of 0.355. A non-significant chi-square test revealed shows no relationship was confirmed between BIM Level 0 and IT Infrastructure. In conclusion, the study revealed that majority of the sampled architectural firms are actively operating on BIM Level 1 and BIM Level 0 which are BIM Levels that would not enable the optimization of the inherent benefits of the BIM Tool and processes by Architectural firms.

Probing Incomplete Fusion Dynamics in 12C Induced Reactions at Moderate Excitation Energies []

The excitation functions for various evapioration residues populated in the interaction of 12C with 51V have been measured in the energy range from 3 MeV/A to 7 MeV/A. The experiment was performed using 15 UD Pelletron, a National accelearator facility for university resaerchers in India. The well-known nuclear activation terchnique followed by offline gamma ray spectroscopy was used for these measurements. The theoretical predictions were obtained using fusion based statistical model code PACE4. It is obsereved that for residues populated through pxn channels, the experimentals values are well reproduced by theoretical predictions indicating that these residues are mainly populated by Complete fusion only. However, for the residues those produced via xαyn channels the measured cross-section values are observed to be much higher than those obtained by model calculations. The enhancement in cross-sections values may be attributed to the presence of incomplete fusion with complete fusion dynamics in the production of these residues. Furthermore, in order to have a better insight into the onset and strength of incomplete fusion, that is termed as the incomplete fusion fraction has been deduced for the present study. It is observed that incomplete fusion fraction increses with projectile energy.

Freeze drying of carrot (Daucus carota) and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) using a locally developed freeze-dryer []

An experimental analysis of the freeze-drying of carrot and potato using a locally developed freeze-dryer is presented. The developed freeze-dryer consists of a compressor rated 100W, evaporator pipe length of 14.77m, condenser pipe length of 7.82m and evaporator chamber volume of 0.24m3. The freeze-dryer dried pretreated fresh potatoes and carrot from an initial moisture content of 79.2% and 87% to a final moisture content of 17.8% and 12.3 respectively. The percentage ash content of potatoes was 0.196% and 0.375% for carrots. The drying rate for both produce is approximately 2 degrees Celsius per hour. These values fall within the range of values for dried potatoes and carrot as contained in literature, hence signifying that the nutritional values of the dried vegetables were retained even after freeze drying. Physical examination of the freeze-dried vegetables indicated both aesthetic appeal and minimal loss of shape. This study presents an innovative solution that can be used for extended storage shelf life of vegetables.

Overview of Performance Management System (PMS): Case Study Application of Selected Institution in Botswana []

An overview of performance management in organisations is presented. Critical analyses of the importance of performance management were reported. Case studies of current practice of performance management of selected institutions in Botswana was illustrated. The case study highlighted areas of common application of PMS tools as a way of assessing staff performance. The case study also highlighted variation in reward systems and performance points accumulation. Also, variation in review frequency was highlighted. The University of Maryland School of Medicine Health Initiative in Botswana conducts performance reviews twice a year, whereas the University of Botswana and Princess Marina Hospital undertake performance review once and four times a year, respectively. The review emphasized the importance of regular performance reviews as a necessary feedback mechanism for staff improvement.

Occupational Safety and Health Awareness of Respirable dust exposure in Apparel Industries in Export Processing Zone in Machakos County, Kenya []

The apparel and clothing industry is a vital sector in developing countries. The sector engages considerable workers due to the intense manual work in the industry. In Kenya, the Export Processing Zone (EPZ) hosts many large apparel companies that manufacture garments for export. Garment processing releases respirable dust particles into the work area, thus exposing workers to considerable risks to the respiratory system. This study aimed to determine the awareness of the risks posed by respirable dust hazards among workers in apparel processing companies (APC) in EPZ in Machakos County, Kenya. The research utilized a cross-sectional descriptive design during the study. Four (4) APCs with 367 participants were selected using systematic random sampling. Questionnaires were used to gather information from the participants. The study revealed that married workers were 0.413 [95%CI = 0.179– 0.950, p = 0.037] times likely to be aware of respirable dust and associated health concerns compared to single workers. Those who had worked in the factory for a period of 4-6 years were 0.193 [95%CI = 0.043– 0.871, p = 0.032] times likely to be aware of respirable dust exposure and associated health concerns compared to those who had worked in the factory for 0-2 years. Workers in sewing, stitching and overlock were 0.14 [95%CI = 0.03– 0.59, p = 0.007] times likely to be aware of respirable dust exposures and associated health concerns compared to other workers at the factory. In conclusion, the study revealed significant unawareness of respirable dust exposure among workers in APCs EPZ, Machakos County. Thus, the management should consider training and other administrative controls to reduce respirable dust exposure within the companies

RANSOMWARE Tactical | Strategic | Diplomatic Tools of Warfare []

Ransomware have emerged as a cost effective asymmetric tool with easy to use interfaces and worming abilities. In such a scenario, the use of the weaponized malware is not restricted to silo non-state actors, but is likely to becomes a weapon for economic warfare during armed or unarmed conflicts.

Global Cyber Diplomacy in the era of network centric wars []

The impact of these developments for the international order, and diplomacy as a potential complementary practice to the security-oriented approaches, has however remained largely unexamined in the literature . Cyber diplomacy has thus emerged in response to a demand for an approach, which centres around promoting peaceful relations in the international system. Core challenges of cyber diplomacy is how to create international order out of a largely anarchic domain and establishing the necessary conditions for intergovernmental cooperation to increase cyberstability. The political prioritisation of this approach is illustrated by the allocation of significant resources to the creation of cyber diplomats, in addition to strategies for international engagement on cyberspace. The paper establishes a 9-cell mat to define strategies and execution techniques keeping in view the global relationships vis a vis their respective cyber strength

An Insight into the Cultural Significance of Indigenous Bowls in the Cameroon Grassfields Cosmology []

Cultures all over the world use bowls in one way or the other. Indigenous bowls are of very immense value to Africans in general and the Grassfields people of Cameroon in particular. These bowls which vary in size and shape are the workmanship of both male and female. The bowls produced are used by the royalty as well as by sacred jujus. Indigenous bowls are equally useful the kitchen, and in the traditional healer’s home. Despite these important functions, the bowls are currently undergoing gradual modification due largely to modernity. The questions that this paper seeks to answer are: what is the cultural significance of indigenous bowls to a Grassfields man? ‘What is the place of indigenous bowls in the lives of the Grassfileds people? and ‘What are factors that influence the dynamics in indigenous bowls? The paper therefore is out to illustrate the cultural meanings which Grassfields people give to bowls, and highlight the value of the indigenous bowls. Despite the changes which are ongoing in the production of indigenous bowls, there are some artists who still continue to produce bowls in the tribal style. These bowls can be used to portray the socio-political organisation of the Grassfielders. They are elements of social stratification, cultural identity and heritage. Indigenous bowls therefore have roles in politics, social, religion, economics and healing. They (bowls) belong to and reflect the system of thought of the people. Data for this paper was collected using both the qualitative and quantitative methods and my analysis and interpretation are based on the theories of symbolic anthropology of Geertz, functionalism of Malinowski and Brown, and cultural evolution of Tylor and Morgan.

The effect of using the intraoral scanning from the point of view of dentists and dental lab technicians in Najran region []

Background: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of using the intraoral scanning from the point of view of dentists and dental lab technicians in Najran region, Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: This study is a cross-sectional study, conducted using a questionnaire that were was randomly distributed online to Saudi dentists and dental-lab technicians in Najran region. The questionnaire consisted from three sections of questions: 1) questions about personal information, 2) questions about the features of using the intraoral scan, 3) questions about the extent of relying on intraoral scanning in dental clinics and labs in Najran region. About 178 of dentists and dental lab technicians completed the questionnaire. The statistical analysis program (SPSS v.26) has been used in the study in data entry and analysis, with using the necessary statistical methods to achieve the objectives of the study. Results: 68.0% of participants were males and 32.0% were females, the majority of participants aged between 30-40 years old, 35.4% of participants had working years >16 years. The total degree of the efficiency of using the intraoral scan from the point of view of dentists and dental lab technicians was high (M = 4.19 out of 5, RII = 83.9%, SD = 0.86). The prevalence of intraoral scanners in the dental clinics and labs was 86% in Najran region.49.4% knew the effects of different lights on intraoral scanning. 79.8% knew the unit of measure light intensity. 64% knew the indications of intraoral scanning. Conclusion: Dentists and dental-lab technicians in Najran region thought that the using of intraoral scanning in dentistry is effective.

Design and analysis of externally prestressed concrete deck bridges with cables deviated under the deck []

Externally prestressed concrete deck bridges with cables deviated under the deck are one of the suitable systems for medium spans ranging from 50m to 80m; using this structural system for medium spans range has several economic and aesthetic advantages compared to traditional solutions for medium spans range such as increasing the deck slenderness, reducing the vertical and seismic loads on piers and foundations, efficient use of materials resulting from the greater slenderness for more economical and sustainable construction, improving the aesthetic consideration of the bridge. However, this structural system is uncommon, and only a limited number of these bridges have been constructed worldwide, probably due to the requirements for vertical clearance below the deck and the limited knowledge about this structural system. In order to contribute towards filling this gap, a nonlinear numerical parametric study has been performed to discuss the most important aspects of the structural behaviour and design criteria of this structural system for simple and continuous span schemes under vertical loads. Also, to provide the designers with some guidance on a preliminary estimate of the required material quantities for the bridge superstructure (deck) and to evaluate the economic impact of using this structural system compared to traditional solutions for medium spans range such as internally prestressed concrete deck bridges and externally prestressed concrete deck bridges with cables deviated inside the deck.


Natural products especially from marine sources exhibit excellent biological activity. They exhibit a variety of bioactivity such us antibiotic, anticancer, antiinflammatory, antitumor, antiviral, antibacterial and antifungicidal activites. The chemical compounds, which are separated from marine sources usually consists of nitrogen containing heterocyclic rings. Many of these may be classified as marine alkaloids due to this fact. Alkaloids have long claimed the attention of humans due to their significant bioactivity. Thus several alkaloids have found a place in western as well as in eastern systems of medicine. In fact phytochemicals such as alkaloids have been in use from time immemorial for the treatment of illness.

Carbon Stock Estimation in Tidal Flats of Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria []

Abstract Carbon stock estimation in tidal flats of Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria was carried out. The study aimed at determining the sediment bulk density (SBD), organic carbon concentration (%C) and the organic carbon stock of sediments. A total of 312 sediment samples were collected from 24 equally spaced sampling points at seven locations using a locally fabricated 1-m, open-cylindrical gouge auger. The field measurement, laboratory tests, data analysis, presentation and interpretation followed the procedures outlined for the National Forest Carbon Measurement, Monitoring and Reporting. The lithologies are typical of mangroves which included peats and clays with pockets of sands. All the parameters significantly varied with depth and lithology. The values of SBD and %C varied between 0.95 and 1.97 g/cm3 (mean value of 1.30 g/cm3) and between 0.9 and 33.6 % (mean value of 12.50 %) respectively. Organic carbon stocks per hectare varied between 38.85 ± 15.18 and 3,245.76 ± 15.18 Mg C ha-1 (with mean value of 622.12 Mg C ha-1). The total carbon stock was summed up to 194,102.24 Mg C ha-1 (equivalent to 712,355.22 ± 53.57 Mg CO2 ha-1) and scaled to the entire study area to obtain at 921.50 ± 53.57 Gg C, equivalent to 3,096.57 ± 53.57 Gg CO2. This value is about 0.048 % of the total global mangrove carbon storage in sediments Keywords: Carbon stock estimation, Tidal flats, Organic carbon concentration, Niger Delta mangroves

Concentration of Pomegranate Juice (Punica Granatum l.) in Egg Yolk Tris Diluent on the Quality of Peanut Goat Spermatozoa at Room Temperature []

This research was conducted at the Immunobiology Laboratory, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Mataram. The objective was to determine the concentration of pomegranate juice as a diluent in maintaining the sperm quality of kacang goat stored at room temperature. The material used in this study was the sperm of a 2-year-old kacang goat. This study used an experimental method with a completely randomized design (CRD), which consisted of 4 treatments and 5 replications. Peanut goat sperm with the addition of pomegranate juice concentrations, namely P0(0%), P1(5%), P2(10%), and P3(15%). The results of this study indicate that the best use of pomegranate juice concentration is at P2 concentration of pomegranate juice (10%) with Motility 57 ± 5.70%, Viability 74.8 ± 3.27%, and Abnormality 6.6 ± 2.70 %, which was stored at room temperature for 8 hours . Analysis used SPSS 16’s analysis of variance (ANOVA). The conclusion in this study was that the addition of pomegranate juice to egg yolk tris diluent with a concentration of 10% pomegranate juice showed a significant difference (P<0.05) in maintaining better motility, viability and Spermatozoa abnormalities of peanut goats stored at room temperature.

Integrated Coolant Leakage Detection In Pipelines Of Light Water Reactors []

The leak before break (LBB) concept is well known for safe nuclear power operations. However, the researchers are continuously working to develop a sustainable leakage detection system in the pipeline. Leak detection morphology is also not well settled enough. Hence, this study was focused to design and propose a leak detection and monitoring system for the safe operation of 3rd generation light water reactor based on integrated sensor units. The system monitors real-time conditions of pipeline degradation and service aging so that maintenance or replacement can be performed before the loss of safety function. This is based on the premise that a detectable leak was developed before a catastrophic break occurs. This research is also focused on design for early detection of leakage and if leakage occurs then identify the leakage properties, such as leakage size, position, direction Localization, and loose part monitoring as well based on detailed data analysis from the vibration sensor. Each integrated sensor unit was used to avoid false signals. The system vibration sensor is used to monitor pipeline conditions, identifying cracks and leakage in a pipeline. Integrated humidity and temperature sensors are used to verify the leakage signal from the vibration sensor to avoid false signals. And finally, ultrasonic sensors are used to monitor the banding and displacement of a pipeline due to large leakage of high-pressure fluid through the pipeline. Through these phenomena, this research showed the analytical process involving such sensor integrated system to monitor all characteristics of the pipeline and any abnormal situation from small internal cracks to pipeline breaks.

The Prospects of a Single-World Currency []

Abstract This paper considers the possibility of all countries of the world adopting a single common currency for conducting their internal and international financial transactions in view of the enormous benefits that it would induce to all concerned in terms of increased efficiency in trade, international specialization, mobility of capital and labour and the resultant increase in national output. The idea had earlier been mooted at an International Monetary Forum (IMF) held in November 2000. It takes its roots from the suggestion in 1944 by Maynard Keynes that a common means for effecting international settlement would greatly facilitate international trade and finance. The increasing integration and/or interlinking of world economies which proceeded at a tremendous pace in subsequent decades makes the idea even more important and urgent at the present time. The establishment of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) at the Bretton Conference in 1944 and the Special Drawing Rights (SDR) instrument that it created in 1969 constitute some important steps taken in the pursuit of the same goal. The paper examines the feasibility of a common world currency against the backdrop of the political and ideological differences and hegemony that exist among some of the world’s powerful nations (USA, Russia and China) and identifies the difficulties and strictures which could militate against such a scheme. Other arrangements such as the elevation of the SDR to the status of a world currency, the universal adoption of the US dollar (the world reserve currency), the multi-polar system, and even the possibility of adopting a digital currency were also considered. The conclusion is that the dream of a single world currency is infeasible and unattainable at the present time or even in the foreseeable future. A multi-polar system, a semblance of which appears to exist at the present time in a limited form is, however, more likely to persist in the foreseeable future.

Assessment of Knowledge of Hypertension related Care, Risk Factors and Management among Registered Nurses in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Wazirabad, Pakistan []

The single most significant preventable risk factor for early mortality in the world is hypertension. Hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure, is a condition of the vascular regulatory system that interferes with the mechanisms that maintain normal arterial pressure. By examining senior staff nurses' knowledge of hypertension and associated risk factors, regardless of whether they have been diagnosed with hypertension, this study intends to improve primary and secondary cardiovascular disease prevention and control programs. A structured questionnaire was designed with close ended query methodology with yes/no responses and was distributed among 141 nurses. The data was analyzed via SPSS version 26 and a p<0.05 was considered significant. The mean age of the population turned out to be 40.014 ± 11.34, 100% of the participants were female and most of the participants (87.2%) were trained in hypertension management. Based upon their responses, 87.2% of the nurses were found to possess accurate information regarding hypertension. Conclusively, there is a need to address the presence of incorrect information among nursing staff of cardiology hospitals in Pakistan and increased awareness about hypertension can lead to efficient management of patients and betterment of nursing care and services.

Role of The National Research And Innovation Agency (BRIN) on The Indonesia Research Funding: Challenges and Opportunities []

The development of human resources and mastery of science and technology is the target of the Indonesian government, especially in supporting Indonesia's vision of advancing in 2045. Indonesia aspires to master research and technology that has economic value as a support for the strength of national development as is done by other countries. For this reason, a conducive research ecosystem is absolutely necessary and supported by effective and sustainable research funding. Empirically, various studies show that the weakness of research funding sources in Indonesia, which are only dominated by the government, including patterns of use that are not on target, need to be addressed appropriately. This research is a type of policy research with the main data source being secondary data on preliminary studies related to the analysis of research funding in Indonesia. The fundamental problem in research is in the form of mapping the various challenges and opportunities faced by The National Research and Innovetion Agency (BRIN) as the competent authority in coordinating research and technology activities in Indonesia, especially in managing the research budget. Various challenges have arisen, such as: optimizing the network of research collaboration partners; increasing the competence of researchers; as well as the need for research output required by industry and the market. In order to overcome these challenges, BRIN can take advantage of various opportunities as a research and technology authority in Indonesia, such as: governance of the use of appropriate research support facilities; determination of research focus in favor of real problems with the full support of stakeholders; management of access to the use of research budgets that are right on target and lead to research results as evidence base policies for research and innovation policies in Indonesia. Keywords – BRIN, Research Funding, Research Ecosystem


The contradiction between form and function should be seen as an important element in architecture.

Computational Modeling of Virtualization-Based Privacy Preservation Against Malware in Unstructured Network []

Abstract This work creates a model to detect and prevent malicious code from accessing users’ data privacy at runtime and the evaluation of its effectiveness. A thorough background study is conducted to gain knowledge about malicious files and their mode of carrying out attack on legitimate program. In this paper, we developed the Virtual Machine Hypervisor Introspection and Mandatory Access Control (VMHIMAC)system to detect and prevent intrusion by a large number of suspected files. A prototype system is developed and experiment perfumed on malicious and benign files to evaluate the accuracy of the newly developed system and generated reports are compared with Hypervisor Introspection (HI), Mandatory Access Control (MAC), and virtual Machine Introspection (VMI). Based on thorough background study the intrusion detection and preventions system we developed and after experiment performed using implemented prototype system on selected malware and benign samples. The experiment results show that VMHIMAC detected and prevented more malware and benign samples than the other existing systems. The results obtained shows that there is efficient preservation of virtual machine resources, including, intended changes to file system, registry, processes and other systems peripheral.

Rapid Access Synthesis of Quinoline, Chromene, Thiochromene Benzimidazol-Ylideneamines and Benzimidazolones via Traceless Tandem Transformation Under Microwave Irradiation on Ionic Liquid Support []

A fast and efficient protocol have explored to access the various benzimidazole constituted quinoline, chromene, thiochromenyldenamines and ones under microwave irradiation on ionic liquid support. Ionic liquid supported 4-floro3- nitrobenzoicacid has been used as a structural building block to generate these structural frameworks. After subsequent transformation the benzimidazole constituted cyanoacetic acid has been used as a molecular scaffold to generate various structural motifs. By taking the benzimidazole constituted cyanoacetic acid treated with various 2-substituted hydroxyl, amino and thiobanzaldehydes in order to get the described decorated structural scaffolds in the presence of organic base such as triethylamine. Under the same reaction conditions by leave the product and the cleavage of product from the support occurred sequence of transformations in traceless tandem manner. The same reaction under the hydrous conditions the imine hydrolysis leads to formation of quinoline, chromene, thiochromene benzimidazolones was described. The final compounds have been obtained high yield and purity making this procedure facile, practical, and rapid to execute.

Investigation of trichomoniasis among Women from Basra Province, Iraq, using the PCR technique. []

An important cause of sexually transmitted diseases, Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasite that inhabits the vaginal cavity. Several ways (direct contact, or using unhealthy public toilets) can spread trichomoniasis to children, adults, and pregnant women. This study aims to compare and determine between (microscopic observation of motile parasite in wet - mount preparation, hematoxylin-eosin staining (H&E) and polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR). A case control study was conducted on 230 women aged from 20 to 60 years. They were divided into two groups (155 patients’ groups and 75 control groups without infection symptoms) in the period from November 2020 to July 2021 at the main center for gynecology and obstetrics in the city. ″Basra Maternity Hospital″.Our study revealed that T. vaginalis were detected in 10 cases (38.5%),7 cases (26.9%) and 20 cases (76.9%) by wet smear preparation, hematoxylin-eosin-staining and PCR method respectively. The sequences of T. vaginalis in the present study have been recorded at GenBank (NCBI) with accession numbers OM925552, OM925553, and OM925554.This study found that PCR was most effective for detecting T. vaginalis infection. Therefore, PCR may represent the best option for definitive laboratory diagnosis for genital infections.


Dorstenia foeteda which is a succulent plant in the genus Dorstenia is a typical traditional medicinal plant in Amhara and Benishangul regions, Ethiopia used for the treatment of most of fungal and protozoan diseases.. The phytochemical screening result showed the presence of the most secondary metabolites in the extracts. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant analysis result also showed a strong positive correlation between total phenolic content (TPC), TFC, and antioxidant power of the extracts. The DPPH, FRAP, and Phosphomolybdate assays revealed significant antioxidant activity of the plant extracts. DPPH scavenging activities extracts lied from, 23.67 ± 0.71 (in chloroform) to 70.87 ± 1.32 µg AAE /mL (in acetone,) for extracts. Phosphomolybdate total reducing the power of extracts varied from 29 ± 1.00 (in hexane) to 32.6 ± 0.15 g AAE / kg (in acetone extract) dried powder of extract. Similarly, the TFC of extracts of Dorstenia varied from 33.4± 0.028 (in hexane) to 56.3 ± 0.013 mg QE/50 g(in methanol extract dry powder of extracts. Moreover, TPC of the extract varied between 500 ± 0.037 (in hexane) to 662.8 ± 0.035 mg GAE/50g (in acetone) for the root extract of dried powder. The cumulative investigation of the study leads us to the conclusion that the plant has metabolites that contribute medicinal value. Therefore, it is recommended strongly that to isolate metabolites and antioxidant components.


Until recently, bovine and porcine sources were the most commonly utilized and preferred sources for the production of gelatin biomaterial for tissue engineering applications. Manufacturers have begun to explore for alternate sources that bridge this limitation while still meeting the qualities necessary. With a greater emphasis on overcoming the limitations presented by these sources and because of the ever-increasing demand for biomaterials to meet the growing demand in tissue engineering applications, this article investigates the various extraction processes of gelatin biomaterial from an indigenous source such as fish in order to expose the possibility of technology extraction technology and modification in its properties to suit tissue engineering applications.

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