Author Topic: Energy Conservation of Heat, Ventilation & Air-Conditioning System with the help  (Read 2958 times)

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Author : Harkamaljeet Singh Bhullar, Vikram Kumar Kamboj
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 2, Issue 10, October-2011
ISSN 2229-5518
Download Full Paper : PDF

Abstract: The Management and Automation of a Commercial building Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (H.V.A.C) System has got enormous benefits from the use of all the available information sources. The modern H.V.A.C using direct digital control methods have provided useful performance data from the building occupants. The untapped data can be cultivated with the help of modern maintenance management databases. This research work has got the integration and application of these fundamental sources of information, using some modern and novel techniques. The cost and scalability of these techniques can be positively influenced by the recent technological advancement in computing power, sensors and databases. The important theme of this research paper is to increase the computational efficiency and practical usefulness of techniques, via some clever approximations.

Index Terms— Direct Digital Control (D.D.C.) , Energy Conservation, Fuzzy Controller,  H.V.A.C., PID Controller

1   INTRODUCTION
ENERGY savings and thermal comfort are    important for both facility managers and occupants.
 As a result, they are open to new and innovative                           ways to improve or even replace currently existing practical methods that might not keep pace with the most recent advancement in the technology. In the large commercial buildings modern Direct Digital Control (D.D.C.) systems are becoming more favorable with the use of new sophisticated hardware. The H.V.A.C System components are used together and monitored remotely from a central location positions. The general trend in the design and commissioning of new commercial buildings includes the new types of these systems.

However, larger contingent of older buildings are existed that still use pneumatic H.V.A.C systems. Many facility managers are assigned with the operation of hybrid mix of older pneumatic building controls and modern D.D.C. There are also certain nuances that need to be handled properly, such as the geographical climate, weather, seasonal patterns' influence on the management of H.V.A.C system operation, perimeter vs. core zones, as well as building occupancy trends due to varied shifts and operating schedules.

Due to the deregulation of energy markets both domestically and abroad, the cost of energy and pricing/rate structures is another variable within the vast array of issues  in a complicated operation that all building managers and their technicians must contend with. There are several different business processes as well as physical operating systems that existed in facility management which are often mapped onto supervisory management information systems. Hence there is often a repository of stove-piped information sources that are not necessarily linked and more often used on an ad- hoc/heuristic basis. As a result, the opportunity for widespread potential cost savings has been lost due to lack of knowledge or research concerning the intelligent use of these information-rich sources. The most recent technological advancement in computing has taken advantage to achieve the desired objectives of reduced energy usage and improved building occupant thermal comfort.

2  PROBLEM FORMULATION

The purpose of this research work is to provide an alternative to conventional PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) control modules embedded in large D.D.C panels. This research paper has focused on designing a “Rule Based Expert System” that combines fuzzy logic techniques with the engineering software, MATLAB. The conventional methods of improving chiller plant efficiency tend to focus on increasing the peak efficiency of individual components. Primarily, because the energy performance of constant speed chillers pumps and towers is maximized when components are operated as close to full load as possible.  These methods generally involve the sizing and sequencing of plant equipment to fit a variety of load conditions, while minimizing the amount of online equipment. Simple D.D.C algorithms has been able to coordinate the operation of chillers, pumps and tower fans based on demand for cooling, which is determined by cooling coil valve position, chilled water temperature and tower leaving water temperature float within preset limits. These allow components to operate at their highest efficiency at all times. The demand based control sequences, which replaced PID control has been able to coordinate the operation of the condenser pumps and tower fans based on chiller power (kilowatts). Demand based control is an effective means of operating an ultra efficient all variable speed chilled water plant.

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