Author Topic: Prevalence of Eating Disorders among Female Students of Tonekabon University  (Read 14467 times)

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Author : Roxanna Ast , Azade Fadavi Roodsari
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, IJSER - Volume 2, Issue 4, April-2011
ISSN 2229-5518
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Abstract—aim of this research is to study the prevalence of eating disorder amongst female students of Tonekabon University. The community being studied is the female students of Tonekabon University.300 students were randomly selected and requested to complete the ‘eating attitude test-26’.

Index Terms— Eating disorders, Female students, Tonekabon University

Eating disorder presents a serious problem these days. Every year the number of people suffering from anorexia and bulimia increase and consequents of the disease may be health or even life threatening.[1]
This disorder presents a significant problem among ado-lescent and young women in many westernized countries and is associated with nervous, physical and psychiatric problems.[2]
Anorexia nervosa is a psychological and physical condi-tion of semi starvation in which individuals weigh 85% or less of what would ordinary be there healthy body weight, resulting in physical impairments and in the 90% of patients who are females Cessation of menses.
This condition is to due to highly restricted food intake, often accompanied by excessive exercise and sometimes purging by self-induced vomiting, laxative use or other means.
These behaviors are usually related to obsessional and a perfectionist thinking that focuses on a distorted body image and fear of becoming fat.[3]
Feeling normal fullness after eating is felt as discomfort and experienced as a failure of control, moral weakness and a source of great guilt. These perfectionists are failing in their major (anorexia) project and will redouble their effort by eating nothing for a day or even restricting their water intake. This can precipitate death through cardiac arrest, particularly if they are also vomiting the little intake they do allow.[4]
The association between anorexia nervosa and depression has long been recognized by clinicians.[5]
 A study in Sweden using structured interview for DSM-lll-R criteria found that 85% of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) had a depressive disorder.[6]
About half of sufferers eventually develop binge-eating episodes – that is, periodic decontrol over eating on inca-pacity to satiate. [7]

Bulimia nervosa (BN) is a condition in which individuals binge, eat large calories, up to 2000 at a time or more and then purge themselves of what they have eaten usually by forcing themselves to vomit and sometimes by means of laxatives, diet pills, diuretic pills or excessive exercising.
These behaviors occur at least several times per week for months on end, the condition is usually related to over concern with ones weight and shape, and is accompanied by feeling of shame, disgust and being out of control.[8]
Like anorexia nervosa, Bulimia was recognized to occur as early as the 17th century. [9]
According to Wilson [10]to be diagnosed with bulimia nervosa  individuals must experience episodes of binge- eating ‘at least twice a week’ on average, for three to six months.
In addition to the primary eating disorders, several other conditions occur among individuals with psychiatric disorders that may markedly affect eating behavior and weight. For instance, individuals with severe depression experience an increase in appetite and food cravings. Patients with psychic delusions due to Schizophrenia or other conditions may think food is poisoned and refuse to eat.[11]
Recent studies have found that EDNOS (Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified) is the most common eating disorder, diagnosis both in outpatients and inpatients settings. Underweight patients that do not report over-evaluation of shape and weight are a distinctive and scarcely studied subgroup of EDNOS.
Their self-evaluation is largely or exclusively based on their abilities to control their eating purge.[12]
The incidence of eating disorders in females has been extensively studied in both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.[13]
In a study of 105 patients with eating disorders, Braun [14] found that the life time prevalence of any offensive disorder was 41.2 % in anorectic restrictors, 82% in ano-rectic bulimics, 64.5% in patients with bulimia nervosa and 78% in patients with bulimia nervosa with a past history of anorexia nervosa.
According to Treasure [15] the present time prevalence of all eating disorders is about 5%.cultural, social and interpersonal elements can trigger onset and change in networks can sustain the illness.
Although it is clear that anorexia nervosa occurs in men as well as women, and in younger as well as in older people, few studies report incidence rate for males or for people beyond the age of 35.
The majority of male incidence rate reported was below 0.5 per 100,000 populations per year. [16]
Studies have reported the female to male ratio to be around 11 to 1.[17]
On an overall female rate of 15.0 per 100,000 population per year, Lucas [18] reported a rate of 9.5 for 30-39-year-old women,5.9 for 40-49-year-old women,1.8 for 50-59-year-old and 0.0 for women aged 60 and over .
According to a research by Casper [19], women who had recovered from anorexia nervosa rated higher on risk avoidance, displayed greater restraint in emotional ex-pression and initiative, and showed greater conformance to authority than age-matched normal women.
Lucas [20] found that the age-adjusted individuals rates of AN in females 15-24-year-old showed a highly signifi-cant linear increasing trend from 1935-1989,with an esti-mated rate of increase of 1.03 per 100.000 person per ca-lendar year.

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