0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

IJSER Content Writer

  • Sr. Member
  • ****
  • Posts: 327
  • Karma: +0/-1
    • View Profile
« on: February 13, 2012, 04:17:23 am »
Author : Ahlam T.Al-Sarraf
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 3, Issue 1, January-2012
ISSN 2229-5518
Download Full Paper : PDF

Abstract--  Currently, many scientists believe in the fact that  electronics as a vast modern discipline needs relevant tools and tactics to develop its already living syst-ems.  This technical note contains an everywhere path for the development of computing artificial intelligence techniques, software design  and  database descriptions mark the human needs for a varity of computing  functions:(a) Among which training and testing knowledge of tactical situations (b) Better planning and decision for planning situations interfacing tactical artificial intelligent systems.(c) Providing an experiment for studding tactical decision making. In fact, this studying aims at an-swering some queries found in the above question like what can architects in electronics provide in tactical graphics.This humble research paper is being undertaken to give a workable answer to some or part of these queries found in the area of electronics which is hoped to be reliable source within variety of computing fields.  It will provide an acceptable answer to what is being asked about integration  between soft and hardware made to develop tactical graphics in electronic.  It has become  now possible for the designer to connect the personal computer (Buses) with any outside apparatus by means of designing a suitable card (ADAPTER) fixed on the(EXPA-NSION-SLOT).Thus,the primary aim of this study is to develop  reprogrammable  and  prototype boards aiming producing some reliable features suitable for final use graphic cards.
    The great role of our age of information has had its clear impact on the mo-dern immense development in the technology of computer, in the fact that ele-ctronics as  a modern discipline engaged the development of relevant tools and tactical to insure and facilitate the role and use of its living systems. This role is not limited only to introducing computer systems and their programs rather than the programming  language statement rules and drawing design programs    We believe that the above note contains an everywhere path for the develop-ment of computing artificial intelligence technique and designs . Many of whi-ch are invested in administration to establish devices of shopping  propaganda and advertisement,which have been enlarged to become greater in the industri-al,scientific and technological fields.It seams that such important role is rather neglected by us the Arabs.The economical sector and the industrial section oc-cupy a vital part in the ability of computer technology since they are directly connectend with the control system,statements resulting from measurements process and adjustment.Soft ware design and databased descriptions mark the human needs for a variety of computing functions such as training and testing knowledge for tactical situations ,better planning decisions inter-facing tactical artificial intelligent systems and providing prototype experim-ent for studying tactical decision making.Yet their astonishing development and surprising per-formance together with their wide spread, made them a pr-oper model choice in this vast area of knowledge.    Here lies the important of this humble study. We consider it as an encouraging beginning concerning the suitability of com-puting cards design,since it does not represent a clue for setting up controlling systems.   It is considered as a try to join the personal computer with the out-side  surrounding  atmosphere with the hope to be a suitabl guide the universi-ty students to set up or form some  advantageous  control-ing system for their own purpose during their study of tactical design.

   Katz(1989) discusses the graphic tactic to enhance the architectures for high performance computing. Similarly, King  Kuose and Rose (2005)describe ways to imp-rove an accurate performance model, using a hierarchy of programmable interconnect to allow for logic blocks to be interconnected as needed by the system designer. Moreover,in digital circuit,a  flip-flop is a kind of bistable multivibrator an electronic circuit which has two stable states and thereby is capable of sering as one bit of memory.Today,KuoseRose2005 view term flip-flop as one bit memory generally denoted  nontransparent (clo-cked or edge-triggered)devices while the simpler transparent once are often re-ferred to as latches.  It is realized that before the development of low-cost in-tegrated circuits, chains of multivibratorsare found in use as frequency divid-ers. This technique was used in early electronicorgans ,especially insome app-lication of early version system.A transition from one state of minimal free en-ergy requires some form of activation energy to penetrate the barrier Kuose (Ibid )view the time,it take as usually attributed to the relaxation time,since the sy-stem will relax into the next state of  lowest energy again,which will be de-fine in such situation. Wolf (Ibid) and nutt (Ibid) believe that the above roles and activities have been greatly inlarge to include scientific industrial and vast technological fields . Yet, science and engineering have been greatly develop-ped the invention of com-puting devices, which will help scientists and resear-ch students to collect, manipulate and interpret relevant data with much greater speed, accuracy and precision.

The primary aim of  this paper to answer the question of what can archit-ects, electronics and computers offer to people with vision impairments.  In fact, this ques-tion includes immense roles of the endless information available in these days and the noticeable development in the technologyof computers,which are not only made to introduce operating systems and their feeding programs like,but are originally utilized to develop different types of  administration  in human  activities made in rel-evance toshopping,propaganda advertisement and the like. Here lies the importance of this paper with its remarkable aim in this study to encourage a start concerning suitable cards design. Humbly speaking,this research paper isnít made to present a noticeable process for setting up sophisticated controlling design or watching syste-ms for we consider it a try to join the personal computer with the outside human activities. In the same time, a tactical graphics study TGS that makes a design tactical source hardware,architecture and standard for graphics card leading primarily for targeting free software,source operating system. Hence,this study will be developing programmable and prototype boards aiming at producing some noticeable featured and end _user graphics cards.

    The procedural methodology and function of the circuit relevantly used in this paper is mainly based on the processes of conversion of digital signal provided by the computer into analog signal used widely within industrial application. Thus,all components of the procedural principle are built on the cards known asXt board in order to facilitate the connection. This card is composed from 62 pins based on two directions A and  B where each direction is composed  of 31 pins devoted to transfer or to achieve the communication between the computer and the card . The path way used in the computer is of the type ISA (Instruction Set Architecture ). It is one of the ad-equate methods known to be used in connection and communication.

4-1    Contents for Methods-
It is realized that the adequacy of the procedural methods need the following componential units (see the diagram,above),U1 and U2(74lS244, OCTAL BUFFERS) are needed to accomplish a protection circuit between the input and output represented by the computer concerning the out put of data to the card. U1 and U2 are considered as the component of the circuit which are made of three case buffers. The interface buffering require several additional  integrated circuit  to be added to the circuit load of computer,this method is hope to eliminate any potential problem from far out which is measure of the number of  logical gate inputs driven by the current from a sig-nal gate output. This buffering system is accomplished by  using three74LS244s chips which is in fact an octal buffer  and line driver with three state outputs,is made to provide unidirectional buffering for sixteen computer times. On the other hand,the chip is design  to improve both the performance and density for three state memory of address,clock and bus- oriented receivers and transmitters.

Read More: Click here...