Author Topic: A Study of Carcinogenic Components Removal in Chemical Industry  (Read 1866 times)

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Author : R.Uma Mythili, K.Kanthavel, R.Krishna Raj
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 2, Issue 5, May-2011
ISSN 2229-5518
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Abstract-The chemical industries are involving with various surfaces coating process which develops pollutions like Carcinogenic components. In industry and environment inhalation of high doses have the potential to induce lung tumors in human and animals. The process of Carcinogenic components removal is a major real time problem in environmental toxicology in chemical processing industry. The standard analysis method determines and calculates the constituent of hexavalent chromium and trivalent chromium compounds in carcinogenic fumes. The research identifies that the presence of Carcinogenic components leads to the low generations of gastric juice, epithelial lining fluids to the human beings and animals. The segregation and analysis of Carcinogenic components was attracted several researcher for the past three decades. This paper discusses with Biological, Chemical and Mechanical analysis methods of identifying Carcinogenic components present in the effluent of the chemical industry in the form of sludge.

Index Terms— Environmental Production Agency, Hexavalent chromium, Scrubber, Trivalent chromium

1   INTRODUCTION                                                                      
AN experiment was conducted by Abbasi and Soni(1984) thirty adult channel fish exposed to waterborne hexavalent chromium concentration of 50 to 100ppm and hardness of 3ppm resulted in alterations in swimming and balancing behaviors including loss of balance erratic and rapid twisting. Further research was proposed by James R Kastner et al (2002) for the determination of chromium compounds using Polarography.He embraced EPA method which is also named as ion chromatography to determine the dissolved hexavalent chromium (CrO42-) in ambient water .This method was developed by integrating analytical procedures.The promulgation of odour was controlled and determined using mass spectrometry and wet scrubber including the reducing agents [7].
                John C.Chang et al (2003) inquiers Ontario Hydro analysis technique coupled with FGD scrubber in laboratory scale inorder to remove the effulent by 70% using [10]. More over Hyeon – Yeong Kim et al (2004) conducted experiment for Sprague Dawley rat, 90 day repeated dose inhalation toxicity study was carried out resulted in 0.5-5µm decrease of activity,nasal hemorrhage.Later Chih-Cheng Wu et al(2004) absorbed the effects of hexavalent chromium in municipal and hazardous waste and he adopted packed tower scrubber for the elimination[3]. Present investigation is aims at reduction in high percentage of trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium accompanies with chemical using packed scrubber and spray technology at the exit.
2 THEORITICAL MODELS
        Theoritical model was first adopted by S.Sakar et al (2007) for dust particle collection.In this model there are various paramaters which is used to calculate the percentage of the hexavalent chromium removal [15]. It includes two major factors to be found, they are collection efficiency of the particle and the mass balance of the liquid drop.
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2.1 Collection Efficiency
   Dust collection efficiency is frequently expressed in terms of penetration which was adopted by Lim K.S et al (2006). Penetration is defined as the fraction of particles that passes through the scrubber uncollected. 
    Penetration is the opposite of the fraction of particles collected and is expressed as
 Pt = 1 − η                                                                         - (1)
        Wet scrubbers usually have an efficiency curve that fits the relationship of 
η= 1−e-f system                                                                - (2)                               
        By substituting for efficiency, penetration can be expressed as:
 Pt   =    1 − η
       =     1-(1−e-f system   )
 Pt=e-fsystem                                                                   - (3)
         The major equation to be included is Souder’s–Brown equation. They are as follows
2.2 The Souder’s–Brown equation
          Trond Austrheim.et al., (2008) used the expression for sizing of gas scrubbers [16].This was the expression developed and given below as
                           
 K= ( 4gdd)/ ( 3Cd)                                                 - (4)
        Equation (4) involves an empirically quantified factor known as the Souder’s–Brown value, the K-value, or the Gas Load Factor. The basis of the Souder’s–Brown expression is a force balance resolved in the vertical direction on a spherical droplet in an upward flowing gas in a gravity field.
           When the droplet is held stationary,
 Fr=0.5CdAdρgU2g,set=Gd=(π/6)dd2g(ρi-ρg)                        - (5)   
         In practice Cd varies with the droplet Reynolds number,   
Re=ρgUg,setdd/µ                                                            - (6)                         
           Except for high values of Re, where Newton’s law states that it is constant and about equal to 0.43.
 At low Re, the well-known relation of Stokes states that
  Cd=24/Re                                                                  - (7)

         Svrcek and Monnery said that decreasing the K-value with 25% for 85 bars pressure. They said while designing a column we have  to avoid the upwards velocity entrains droplets and the recommended K-value is K < 0.1 m/s for low-pressure applications often a safety margin of 50% is added for vessels without internals. Yarong Li,et al., (2002)  said that for increasing pressures the critical K-value has been seen to decline. Increasing pressure in oil/gas applications is often accompanied by a decrease in interfacial tension and thereby a decrease in the droplet sizes [16].

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