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Performance and Emission Characteristics of Stationary CI Engine with Cardnol Bio Fuel Blends
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Author : Mallikappa, Rana Pratap Reddy, Ch.S.N.Muthy
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, IJSER - Volume 2, Issue 4, April-2011
ISSN 2229-5518
Download Full Paper - http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Performance_and_Emission_Characteristics_of_Stationary_CI_Engine_with_Cardnol_Bio_Fuel_Blends.pdf

Abstract The compression ignition engine is the most popularly used prime mover. The compression ignition (CI) engine moves a large portion of the worlds goods & generates electricity more economically than any other device in their size range [1]. All most all the CI engines use diesel as a fuel, but the diesel is one of the largest contributors to environmental pollution problems. The application of bio diesel as a substitute for conventional petroleum fuel in diesel engine gain ever increasing demand throughout the world wide, because it is produced from renewable resources, bio degradable and potential to exhaust emissions & use of bio diesel in diesel engines generates rural employment opportunities by cultivating such oil producing crops[1-5]. In this research work the detailed investigation on performance and emission characteristics of four stroke single cylinder engine with variable loads were studied, cardnol bio fuel volumetric blends like 0, 10, 15, 20%, and 25% were used. The results indicate that brake power increases (by 76% approximately) as load increases. Brake specific energy conversion decreases (by 30-40 % approximately) with increase in load. Brake thermal efficiency increases with higher loads and emission levels (HC, CO, NOX) were nominal up to 20% blends.

Keywords: Compression Ignition, characteristics, cardnol bio fuel, Performance, Emissions

1. Introduction
IN todays world the majority of automotive and trans-portation vehicles are powered by compression ignition engines. The compression ignition engine moves a large portion of the worlds goods & generates electricity more economically than any other device in their size range. All most all the CI engines use diesel as a fuel, but the diesel is one of the largest contributors to environmental pollution problems. Bio fuel is an alternative to petroleum based fuel, renewable energy source, bio de-gradable and non-toxic fuel, being beneficial for reser-voirs, lakes, marine life and other environmentally sensi-tive places such as large cities and mines & use of bio diesel in diesel engines generates rural employment opportunities by cultivating such oil producing crops [1-5].

The issue of energy security led governments and re-searchers to look for alternate means of renewable and environment-friendly fuels. Bio fuel has been one of the promising, and economically viable alternatives. Fuel and energy crisis and the concern of society for depleting worlds non-renewable resources initiate various sectors to look for alternative fuels.  One of the most promising fuel alternatives is the vegetable oils and their derivatives.  Plenty of scientific articles and research activities from around the world were printed and recorded.  Oils from coconut, soy bean, sunflower, safflower, peanut, linseed and palm were used depending on what country they grow abundantly. It has been reported that in diesel engines; vegetable oils can be used as fuel, straight as well as in blends with the diesel. It is evident that [2] there are various problems associated with vegetable oils being used as fuel in compression ignition engines, mainly caused by their high viscosity. The high viscosity is due to the molecular mass and chemical structure of vegetable oils, which in turn leads the problems in pumping, combustion and atomization in the injector system of diesel engine. Due to the high viscosity, vegetable oils normally introduce the development of gumming, the formation of injector deposits, ring sticking as well as incompatibility with conventional lubricating oils in long-term operations.

India is the largest producer, processor and exporter of Cashews, Anarcadium Occidentale Linn, in the world [6]. It was brought to India during the 1400 by Portuguese missionary. Cashew came conquered and took deep root in the entire coastal region of India. While the tree is na-tive to central and Southern America it is now widely distributed throughout the tropics, particularly in many parts of Africa and Asia. In India Cashew nut cultivation now covers a total area of 0.70 million hectares of land, producing over 0.40 million metric tons of raw Cashew nuts. The Cashew (Anacardium Occidentale) is a tree in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The plant is native to northeastern Brazil, where it is called by its Por-tuguese name Caju (the fruit) or Cajueiro (the tree). It is now widely grown in tropical climates for its cashew "nuts" and cashew apples.

1.1 Specification of Cashew nut shell
The shell is about 0.3 cm thick, having a soft feathery outer skin and a thin hard inner skin. Between these skins is the honeycomb structure containing the phenolic material known as CNSL. Inside the shell is the kernel wrapped in a thin skin known as the teesta.
1.2 Composition of cashew nut
The shell is about 0.3 cm thick, having a soft feathery outer skin and a thin hard inner skin. Between these skins is the honeycomb structure containing the phenolic material known as CNSL. Inside the shell is the kernel wrapped in a thin skin known as the testa.The nut consists of the following kernel 20 to 25%, kernel liquid 20 to 25%, testa 2%, others rest being the shell. The raw material for the manufacture of CNSL is the Cashew.
Properties   Diesel   B10   B15   B20   B25   B30
 Flash point (C)   50   53   55   56   58   61
Density(Kg/m3)
   817   823   829   836   841   846
Viscosity at 400C
(Centistokes)   2   2.5   3.1   3.5   4.2   5.5
Calorific value   (KJ/Kg)   40000   40130   40196   40261   40326   40392
     According to the invention [6] CNSL is subjected to fractional distillation at 200 to 240C under reduced pressure not exceeding 5mm. mercury in the shortest possible time which gives a distillate containing cardol and the residual tarry matter, for example, in the case of a small quantity of oil, say 200 ml/ the distillation period is about 10 to 15 minutes. A semi-commercial or commercial scale distillation of CNSL may however take longer times. It has been found that there are certain difficulties of operation with regard to single-stage frac-tional distillation method, i.e. frothing of the oil which renders difficult the fractionation of cardol and also formation of polymerised resin. These difficulties can be over come in the two-stage distillation, if care is taken not to prolong the heating; this is to avoid the undue formation of polymerised resins and possible destruction partially or completely of the cardol or anacardol. When CNSL is distilled at a reduced pressure of about 2 to 2.5 mm. mercury, the distillate containing anacardol and cardol distils firstly at about 200C to 240C. This first distillate is then subjected to a second distillation under the same identical conditions of tem-perature and pressure when the anacardol distils over at a temperature of 205C to 210C and the cardol distils over at a temperature of 230C to 235C. In practice it has been found that the preliminary decarboxylation of the oil is essential, since there will be excessive frothing, which renders the distillation procedure unproductive and uneconomical. A specific feature of this invention is that both cardol and anacardol may be obtained by a three-step process. The first step of the process is to get the decarboxylated oil by heating the oil to a temperature of 170C to 175C under reduced pressure of 30-40 mm. mercury. The next two steps are the same as above for the production of both cardol or cordnol and anacardol.

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