Author Topic: Photovoltaic Systems in Existing Residential Building in Egypt  (Read 1772 times)

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Author : Adel El-Menchawy, Hesham Bassioni, Abdel-Aziz Farouk
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 2, Issue 6, June-2011
ISSN 2229-5518
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Abstract  - Recently, world has become more conscious about the environment, changes occurring in climate and in earth in general. It started to pay more attention to the impact of the technological and industrial revolution on the ecology and human health, which resulted in directing all the new researches towards renewable energy and recycling materials. In the development of energy sources in Egypt of the 21st century, it is necessary to view the use of solar energy in all applications as one of the most promising new and renewable energy sources. This paper presents a study and design of a complete photovoltaic system for providing the electrical loads in an existing family house according to their energy requirement. It is found that providing electricity to a family house in a rural zone using photovoltaic systems are very beneficial and competitive with the other types of conventional energy sources, especially considering the decreasing prices of these systems and their increasing efficiencies and reliability. They have also the advantage of maintaining a clean environment. These principals are applied in the case study (Renovation of the existing staff housing unit at Wardan railways training institute, 6 of October, Egypt) and calculated the life cycle cost of the proposed alternatives.
Keywords -  Ecology, Life Cycle Cost, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy

1 INTRODUCTION
Attention to living sustainably requires us to actively be aware of the environmental, social and economic needs of our present generation. Solar energy is expected to play a very important role in meeting energy demands in the near future.
Since it is a clean type of energy with a diversity of applications, decentralized nature and availability, solar energy will represent a suitable solution for energy requirements especially in rural areas and new urban communities. It is important to state that the use of solar energy will protect these areas from pollution, since the use of solar home systems avoids large amounts of CO2 emissions [1]. In Egypt, there are many new projects such as those carried out in the new valley in the western desert of Egypt and those on the northern coast of Egypt, which will be accompanied by a new population who require energy for principle life requirements

2 AIM & OBJECTIVES
2.1 Aim                                                                                                                                   
   This research aims at introducing the specific architectural design elements of the existing residential buildings according to the surrounding environmental elements.
2.2 Objectives                                                                                                                               
   Introduce a model for a family house that depends mainly on solar energy to run the electrical appliances.
   Encourage owners and operators of existing buildings to implement sustainable practices and reduce the environmental impacts of their buildings over their functional life cycles.

3 ENERGY CHALLENGES FACING EGYPT
1.   The increase in population (1.3 million/year)
2.   Over concentration of population on 5% of total area of Egypt                                         
3.   An extra infrastructure system for about 60 million (2035) peoples are needed concentrated most probably in the desert and this requires a big amount of embodied energy as well as operating energy and effort [2].
4.   The limitation of conventional energy resources in Egypt
5.   Conventional technology as well as the use of high intensive energy industrial construction for production of building material
6.   The construction sector produced around 30% of solid waste generation and this is considered one of the biggest challenges facing the population cities

3.1 Energy Limitations
Energy is a critical resource needed for development. Apart from small quantities of coal in Sinai, fossil fuels in the form of oil and gas are known to exist around Gulf of Suez and the northern part of the western deserts. With the present increase in oil prices and its unsustainable production, as well as the international move against CO2 evolution caused by burning fossil oils, it is imperative that Egypt must devote more efforts to promoting the use of renewable energy (solar, wind, biogas, and biomass)

The changes in production and consumption of oil & gas are showed in table 1 over the period from 1991 to 2020. Although the balance shows an increase, it should be emphasized that Egypt in most cases has to pay 50% of the production to the foreign partner [3].

3.2 Concerning Primary Energy
 In 2007, Egypt's primary energy total consumption was 63 MTOE. This is expected to reach 210 MTOE by 2030. In 2007, primary energy consumption was mainly in industry (34%) and residential and commercial buildings (23%). The later is expected to reach more than 35% by 2030. Different studies have shown that the primary energy supply will not meet demand starting from 2015; this gap is widening after 2020 [2].

3.2.1 Concerning Electricity
In 2007, current installed capacity was 22000 MW. This is expected to reach 74000 MW by 2030. This would require the addition of more than 50000 MW.  The peak demand was 18500 MW. It is expected that this demand will reach 62000 MW by 2030 [2].
In 2010, electricity consumption in residential (39.9%), industry (32.7%), commercial (8.1%) and governmental (4.6%), buildings reached 58% of total electric energy demand in Egypt [4].

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