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61
IJSER Social Media & Networking Ventures / IJSER Tv (Videos)
« on: November 17, 2013, 02:38:59 pm »
IJSER's new initiative for Interactive Online content, a social platform where you can share your videos with the authors across the globe.
Where authors can give feedback about your video, or can discuss about the topic you shared with authors.

www.ijser.tv

If you have any of your videos available, you can send it to us (myvideo@ijser.org), we'll publish it on IJSER Tv ( www.ijser.tv)
You can send following type of videos ( personal academic videos )-

- Video where you can talk about yourself and your expertise
- Any research topic you are explaining
- Your thoughts on research publication.
- Any guidance for the authors/ research scholar

Quote
You can share your youtube video links , or upload video on sendspace.com ( send the link to us)
 - Title of the video
 - Your name and  other details you want to update on the video page.
 - 2-3 lines about the video content

62
IJSER - Conference Sponsorship Updates / Conference Sponsorship Program
« on: November 17, 2013, 02:37:10 pm »
Conference Sponsorship Program (CSP) is one of the excellent services offered by IJSER that is uniquely intended to support the researchers and conference organizers. CSP provides conference organizers a privileged platform for the publishing of research work presented in conference proceedings. CSP is deliberated to disseminate scientific research and to establish long term International collaborations and partnerships with academic communities and conference organizers.

IJSER CSP special issue invites papers from the INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE, NATIONAL CONFERENCE, SEMINAR conducted by academic institutions, organizations, university, etc.

63
Thesis Invited For Publication!!! Doctoral dissertations and master's thesis are primary literature. They are valuable contributions to the discourse in every field of inquiry and to the culture of all creative fields. If you are about to complete your PhD thesis and want to publish your thesis as a online book? With our PhD publishing services, authors can publish thesis which will be made available online for worldwide visibility. The author retains full ownership over the finished work. The author is entitled to sell or distribute copies of the book.

Get More Details about IJSER Thesis Publication.
Quote
Thesis Publication Main Page



2013 - List of Thesis Publication
Quote
Click here to check the list of Thesis Published in 2013.


Online Thesis Submission
Quote
Submit Thesis Online

64
Call For Papers / Call for Paper 2013
« on: January 23, 2013, 01:49:30 pm »
Paper Submission Deadline: December 15, 2013
( Call for Papers - December 2013 edition )

Paper Online Publication : November, 2013
( Research paper online publication will start from November 25, 2012 )

Click here.. to submit the research paper online.
IJSER Home

Quote
All areas of engineering and science like Computer Science, Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Medical Science, Geology, Statistics, Accounting, Social Science, Mathematics, Management and Economics are covered (the areas are not limited to the following):

Active and Programmable Networks
Active safety systems
Ad Hoc & Sensor Network
Ad hoc networks for pervasive communications
Adaptive, autonomic and context-aware computing
Advance Computing technology and their application
Advanced Computing Architectures and New Programming Models
Advanced control and measurement
Agent-based middleware
Alert applications
application specific IC’s
automotive, marine and aero-space control and all other control applications
Autonomic and self-managing middleware
Autonomous vehicle
B2B and B2C management
BioInformatics
Bio-Medicine
Biotechnology
Broadband and intelligent networks
Broadband wireless technologies
CAD/CAM/CAT/CIM
Call admission and flow/congestion control
Capacity planning and dimensioning
Changing Access to Patient Information
Channel capacity modelling and analysis
Cloud Computing and Applications
Collaborative applications
Communication application
Communication architectures for pervasive computing
Communication systems
Computational intelligence
computer and microprocessor-based control
Computer Architecture and Embedded Systems
Computer Business
Computer Vision
Computer-based information systems in health care
Computing Ethics
Computing Practices & Applications
Congestion and/or Flow Control
Content Distribution
Context-awareness and middleware
Creativity in Internet management and retailing
Cross-layer design and Physical layer based issue
Cryptography
Data Base Management
Data fusion
Data Mining
Data retrieval
Data Storage Management
Decision analysis methods
Decision making
Digital Economy and Digital Divide
Digital signal processing theory
Distributed Sensor Networks
Drives automation
DSP implementation
Economics Theory
E-Business
E-Commerce
E-Government
Electronic transceiver device for Retail Marketing Industries
Embeded Computer System
Emerging advances in business and its applications
Emerging signal processing areas
Enabling technologies for pervasive systems (e.g., wireless BAN, PAN)
Encryption
Energy-efficient and green pervasive computing
Estimation and identification techniques
Evaluation techniques for middleware solutions
Event-based, publish/subscribe, and message-oriented middleware
Evolutionary computing and intelligent systems
Expert approaches
Facilities planning and management
Flexible manufacturing systems
Formal methods and tools for designing
Fuzzy algorithms
Fuzzy logics
GPS and location-based applications
Green Computing
Grid Networking
Healthcare Management Information Technology
High-speed Network Architectures
Human Computer Interaction (HCI)
Human-machine interfaces
Hybrid Sensor
ICT Convergence
Image analysis and processing
Image and multidimensional signal processing
Image and Multimedia applications
Industrial applications of neural networks
Industrial automated process
Industrial communications
Information and data security
Information indexing and retrieval
Information Management
Information processing
Information System
Information systems and applications
Information Technology and their application
Infrastructure monitoring and control applications
Innovation and product development
Innovation Technology and Management
Innovative pervasive computing applications
Instrumentation electronics
Intelligent Control System
Intelligent sensors and actuators
Internet applications and performances
Internet Services and Applications  Internet Technologies, Infrastructure, Services and Applications
Interworking architecture and interoperability
Knowledge based systems
Knowledge management
Location and provisioning and mobility management
Location Based Services
Logistics applications
Management Theory
Management information systems
Medical imaging
MEMS and system integration
Micro/nano technology
Microsensors and microactuators
Middleware Issues
Middleware services and agent technologies
Middleware solutions for reliability, fault tolerance, and quality-of-service
Mobile and Wireless Networks
Mobile applications
Mobile networks and services
Mobile/Wireless computing systems and services in pervasive computing
Multimedia Communications
Multimodal sensing and context for pervasive applications
Multisensor fusion
Navigation and Guidance
Navigation Systems
Network Control and Management
Network management and services
Network Measurement
Network Modeling and Simulation
Network Performance
Network Protocols
Network Sensor
Network-based automation
Networked vehicles applications
Networking theory and technologies
Neural Networks
Neuro-Fuzzy
Neuro-Fuzzy application
Nonlinear and adaptive control
Nursing information management
On-board diagnostics
Open Models and Architectures
Open Source Tools
Operations research
Optical Networks
Optimal and robot control
Pattern Recognition
Peer to Peer and Overlay Networks
Perception and semantic interpretation
Pervasive Computing
Performance optimization
Pervasive opportunistic communications and applications
Pervasive sensing
Positioning and tracking technologies
Power plant automation
Programming paradigms for pervasive systems
Quality of Service and Quality of Experience
Quality of service and scheduling methods
Real-time computer control
Real-time information systems
Real-time multimedia signal processing
Reconfigurable, adaptable, and reflective middleware approaches
Relay assisted and cooperative communications
Remote health monitoring
Remote Sensing
Resource allocation and interference management
RFID and sensor network applications
Scalability of middleware
Security and risk management
Security middleware
Security, Privacy and Trust
Security Systems and Technolgies
Sensor array and multi-channel processing
Sensor fusion
Sensors and RFID in pervasive systems
Service oriented middleware
Signal Control System
Signal processing
Signal processing in education
Smart devices and intelligent environments
Smart home applications
Social and economic models for pervasive systems
Social Networks and Online Communities
Software Engineering
Software engineering techniques for middleware
Software evolution and maintenance in pervasive systems
Speech interface
Speech processing
Standards and interfaces for pervasive computing environments
Supply Chain Management
System security and security technologies
Technology in Education
Theoretical Computer Science
Transportation information
Trust, security and privacy issues in pervasive systems
Ubiquitous and pervasive applications
Ubiquitous Networks
User interfaces and interaction models
Vehicle application of affective computing
Verifying and evaluating middleware
Virtual immersive communications
Virtual reality
Vision-based applications
Visualization and Virtual Reality as Applied to Computational Science
Wired/Wireless Sensor
Wireless technology
 

65
Call For Papers / Re: Call for papers
« on: August 01, 2012, 04:56:24 am »
We welcome original or extended version of previously published papers in conferences and/or journals.
(ISSN 2229-5518)

Call for papers 2012

Paper Submission Deadline: August 31, 2012
( Call for Papers - September 2012 edition )


Paper Online Publication : September, 2012
( Research paper online publication will start from August 25, 2012 )

http://www.ijser.org/OnlineSubmission.aspx

66
Call For Papers / Re: Call for papers
« on: October 27, 2011, 08:39:14 am »
We welcome original or extended version of previously published papers in conferences and/or journals.
(ISSN 2229-5518)

Call for papers 2011

Paper Submission Deadline: December 10, 2011
( Call for Papers - December 2011 edition )


Paper Online Publication : December 25, 2011
( Research paper online publication will start from November 25, 2011 )

http://www.ijser.org/OnlineSubmission.aspx

67
Call For Papers / Re: Call for papers
« on: September 04, 2011, 01:41:01 pm »
We welcome original or extended version of previously published papers in conferences and/or journals.
(ISSN 2229-5518)

Call for papers 2011

Paper Submission Deadline: September 15, 2011
( Call for Papers - October 2011 edition )


Paper Online Publication : October 25, 2011
( Research paper online publication will start from September 20, 2011 )

http://www.ijser.org/OnlineSubmission.aspx

68
Call For Papers / Call for papers
« on: September 04, 2011, 01:39:03 pm »
Quote
All areas of engineering and science like Computer Science, Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Medical Science, Geology, Statistics, Accounting, Social Science, Mathematics, Management and Economics are covered (the areas are not limited to the following):


Active and Programmable Networks
Active safety systems
Ad Hoc & Sensor Network
Ad hoc networks for pervasive communications
Adaptive, autonomic and context-aware computing
Advance Computing technology and their application
Advanced Computing Architectures and New Programming Models
Advanced control and measurement
Agent-based middleware
Alert applications
application specific IC’s
automotive, marine and aero-space control and all other control applications
Autonomic and self-managing middleware
Autonomous vehicle
B2B and B2C management
BioInformatics
Bio-Medicine
Biotechnology
Broadband and intelligent networks
Broadband wireless technologies
CAD/CAM/CAT/CIM
Call admission and flow/congestion control
Capacity planning and dimensioning
Changing Access to Patient Information
Channel capacity modelling and analysis
Cloud Computing and Applications
Collaborative applications
Communication application
Communication architectures for pervasive computing
Communication systems
Computational intelligence
computer and microprocessor-based control
Computer Architecture and Embedded Systems
Computer Business
Computer Vision
Computer-based information systems in health care
Computing Ethics
Computing Practices & Applications
Congestion and/or Flow Control
Content Distribution
Context-awareness and middleware
Creativity in Internet management and retailing
Cross-layer design and Physical layer based issue
Cryptography
Data Base Management
Data fusion
Data Mining
Data retrieval
Data Storage Management
Decision analysis methods
Decision making
Digital Economy and Digital Divide
Digital signal processing theory
Distributed Sensor Networks
Drives automation
DSP implementation
Economics Theory
E-Business
E-Commerce
E-Government
Electronic transceiver device for Retail Marketing Industries
Embeded Computer System
Emerging advances in business and its applications
Emerging signal processing areas
Enabling technologies for pervasive systems (e.g., wireless BAN, PAN)
Encryption
Energy-efficient and green pervasive computing
Estimation and identification techniques
Evaluation techniques for middleware solutions
Event-based, publish/subscribe, and message-oriented middleware
Evolutionary computing and intelligent systems
Expert approaches
Facilities planning and management
Flexible manufacturing systems
Formal methods and tools for designing
Fuzzy algorithms
Fuzzy logics
GPS and location-based applications
Green Computing
Grid Networking
Healthcare Management Information Technology
High-speed Network Architectures
Human Computer Interaction (HCI)
Human-machine interfaces
Hybrid Sensor
ICT Convergence
Image analysis and processing
Image and multidimensional signal processing
Image and Multimedia applications
Industrial applications of neural networks
Industrial automated process
Industrial communications
Information and data security
Information indexing and retrieval
Information Management
Information processing
Information System
Information systems and applications
Information Technology and their application
Infrastructure monitoring and control applications
Innovation and product development
Innovation Technology and Management
Innovative pervasive computing applications
Instrumentation electronics
Intelligent Control System
Intelligent sensors and actuators
Internet applications and performances
Internet Services and Applications  Internet Technologies, Infrastructure, Services and Applications
Interworking architecture and interoperability
Knowledge based systems
Knowledge management
Location and provisioning and mobility management
Location Based Services
Logistics applications
Management Theory
Management information systems
Medical imaging
MEMS and system integration
Micro/nano technology
Microsensors and microactuators
Middleware Issues
Middleware services and agent technologies
Middleware solutions for reliability, fault tolerance, and quality-of-service
Mobile and Wireless Networks
Mobile applications
Mobile networks and services
Mobile/Wireless computing systems and services in pervasive computing
Multimedia Communications
Multimodal sensing and context for pervasive applications
Multisensor fusion
Navigation and Guidance
Navigation Systems
Network Control and Management
Network management and services
Network Measurement
Network Modeling and Simulation
Network Performance
Network Protocols
Network Sensor
Network-based automation
Networked vehicles applications
Networking theory and technologies
Neural Networks
Neuro-Fuzzy
Neuro-Fuzzy application
Nonlinear and adaptive control
Nursing information management
On-board diagnostics
Open Models and Architectures
Open Source Tools
Operations research
Optical Networks
Optimal and robot control
Pattern Recognition
Peer to Peer and Overlay Networks
Perception and semantic interpretation
Pervasive Computing
Performance optimization
Pervasive opportunistic communications and applications
Pervasive sensing
Positioning and tracking technologies
Power plant automation
Programming paradigms for pervasive systems
Quality of Service and Quality of Experience
Quality of service and scheduling methods
Real-time computer control
Real-time information systems
Real-time multimedia signal processing
Reconfigurable, adaptable, and reflective middleware approaches
Relay assisted and cooperative communications
Remote health monitoring
Remote Sensing
Resource allocation and interference management
RFID and sensor network applications
Scalability of middleware
Security and risk management
Security middleware
Security, Privacy and Trust
Security Systems and Technolgies
Sensor array and multi-channel processing
Sensor fusion
Sensors and RFID in pervasive systems
Service oriented middleware
Signal Control System
Signal processing
Signal processing in education
Smart devices and intelligent environments
Smart home applications
Social and economic models for pervasive systems
Social Networks and Online Communities
Software Engineering
Software engineering techniques for middleware
Software evolution and maintenance in pervasive systems
Speech interface
Speech processing
Standards and interfaces for pervasive computing environments
Supply Chain Management
System security and security technologies
Technology in Education
Theoretical Computer Science
Transportation information
Trust, security and privacy issues in pervasive systems
Ubiquitous and pervasive applications
Ubiquitous Networks
User interfaces and interaction models
Vehicle application of affective computing
Verifying and evaluating middleware
Virtual immersive communications
Virtual reality
Vision-based applications
Visualization and Virtual Reality as Applied to Computational Science
Wired/Wireless Sensor
Wireless technology
 

69
Quote
Research Papers Published in April 2011 Edition
Full Paper Download:http://www.ijser.org/ResearchPaperPublishing_April2011.aspx

Distributed Generation Planning Optimization Using Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms[Full-Text]
Mahmood Sheidaee, Mohsen Kalantar

In this paper, a method to determine the size - location of Distributed Generations (DGs) in distribution systems based on multi objective performance index is provided considering load models. We will see that load models affect the location and the optimized size of Distributed Generations in distributed systems significantly. The simulation studies are also done based on a new multi objective evolutionary algorithm. The proposed method has a mechanism to keep the diversity to overcome the premature convergence and the other problems. A hierarchical clustering algorithm is used to provide a manageable and representative Pareto set for decision maker. In addition, fuzzy set theory is used to extract the best solution. Comparing this method with the other methods shows the superiority of proposed method. Furthermore, this method can easily satisfy other purposes with little development and extension.

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Marketing Of Asian Countries as Tourist Destination- Comparative Study of India and Malaysia[Full-Text]
Dr Reshma Nasreen, Nguyen Toan Thang

Tourism has gradually grown over the years as a full fledged industry. Many countries are gaining from this welcome change. The contributions of this sector to the country's coffers are sizable for some countries, while some countries have a long way to go. This research paper attempts to study the reasons of lack of optimal contribution of this sector in India and also forays into strategies that can be adopted to capitalize on the patterns prevalent in tourist behavior. A country like India with a commendable historical significance and size has not been able to garner as much of tourist attention because of certain factors. India has a lot of offerings to whip the appetite of an avid tourist, but the varieties have either not been promoted, or if promoted lack of associated services have not led to desired synergies. After identifying the gaps between the two countries (India & Malaysia), the paper puts forth the tourists' patterns of behavior through the data collected. The questionnaire has been administered to tourists in New Delhi and Agra (cities in India). Malaysia on the other hand has had a steady stream of tourists trickling down and benefiting its economy.

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Segmentation Techniques for Iris Recognition System[Full-Text]
Surjeet Singh, Kulbir Singh

A biometric system provides automatic identification of an individual based on a unique feature or characteristic possessed by the individual. Iris recognition is regarded as the most reliable and accurate biometric identification system available. Iris recognition systems capture an image of an individual's eye, the iris in the image is then segmented and normalized for feature extraction process. The performance of iris recognition systems highly depends on segmentation and normalization. This paper discusses the performance of segmentation techniques for iris recognition systems to increase the overall accuracy.

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Clinical and Computational Study of Geometry & Heamodynamics of Arterial Stenosis[Full-Text]
Krittika Dasgupta, Abhirup Roy Choudhury, Abhijit Chanda, Debabrata Nag

Stenosis is abnormal narrowing of blood vessels. The presence of stenosis in arteries may cause critical flow conditions. It may finally lead to stroke and heart-attack. A clinical study has been done on more than 130 patients along with computational study using 2D axisymmetric rigid model of stenosis in the carotid artery. Assumed shapes of deposition zone and the degree of occlusion used in the analysis were taken from clinical data. The Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid flow have been considered as the governing equations and it has been solved with varying flow parameters using standard CFD software package. The radial velocity profiles at various points of the flow field, the centerline velocity plot and the centerline pressure plots have been obtained from computational study and compared with the clinical data.

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Investigation of X-ray Plasmon Satellites in Rare Earth Compounds[Full-Text]
Ajay Vikram Singh, Dr. Sameer Sinha

In the characteristic X-ray Spectra, Diagram as well as non Diagram lines are present. Those lines which fit in the conventional energy level diagram are called Diagram lines. & those lines which do not fit in the conventional energy level diagram are called non diagram lines. It is also known as "Satellites or Second order lines". Satellites are generally of weak intensity lines & are found close to more intense parent line. The satellites which are observed on higher energy side are called high energy satellites (HES) whereas those are observed on lower energy side are called lower energy satellites (LES). First Siegbahn & Stenstroem observed these satellites in the K-Spectra of element from Cr (24) to Ge (32) while coster theraeus & Richtmyer in the L-Spectra of element from Cu (29) to Sb (51) & Hajlmar, Hindberg & Hirsch in the M-Spectra of elements from Yb (70) to U (92). Several theories were proposed from time to time to explain the origin of these satellites. Out of these theories the plasmon theory is found to be the most suitable theory especially for those satellites.

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Improvement of Power System Stability by Simultaneous AC-DC Power Transmission[Full-Text]
T.Vijay Muni, T.Vinoditha, D.Kumar Swamy

This paper presents the concept of simultaneous ac-dc power transmission.Long extra high voltage (EHV) ac lines cannot be loaded to their thermal limits due to this instability occurs in the power system.With the scheme proposed in this paper,it is possible to load these lines very close to their thermal limits.The conductors are allowed to carry usual ac along dc superimposed on it.The advantage of parallel ac-dc transmission for improvement of transient stability and dynamic stability and dampout oscillations have been established.Simulation study is carried out in MATLAB software package.The results shows the stability of power system when compared with only ac transmission.

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A Comprehensive Distributed Generation Planning Optimization with Load Models[Full-Text]
Mahmood Sheidaee, Mohsen Kalanter

In this paper a comprehensive model for Distribution Systems Planning (DSP) in the case of using Distributed Generation (DG), with regard to load models is provided. Proposed model optimizes size and location of the distributed generation. This model can optimize investment cost in distributed generation better than other solutions. It minimizes the operating costs and total cost of the system losses. This Model affects the optimum location and size of the distributed generation in distribution systems significantly. Simulation studies based on a new multiobjective evolutionary algorithm is achieved. It is important that in the analysis made in this paper, DG is introduced as a key element in solving the DSP. Moreover, the proposed method easily and with little development can satisfy the other goals.

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Positive Impact of Mobility Speed on Performance of AODV at Increased Network Load[Full-Text]
Rajesh Deshmukh, Asha Ambhaikar

This paper studies impact of changing mobility speed on the performance of a reactive routing protocol AODV with reference to varying network load. For experimental purposes, initially we observed the performance of AODV with increasing Network Load from 4 packets to 24 packets at the maximum mobility speed of 10 m/s. In another scenario we observed the performance of AODV with increasing Network Load from 4 packets to 24 packets at maximum mobility speed of 20 m/s. The performance of AODV is observed across Packet Delivery Ratio, Loss Packet Ratio and Routing overhead parameters. Our simulation results show that AODV is performing better with higher mobility speed at higher network load.

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Development and Physical, Chemical and Mechanical Characterization of Doped Hydroxyapatite [Full-Text]
Promita Bhattacharjee, Howa Begam, Abhijit Chanda

In this study, we made an attempt to synthesize doped bioactive hydroxyapatite (HAp) ceramic powder using a simple Chemical method and studied its physical and mechanical properties. Different quantities (2wt% and 5 wt%) of Magnesium chloride Hexahydrate , Zinc oxide, Titanium oxide were incorporated as dopants into Hap at the time of synthesis. The synthesized powder samples were analyzed for their phases using X-ray diffraction technique, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The synthesized powders were uniaxially compacted and then sintered at 1250°C for 1hr in air. Vicker's hardness testing was performed to determine the hardness of the sintered structures. Fracture toughness of sintered samples was calculated using Inverted Optical Microscope with Image Analysis software.

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A chart for general and complicated data visualization[Full-Text]
M Siluvairajah

Massive datasets arise naturally as a result of automated monitoring and transaction archival. Military intelligence data, stock trades, retail purchases, medical and scientific observations, weather monitoring, spacecraft sensor data and censors data are all examples of data streams continuously logged and stored in extremely large volumes, which create the need for innovative data visualization solutions. Although, there are many on-going researches and developments on this field recently, there are only few solutions to visualize information for general public. In this paper, I explore different methods to use ManoStick chart to visualize information.

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Quote
Research Papers Published in April 2011 Edition
Full Paper Download:http://www.ijser.org/ResearchPaperPublishing_April2011.aspx

70
Quote
Research Papers Published in April 2011 Edition
Full Paper Download:http://www.ijser.org/ResearchPaperPublishing_April2011.aspx


An Integrated Partial Backlogging Inventory Model having weibull demand and variable deterioration rate with the effect of trade credit[Full-Text]
P.K. Tripathy, S. Pradhan

Demand considered in most of the classical inventory models is constant, while in most of the practical cases the demand changes with time. In this article, an inventory model is developed with time dependent two parameter weibull demand rate whose deterioration rate increases with time. Each cycle has shortages, which have been partially backlogged to suit present day competition in the market. Also the effect of permissible delay is also incorporated in this study. The total cost consists of ordering cost, inventory holding cost, shortage / backordering cost, lost sale cost and deterioration cost are formulated as an optimal control problem using trade credit policy. Optimal solution for the model is derived and the trade credit on the optimal replenishment policy are studied with the help of numerical examples.

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Survey of Current and Future Trends in Security in Wireless Networks[Full-Text]
Vikas Solomon Abel

Security has always been a key issue with all the wireless networks since they have no physical boundaries. Many existing and evolving threats which must be considered to ensure the countermeasures are able to meet the security requirements of the environments for which it is expected to be deployed.

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Anomalous hydrogen production during photolysis of NaHCO3 mixed water[Full-Text]
Muhammad Shahid, Noraih Bidin, Yacoob Mat Daud, Muhammad Talha, M.Inayat ullah

Production and enhancement of hydrogen on large scale is a goal towards the revolution of green and cheap energy. Utilization of hydrogen energy has many attractive features, including energy renewability, flexibility, and zero green house gas emissions. In this current research the production and the enhancement of hydrogen from the NaHCO3 mixed water have been investigated under the action of diode pumped solid state laser with second harmonic of wavelength 532nm. The efficiency of the hydrogen and oxygen yields was found to be greater than the normal Faradic efficiency. The parametric dependence of the yields as a function of laser irradiation time, Laser focusing effect and other parameters of the electrolysis fundamentals were carefully studied.

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Peripheral Interface Controller based the Display Unit of Remote Display System[Full-Text]
May Thwe Oo

This paper expresses about how to construct the peripheral interface controller (PIC) based the display unit of the remote display system. The remote display system can be used to display the token number that is to know the people. It is also intended for use in clinic, hospitals, bank, and etc. In this research, the peripheral interface controller based remote display system is used for displaying the number and the character. The remote display system consists of two portions: display unit and console unit. The display unit of remote display system contains the display controller, three seven-segment Light Emitting Diode (LEDs), Diode matrix, Category display LEDs and DSUB9 connector. The display controller is controlled by the microcontroller PIC16F873. It controls to display the token numbers. And then it can control at the diode matrix to display the three kinds of character such as A, B, and C. The three numbers of seven-segment LEDs will display the token number from one to 999. The diode matrix helps to display the category display LEDs. The category display LEDs will display one kind of characters. In the research work, the category display LEDs can be displayed only three kinds of characters. For the display unit, the DSUB9 connector applies the data that is from the console unit of the remote display system. In this research work, the display unit works as the receiver the console unit works as the transmitter in remote display system. This paper explains about the design, construction, testing and result of a remote display system.

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Training and Analysis of a Neural Network Model Algorithm[Full-Text]
Prof Gouri Patil

An algorithm is a set of instruction pattern given in an analytical process of any program/function-ale to achieve desired results. It is a model-programmed action leading to a desired reaction. A neural network is a self-learning mining model algorithm, which aligns/ learns relative to the logic applied in initiation of primary codes of network. Neural network models are the most suitable models in any management system be it business forecast or weather forecast. The paper emphasizes not only on designing, functioning of neural network models but also on the prediction errors in the network associated at every step in the design and function-ale process.

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Wireless Sensor Network: A Review on Data Aggregation[Full-Text]
Kiran Maraiya, Kamal Kant, Nitin Gupta

Data aggregation is very crucial techniques in wireless sensor network. Because with the help of data aggregation we reduce the energy consumption by eliminating redundancy. When wireless sensor network deployed in remote areas or hostile environment. In the wireless sensor network have the most challenging task is a life time so with help of data aggregation we can enhance the lifetime of the network .In this paper we discuss the data aggregation approaches based on the routing protocols, the algorithm in the wireless sensor network. And also discuss the advantages and disadvantages or various performance measures of the data aggregation in the network.

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Slant Transformation As A Tool For Pre-processing In Image Processing[Full-Text]
Nagaraj B Patil, V M Viswanatha, Dr. Sanjay Pande MB

The Slantlet Transform (SLT) is a recently developed multiresolution technique especially well-suited for piecewise linear data. The Slantlet transform is an orthogonal Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) with 2 zero moments and with improved time localization. It also retains the basic characteristics of the usual filterbank such as octave band characteristic and a scale dilation factor of two. However, the Slantlet transform is based on the principle of designing different filters for different scales unlike iterated filterbank approaches for the DWT. In the proposed system, Slantlet transform is implemented and used in Compression and Denoising of various input images. The performance of Slantlet Transform in terms of Compression Ratio (CR), Reconstruction Ratio (RR) and Peak-Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (PSNR) present in the reconstructed images is evaluated. Simulation results are discussed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

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Separation of concerns in VoiceXML applications[Full-Text]
Sukhada P. Bhingarkar

Many commercial applications provide customer services over the web like flight tracking, emergency notification, order inquiry etc. VoiceXML is an enabling technology for creating streamlined speech-based interface for such web-based information services. Whereas in computing, aspect-oriented programming (AOP) is a programming paradigm, which aims to increase modularity. AOP includes programming methods and tools that support the modularization of concerns at the level of the source code. The aim of this paper is to integrate AOP with VoiceXML. Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) encapsulates common low-level scattered code within reusable components called aspects. There are certain tags in VoiceXML like '<'nomatch'>', '<'noinput'>', '<'error'>' which appear commonly in every VoiceXML document. These tags can be considered as the concerns and can be put inside an aspect. This elimi-nates the need to programmatically write these tags in every VoiceXML document and modularizes the crosscutting-concerns.

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Error of Approximation in Case of Definite Integrals[Full-Text]
Rajesh Kumar Sinha, Satya Narayan Mahto, Dhananjay Sharan

This paper proposes a method for computation of error of approximation involved in case of evaluation of integrals of single variable. The error associated with a quadrature rule provides information with a difference of approximation. In numerical integration, approximation of any function is done through polynomial of suitable degree but shows a difference in their integration integrated over some interval. Such difference is error of approximation. Sometime, it is difficult to evaluate the integral by analytical methods Numerical Integration or Numerical Quadrature can be an alternative approach to solve such problems. As in other numerical techniques, it often results in approximate solution. The Integration can be performed on a continuous function on set of data.

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An Assessment model for Intelligence Competencies of Accounting Information Systems[Full-Text]
Mehdi Ghazanfari, Mostafa Jafari, Saeed Rouhani

Accounting Information Systems (AIS) as computer-based systems that processes financial information and supports decision tasks have been implemented in most organizations but, but they still encounter a lack of Intelligence in their decision-making processes. Models and methods to evaluate and assess the Intelligence-level of Accounting Information Systems can be useful in deploying suitable business intelligence (BI) services. This paper discusses BI Assessment criteria, fundamental structure and factors used in the Assessment model. Factors and the proposed model can assess the intelligence of Accounting Information Systems to achieve enhanced decision support in organizations. The statistical analysis identified five factors of the Assessment model. This model helps organizations to design, buy and implement Accounting Information Systems for better decision support. The study also provides criteria to help organizations and software vendors implement AIS from decision support perspectives.

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Processing of Images based on Segmentation Models for Extracting Textured component[Full-Text]
V M Viswanatha, Nagaraj B Patil, Dr. Sanjay Pande MB

The method for segmentation of color regions in images with textures in adjacent regions being different can be arranged in two steps namely color quantization and segmentation spatially. First, colors in the image are quantized to few representative classes that can be used to differentiate regions in the image. The image pixels are then replaced by labels assigned to each class of colors. This will form a class-map of the image. A mathematical criteria of aggregation and mean value is calculated. Applying the criterion to selected sized windows in the class-map results in the highlighted boundaries. Here high and low values correspond to possible boundaries and interiors of color texture regions. A region growing method is then used to segment the image.

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An Adaptive and Efficient XML Parser Tool for Domain Specific Languages[Full-Text]
W. Jai Singh, S. Nithya Bala

XML (eXtensible Markup Language) is a standard and universal language for representing information. XML has become integral to many critical enterprise technologies with its ability to enable data interoperability between applications on different platforms. Every application that processes information from XML documents needs an XML Parser which reads an XML document and provides interface for user to access its content and structure. However the processing of xml documents has a reputation of poor performance and a number of optimizations have been developed to address this performance problem from different perspectives, none of which have been entirely satisfactory. Hence, in this paper we developed a Fast Parser tool for domain specific languages. In this we can execute Parser user friendly without having any constraints.

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Haptic Training Method Using a Nonlinear Joint Control[Full-Text]
Jarillo-Silva Alejandro, Domínguez-Ramírez Omar A., Parra-Vega Vicente

There are many research works on robotic devices to assist in movement training following neurologic injuries such as stroke with effects on upper limbs. Conventional neurorehabilitation appears to have little impact on spontaneous biological recovery; to this end robotic neurorehabilitation has the potential for a greater impact. Clinical evidence regarding the relative effectiveness of different types of robotic therapy controllers is limited, but there is initial evidence that some control strategies are more effective than others. This paper consider the contribution on a haptic training method based on kinesthetic guidance scheme with a non linear control law (proxybased second order sliding mode control) with the human in the loop, and with purpose to guide a human user's movement to move a tool (pen in this case) along a predetermined smooth trajectory with finite time tracking, the task is a real maze. The path planning can compensate for the inertial dynamics of changes in direction, minimizing the consumed energy and increasing the manipulability of the haptic device with the human in the loop. The Phantom haptic device is used as experimental platform, and the experimental results demonstrate.

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Prevalence of Eating Disorder among Female Students of Tonekaban University[Full-Text]
IDA FADAVI, ROXANNA AST

The aim of this research is to study the prevalence of eating disorder amongst female students of Tonekabon University.MATERIAL AND METHOD: The community being studied are the female students of Tonekabon University.300 students were randomly selected and requested to complete the 'eating attitude test-26'. RESULT:The results show that, based on the eat-26 test criteria, from the total population under study,61 students, equivalequivalence of 20.33% of the total number of students were diagnosed with eating disorder.

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Impact Of Leverage On Firms Investment Decision[Full-Text]
Franklin John. S, Muthusamy. K

The present paper is aimed at analyzing the impact of leverage on firm's investment decision of Indian pharmaceutical companies during the period from 1998 to 2009. To measure the impact of leverage on firm's investment decision, pooling regression, random and fixed effect models are used by taking, leverage, sales, cash flow, Return on Asset, Tobin's Q, liquidity and retained earnings as independent variable and investment as dependent variable. In addition , we demarcate between three types of firms (i) Small firms, (ii) Medium firms and (iii)Large firms. The results reveal that a significant positive relationship between leverage and investment, while we found a negative relationship between leverage investment for medium firms and positive relationship between leverage and investment in large firms. Our econometric results reveal an insignificant relationship between the two variables for medium and large firms.

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Effect of Nanofluid Concentration on the Performance of Circular Heat Pipe[Full-Text]
M. G. Mousa

The goal of this paper is to experimentally study the behavior of nanofluid to improve the performance of a circular heat pipe. Pure water and Al2O3-water based nanofluid are used as working fluids. An experimental setup is designed and constructed to study the heat pipe performance under different operating conditions. The effect of filling ratio, volume fraction of nano-particle in the base fluid, and heat input rate on the thermal resistance is investigated. Total thermal resistance of the heat pipe for pure water and Al2O3-water based nanofluid is also predicted. An experimental correlation is obtained to predict the influence of Prandtl number and dimensionless heat transfer rate, Kq on thermal resistance. Thermal resistance decreases with increasing Al2O3-water based nanofluid compared to that of pure water. The experimental data is compared to the available data from previous work. The agreement is found to be fairly good.

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Enhancement of person identification using Iris pattern[Full-Text]
Vanaja roselin.E.Chirchi, Dr.L.M.Waghmare, E.R.Chirchi

The biometric person identification technique based on the pattern of the human iris is well suited to be applied to access control. Security systems having realized the value of biometrics for two basic purposes: to verify or identify users. In this busy world, identification should be fast and efficient. In this paper we focus on an efficient methodology for identification and verification for iris detection using Haar wavelet and the classifier used is Minimum hamming distance, even when the images have obstructions, visual noise and different levels of illuminations.

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Mn DOPED SnO2 Semiconducting Magnetic Thin Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Method[Full-Text]
K.Vadivel, V.Arivazhagan, S.Rajesh

Semiconducting magnetic thin films of SnO2 doped with Mn was prepared by spray pyrolysis method. The polycrystalline nature of the films with tetragonal structure was observed from X-ray Diffractometer. The calculated crystalline size was 16-22 nm and the lattice constant is a=4.73A◦ and c=3.17A◦. The compositional studies give the weight percentage of the used materials. The absorption edge starts with 294 nm and rise in transmittance spectra shows the nanocrystalline effect of as deposited films. The calculated band gap from the absorption coefficient is 3.25 eV which greater than the bulk band gap of Tin oxide. The electrical properties of the prepared films also reported in this paper.

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A novel comprehensive method for real time Video Motion Detection Surveillance[Full-Text]
Sumita Mishra, Prabhat Mishra, Naresh K Chaudhary, Pallavi Asthana

This paper describes a comprehensive system for surveillance and monitoring applications. The development of an efficient real time video motion detection system is motivated by their potential for deployment in the areas where security is the main concern. The paper presents a platform for real time video motion detection and subsequent generation of an alarm condition as set by the parameters of the control system. The prototype consists of a mobile platform mounted with RF camera which provides continuous feedback of the environment. The received visual information is then analyzed by user for appropriate control action, thus enabling the user to operate the system from a remote location. The system is also equipped with the ability to process the image of an object and generate control signals which are automatically transmitted to the mobile platform to track the object.

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Handoff Analysis for UMTS Environment[Full-Text]
Pankaj Rakheja, Dilpreet Kaur, Amanpreet Kaur

UMTS is one of the third generation mobile telecommunication technologies. It supports various multimedia applications and services at an enhanced data rate with better security. It also supports mobile users and for that there is a process called handover where new channels are assigned to the user when it moves from a region covered by one node to a region covered by other node. In this paper we are analysing the effect of handover over the performance of the system.

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Performance and Emission Characteristics of Stationary CI Engine with Cardnol Bio fuel blends[Full-Text]
Mallikappa, Rana Pratap Reddy, Ch.S.N.Muthy

The compression ignition engine is the most popularly used prime mover. The compression ignition (CI) engine moves a large portion of the world's goods & generates electricity more economically than any other device in their size range [1]. All most all the CI engines use diesel as a fuel, but the diesel is one of the largest contributors to environmental pollution problems. The application of bio diesel as a substitute for conventional petroleum fuel in diesel engine gain ever increasing demand throughout the world wide, because it is produced from renewable resources, bio degradable and potential to exhaust emissions & use of bio diesel in diesel engines generates rural employment opportunities by cultivating such oil producing crops[1-5]. In this research work the detailed investigation on performance and emission characteristics of four stroke single cylinder engine with variable loads were studied, cardnol bio fuel volumetric blends like 0, 10, 15, 20%, and 25% were used. The results indicate that brake power increases (by 76% approximately) as load increases. Brake specific energy con-version decreases (by 30-40 % approximately) with increase in load. Brake thermal efficiency increases with higher loads and emission levels (HC, CO, NOX) were nominal up to 20% blends.

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Morphological Space and Transform System[Full-Text]
Ramkumar P.B, Pramod K.V

Mathematical Morphology in its original form is a set theoretical approach to image analysis. It studies image transformations with a simple geometrical interpretation and their algebraic decomposition and synthesis in terms of elementary set operations. Mathematical Morphology has taken concepts and tools from different branches of mathematics like algebra (lattice theory), topology, discrete geometry, integral geometry, geometrical probability, partial differential equations, etc. In this paper ,a generalization of morphological terms is introduced. In connection with the algebraic generalization.Morphological operators can easily be defined by using this structure. This can provide information about operators and other tools within the system.

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Bus Proximity Indicator - (An Intelligent Bus Stop)[Full-Text]
Prof. A.P. Thakare, Mr. Vinod H. Yadav

It is always a good idea that a bus commuter waiting at a stop gets to know how far a bus is. If his route of travel happens to be common for more than one bus- route number, it is even better for him to know which is the nearest bus or the earliest arriving bus. This will enable him to opt for the bus or some other mode of commuting. This becomes very useful for the physically challenged commuter, as after knowing in advance the bus arrival s/he will be ready to accommodate in the bus. A thought of project "Bus Proximity Indicator" is the best solution for the above situation and is best suitable for the B.E.S.T. (The Brihanmumbai Electric Supply & Transport) In this a wireless RF linkage between a certain bus and a bus stop can be used for determination of the bus proximity that help's commuter to know how far his bus is. This project tells him the Bus number, bus name and the approaching time by displaying it on the LCD which is on the bus stop. This project also satisfies the need of automization in bus services.

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Designing aspects of Artificial Neural Network controller[Full-Text]
Navita Sajwan, Kumar Rajesh

In this paper important fundamental steps in applying artificial neural network in the design of intelligent control systems is discussed. Architecture including single layered and multi layered of neural networks are examined for controls applications. The importance of different learning algorithms for both linear and nonlinear neural networks is developed. The problem of generalization of the neural networks in control systems together with some possible solutions are also included.

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Handwritten Character Recognition using Neural Network[Full-Text]
Chirag I Patel, Ripal Patel, Palak Patel

Objective is this paper is recognize the characters in a given scanned documents and study the effects of changing the Models of ANN.Today Neural Networks are mostly used for Pattern Recognition task. The paper describes the behaviors of different Models of Neural Network used in OCR. OCR is widespread use of Neural Network. We have considered parameters like number of Hidden Layer, size of Hidden Layer and epochs. We have used Multilayer Feed Forward network with Back propagation. In Preprocessing we have applied some basic algorithms for segmentation of characters, normalizing of characters and De-skewing. We have used different Models of Neural Network and applied the test set on each to find the accuracy of the respective Neural Network.

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Improved Performance of M-ary PPM in Different Free-Space Optical Channels due to Reed Solomon Code Using APD[Full-Text]
Nazmi A. Mohammed, Mohammed R. Abaza and Moustafa H. Aly

Atmospheric turbulence induced fading is one of the main impairments affecting the operation of free-space optical (FSO) communication systems. In this paper, the bit error rate (BER) of M-ary pulse position modulation (M-ary PPM) of direct-detection and avalanche photodiode (APD) based is analyzed. Both log-normal and negative exponential fading channels are evaluated. The investigation discusses how the BER performance is affected by the atmospheric conditions and other parameters such as the forward error correction using Reed Solomon (RS) codes and increasing Modulation level. Results strongly indicate that, RS-coded M-ary PPM are well performing for the FSO links as it reduces the average power required per bit to achieve a BER below 10^-9 in both turbulence channels.

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Electricity Sector Restructuring Experience of different Countries[Full-Text]
Archana Singh, Prof. D.S.Chauhan

Electricity Market from economic, regulatory and engineering perspective is a very demanding system to control .There is requirement of provision of cost efficiency, lower impact of environment alongwith maintenance of security of supply for use of competition and regulation in the electricity market. Many countries due to failure of its system for adequately management of electricity companies, followed restructuring for its electricity sector. In various countries, different restructuring models were experimented but in the initial phase restructuring was opposed by the parties favouring existing vertically integrated electricity sector. In the paper , restructuring experience of different countries are outlined.

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Research Papers Published in March 2011 Edition
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A Distributed Administration Based Approach for Detecting and Preventing Attacks on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks[Full-Text]
Himadri Nath Saha, Prof. (Dr.) Debika Bhattacharyya, Prof.(Dr.) P. K. Banerjee

In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET), security is a challenging issue due to the vulnerabilities that are associated with it. Intrusion detection is therefore incorporated as a second line of defense in addition to key based authentication schemes. The range of attacks that can be mounted on MANETs are also wider than in case of conventional static networks. In mobile wireless networks there is no infrastructure as such and so it becomes even more difficult to efficiently detect malicious activities by the nodes inside and outside the network. As a matter of fact, the boundary of the network is not properly defined. Nodes can intermittently come into the network or leave it. Moreover malicious nodes can flood the network with junk packets hampering the network service or intentionally drop packets. But these nodes can subtly manipulate their harmful activities in such a manner that it becomes difficult to declare a node as malicious. On top of that these nodes can cooperate among themselves to fool the other nodes to judge an innocent node as malicious. In this paper, we combine a proactive and a reactive approach to take care of some of the problems relevant to MANETs.

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Color Image Segmentation - An Approach[Full-Text]
S.Pradeesh Hosea, S. Ranichandra, T.K.P.Rajagopal

The literature on the color image segmentation is very large and it has been delimited to review some important literature to trace the core issues. On the basis of the identified issues, objectives were drawn to prosecute a fresh study in the color image segmentation. This Literature review helps researcher to understand various techniques, themes, methodologies, approaches and controversies so for applied for color image segmentation. The algorithm combining color and texture information for the segmentation of color images. The algorithm uses maximum likelihood classification combined with a certainty based fusion criterion. It was validated using mosaics of real color textures presented in Color and texture fusion: application to aerial image segmentation.

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Integer programming model for Integrated planning of solid waste management in Jaipur[Full-Text]
Archana Gupta, D. C. Sharma

Rajasthan's economic growth has stimulated urbanization, but lack of commensurate investment in urban infrastructure and services has resulted in an overall deterioration of urban quality of life. Jaipur is the capital of the largest state of country, having an inefficient, outdated and unscientific waste management system. Jaipur socio-economic development potential relies on sound environmental management so that tourism may grow and become sustainable. This paper attempts to assess the existing state of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Jaipur city with the aim of identifying the main obstacles to its efficient and prospects for improvisation of solid waste management system in the city.

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Media used as a inspirational Factor for Future Women Candidates in Politics[Full-Text]
Pankaj Tiwari

Media continues to hold a negative depiction of women when running for elected office leaving to a great exposure. Although previous research has focused on using media exposure as a factor in why women do not run, I state to emphasize how media in fact influences women to run for office in strive for equal representation. There took place a study of three individuals political science majors through an interview process where each participant was asked a series of questions in regards to the correlation between media and their motive in one day running for office. Results stated that although all contestants would hope to see the media in a more positive light, women's portrayal through the media in fact encourages them to stand against the status quo where media can be used as a motivating factor in their decision to run as a potential candidate. By approaching the media's continuing negative bias as inspirational in itself, the media holds a counter effect by inspiring more women to gain interest and increase the number of women candidates for political representation.

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Surveillance Robot For Tracking Multiple Moving Targets[Full-Text]
S.Pratheepa, Dr.Purushothaman Srinivasan

Object tracking is a challenging task in spite of all sophisticated methods that have been developed. The major challenge is to keep track of the object of a particular choice. In this work, a new video moving object-tracking method is proposed. The segmentation of the video is done by contextual clustering. Clustering is an important method in data analysis because of its ability to �discover� the inherent features in the data. The fundamental concept in clustering techniques is to group a given set of objects into subsets according to properties associated with each object, so that the members in each individual subset share some similar properly defined features. A multitarget human tracking is attempted.

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Sea surface Simulation for SAR remote sensing based on the fractal model[Full-Text]
Ding Guo, Xingfa Gu, Tao Yu, Xiaoyin Li, Jingjun Zheng, Hui Xu

Based on the fractal ocean surface model,electromagnetic scattering model under Kirchhoff Approximation and the raw signal simulation procedure of dynamic scene based on time domain,the sea surface of the SAR remote sensing has been simulated.The images of the wave and complex fractal sea surface are in accordance with the hydrodynamic modulation , the tilt modulation and the velocity bunching modulation. The simulation has been developed in the Matlab programming language.

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USENET: Internetnews Software, Security - Needs and Goals[Full-Text]
Monika Saxena, Praneet Saurabh, Bhupendra Verma

Usenet is a distributed bulletin board system, built as a logical network on top of other networks and connections. By design, messages resemble standard Internet electronic mail messages as defined in RFC822. The Usenet message format is described in RFC1036. This defines some additional headers. It also limits the values of some of the standard headers as well as giving some of them special semantics. Newsgroups are the classification system of Usenet. The required Newsgroups header specifies where a message, or article, should be filed upon reception. In addition to InterNetNews, there are two major Usenet packages available for UNIX sites. All three shares several common implementation details. USENET at first was built with effectively no security. There was limited auditing even to detect abuse, let alone prevent it. Over time abusers came, and this meant in many cases that "privileged" functions had to be in some places either shut down or "put on manual" at great administrative cost to admins. In some cases, actual security using digital signature was applied, for newgroup messages (pgpverify), moderated groups (pgpmoose) and NoCem. PGP was commonly used because it is a widely distributed standalone program capable of doing digital signature.

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Preparation, verification and finding out of the Critical Current of thin sample of YBCO Compounds[Full-Text]
Shaikh Md. Rubayiat Tousif, Shaiyek Md. Buland Taslim

This paper is all about superconductors. It deals with the current state of high temperature superconductors (HTS), the application of these materials and possible breakthroughs in the field. It also provides information about how to synthesize YBCO compounds and explains the material from structural point of view. It describes the method of verifying the prepared material is a superconductor or not by observing Meisner effect at 77K. Finally, it describes the technique of finding out the critical current by finding out the resistances of a thin prepared sample of YBCO for temperatures between 77 and 300K.

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Recitation Of Load Balancing Algorithms In Grid Computing Environment Using Policies And Strategies - An Approach[Full-Text]
M.Kamarunisha, S.Ranichandra, T.K.P.Rajagopal

Grid computing is a term referring to the combination of computer resources from multiple administrative domains to reach common goal. What distinguishes grid computing from conventional high performance computing systems such as cluster computing is that grids tend to be more loosely coupled, heterogeneous, and geographically dispersed. Grid computing is the next generation IT infrastructure that promises to transform the way organizations and individuals compute, communicate and collaborate. The goal of Grid computing is to create the illusion of a simple but large and powerful self-managing virtual computer out of a large collection of connected heterogeneous systems sharing various combinations of resources. Grid Resource Management is defined as the process of identifying requirements, matching resources to applications, allocating those resources, and scheduling and monitoring Grid resources over time in order to run Grid applications as efficiently as possible. Focus of this paper is on analyzing Load balancing requirements in a Grid environment and proposing a centralized and sender initiated load balancing algorithm. A load balancing algorithm has been implemented and tested in a simulated Grid environment.

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Assessment and Comparison of Soil carbon pool under Silvo-pastoral Agroforestry system at Henfaes Research Center, North Wales; UK[Full-Text]
Kasahun Kitila Hunde

As result of increased emission of green house gases, especially increased emission of Co2, Climate change is the main global challenges that many countries are facing. Increasing carbon sequestration through a forestation, reforestation and appropriate land use practices are considered as means to sink the atmospheric Co2 in terrestrial ecosystem. Agroforestry is recognized as a strategy for soil carbon sequestration (SCS) under the afforestation/reforestation activities in different parts of the world, but still little information is available on soil carbon dynamics under agroforestry systems. This study was aimed to determine the soil organic carbon pool under silvo-pastoral agroforestry system. The study was conducted at Henfeas research center in the north Wales, UK where Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and Red alder (Alnus rubra) were planted in 1992 in integration with the grasslands. The soil samples were collected to the depth of 30cm at different depth intervals (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30cm) under five treatments: under and outside the canopy of both Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and Red alder (Alnus rubra) and under the control grassland. The concentration of soil organic carbon (SOC %) under each treatment were analyzed using LOI (loss on ignition method) where soil samples were burned at 450 oc.

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Establishing bridges between UML, HAD and GRAFCET Metamodels for the Modelling of Dynamic Systems[Full-Text]
M. Nkenlifack, E. Tanyi and F. Fokou

This article shows the scope and limits of UML as a tool for modelling Automatic Control Systems. An alternative metamodel, Hybrid Activity Diagram (HAD), is proposed and applied to a concrete example, in order to illustrate its efficiency in comparison to the limits of UML diagrams. The article also presents bridges which interlink UML, HAD and GRAFCET and establish compatibilities between the three models. Specifications for the development of a HAD simulator and the results obtained from the implementation of the simulator, are also presented in the article.

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Study of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Human Cortical Bone[Full-Text]
S. Biswas, P. C. Pramanik, P. Dasgupta, A. Chanda

The microstructure along with the micro-mechanical properties of bone have been extensively observed in this study. It has also been attempted to correlate the mechanical properties with the microstructural aspects. The load deformation pattern of human cortical bone (both male and female) under uniaxial compressive and tensile loading was studied. The physical properties like density and porosity of the whole femur as well as different parts of it was studied to get a mapping of the femur. Microstructure of bone, including the osteon structure, its distribution and its deformation under different stress fields have been thoroughly studied with the help of Scanning electron microscopy and reported here.

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Development of Nano-grained Calcium Hydroxyapatite using Slip Casting Technique [Full-Text]
Howa Begam, Abhijit Chanda and Biswanath Kundu

The purpose of this study is to synthesize nano-grained Calcium Hydroxyapatite (HAp) through slip casting technique. For this, hydroxyapatite powders were synthesized using two methods, wet chemical method and Ammoniacal method. The as-prepared powders and calcined powders were characterized using XRD, FTIR, to study the phases of the powders. The hydroxyapatite powder calcined at 1000°C for 2hr was used to prepare 50 vol% slurry using DN40 (sodium polyacrylate) as dispersing agent. After slip casting, the green bodies were sintered at different temperatures, 1100, 1200, 1250 and 1300°C with 2hr soaking time. The sintered dense samples were characterized for physical, mechanical and biological behavior.

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Application of Control Theory in the Efficient and Sustainable Forest Management[Full-Text]
Md. Haider Ali Biswas, Munnujahan Ara, Md. Nazmul Haque, Md. Ashikur Rahman

This paper focuses on the necessity of forest management using the model of control theory. Recent researches in mathematical biology as well as in life sciences closely depend on control theory. Various popular research papers have been received considerable attentions by engineers and research scholars due to the fact that it has been the central and challenging area of research for its wide range applications in the diverse fields. In this study we have briefly mentioned some of the fields in which these challenges are present, specially sustainable forest management is one of the warming issues in the present cencury. Our main objective in this paper is to investigate the scopes and applications of control theory in real life situation, specially the applications of control theory in the efficient and sustainable forest growth. A particular case of Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world is discussed with illustrative examples.

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Parameter Ranking and Reduction in Communication Systems[Full-Text]
M.H. Azmol, M.H. Biswas, and A. Munnujahan

Parameter reduction from experimental data is an important issue arising in many frequently encountered problems with different types of applications in communications engineering. However, the computational effort grows drastically with the number of parameters in such types of applications. This paper proposes a technique that reduces the performance parameters of a communication system based on eigenvalues of covariance matrix as well as providing a weighted rank of parameters by an approach called non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). The factorization of original matrix provides a weight metric that offers a means of ranking and selecting meaningful important parameters. The relative importance of each parameter is measured from the sequentially ordered eigenvalues. The main aims of this paper are to determine, identify and reduce the reasonable number of performance parameters which will reflect the best measurement system of a describing network scenario.

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Trust Enhanced Authorization for Distributed Systems[Full-Text]
Priyanka Dadhich, Dr. Kamlesh Dutta, Dr. M.C.Govil

The trust management approach to distributed system security is developed as an answer to the inadequacy of traditional authorization mechanism. The subjective concept of trust not only enables users to better understand the paradigm of pervasive computing, but also opens new direction of research for solving existing problems such as security, management of online communities or e-services lifecycle .This paper specifies research issues in the areas of authorization and trust in distributed environments involving mobile networks, pervasive and ubiquitous computing networks . We here discuss the notion of trusted computing and examine existing authorization mechanisms and their inadequacies. Next we define a logic program based languages and policies that facilitate the modeling process.To the end various approaches to trust enhanced security for overall authorization security in distributed systems are discussed.

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Near State PWM Algorithm with Reduced Switching Frequency and Reduced Common Mode Voltage Variations for Vector Controlled Induction Motor Drive[Full-Text]
K. Satyanarayana, J. Amarnath, A. Kailasa Rao

In this paper a Near State Pulse Width Modulation (NSPWM) algorithm with reduced switching frequency is presented for vector controlled induction motor drives for reduced common mode voltage/currents. The proposed algorithm utilizes a group of three neighbor voltage vectors to construct the reference voltage space vector. In the proposed algorithm in each sector any one of the phases is clamped to either positive dc bus or negative dc bus. Hence, the proposed algorithm reduces the switching frequency and switching losses of the inverter. The simulation results illustrate that the proposed NSPWM algorithm results in reduced common mode voltage, has low switching frequency and has low switching losses of the inverter.

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Teacher's awareness about the availability and use of technology for Visually Impaired : A study[Full-Text]
Prof. Madhuri Isave, Dr. Megha Uplane, Prof. Suresh Isave

This study focuses on, what is the use of technology for VI? What different types of technology available for VI? And how it's useful as a learning resource for VI?People with VI are gaining access to technology and assistive device designed to minimize the effect of their disabilities. Technological advances open up a new world for people with severe visual impairment. These advances give there greater participation and independence in all aspect of modern society. We have noted the technology affects many aspect of life for person with VI. This system is using different mean of input that is visual, auditory and tactile. These devices improve independent learning opportunity and enhanced participation in recreational and leisure time activities.

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Privacy of data, preserving in Data Mining[Full-Text]
Deepika Saxena

Huge volume of detailed personal data is regularly collected and sharing of these data is proved to be beneficial for data mining application. Such data include shopping habits, criminal records,medical history, credit records etc .On one hand such data is an important asset to business organization and governments for decision making by analyzing it .On the other hand privacy regulations and other privacy concerns may prevent data owners from sharing information for data analysis. In order to share data while preserving privacy data owner must come up with a solution which achieves the dual goal of privacy preservation as well as accurate clustering result. Trying to give solution for this we implemented vector quantization approach piecewise on the datasets which segmentize each row of datasets and quantization approach is performed on each segment using K means which later are again united to form a transformed data set.Some experimental results are presented which tries to finds the optimum value of segment size and quantization parameter which gives optimum in the tradeoff between clustering utility and data privacy in the input dataset.

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Filtering Noise on two dimensional image using Fuzzy Logic Technique[Full-Text]
Anita Pati, V. K. Singh, K. C. Mishra

This paper presents one simple and novel technique for removal of impulse noise from corrupted image data. The algorithm involves impulse detection followed by spatial filtering of the corrupted pixels. In this method the presence of impulse noise is detected by a simpler method called a fuzzy logic based technique (FLT). However, the filtering idea is to recover the healthy pixel by the help of neighboring pixels. Sometimes the loss of edges or presence of noise makes the image noisy or blurred in appearance. This fuzzy logic filter is presented through 5 stages. (1)A sliding moving window is constructed to check every pixel of the whole image.(2)Two conditional rule are applied according to the averaging value of the neighboring pixels. (3)some membership functions are generated to improve the intensity of pixel value so that it can be distinguishable.(4) A simpler function is developed for better reorganization and removal of noisy data. (5)The resulted matrix appears with suppression of less no of noise. It is shown that FLT is a preferred method of rejecting impulse noise both in terms of computational complexity and lower residual NSR(noise to signal ratio).

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Calculation of PID Controller Parameters for Unstable First Order Time Delay Systems[Full-Text]
Hamideh Hamidian, Ali Akbar Jalali

In this paper, a numerical approach for the fractional order proportional-integral-derivative controller (FO-PID) design for the unstable first order time delay system is proposed. The controller design is based on the system time delay. In order to obtain the relation between the controller parameters and the time delay, for several amounts of the plant time delay and the fractional derivative and integral orders, the ranges of stabilizing controller parameters are determined. First, for a typical time delay plant and the fractional order controller, the D-decomposition technique is used to plot the stability region(s). The controller derivative gain has been considered as one. By changing the fractional derivative and integral orders, a small amount in each stage, some ranges of proportional and integral gains are achieved which stabilize the system, independent of the fractional l , μ orders. Therefore a set of different controllers for any specified time delay system is obtained. This trend for several various systems with different values of time delay has been done and the proportional and integral gains of the stabilizing controller have been calculated.

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Enhanced Mode of Extended Set of Target Fault Techniques in Single Stuck - At Fault for Fault Coverage in Benchmark Circuits[Full-Text]
P.Amutha, C.Arun Prasath

The undetectable single stuck-at faults in full-scan benchmark circuits tends to cluster in certain areas. This implies that certain areas may remain uncovered by a test set for single stuck-at faults. The extension to the set of target faults aimed at providing a better coverage of the circuit in the presence of undetectable single stuck-at fault.. The extended set of target faults consists of double stuck-at faults that include an undetectable fault as one of their components. The other component is a detectable fault adjacent to the undetectable fault. Test sets that contain several different tests for each fault (n-detection test sets) are expected to increase the likelihood of detecting defects associated with the sites of target faults. This phenomenon is discerned from the gate level description of the circuit, and it is independent of layout parameters. In addition, the clustering is based on the gate level, and remains valid for any layout of the circuit. The fault simulation and test generation for the extended set of target faults is simulated using modelsim.

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A study to enhance human-resource performance efficiency for minimizing cost in software development projects[Full-Text]
Amrinder Kaur, Kamaljeet Singh

Human resources in software development projects require a high level of individual intensity devoted to project tasks, which then is integrated collaboratively to complete the project. Human resources technical skills and implementation experience are key factors for project success and therefore must be allocated and managed judiciously. Despite of the efforts of organizations, problems related to cost escalation have been encountered regularly .Human resource efficiency and productivity shall be key for future success and sustainability of the businesses. Through this paper, the causes have been outlined in a study conducted on software development projects. The reasons outlined affect efficiency and productivity of employees in software development projects across various phases in software development viz. requirement, designing, coding/testing, implementation phase. And it is been devised that job satisfaction enhances when the job is more exploratory in nature.

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Improving diffusion power of AES Rijndael with 8x8 MDS matrix[Full-Text]
R.Elumalai, Dr.A.R.Reddy

AES Rijndael is a block cipher developed by NIST as the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) replacing DES and published as FIPS 197 in November 2001 [5] to address the threatened key size of Data Encryption Standard (DES). AES-Rijndael was developed by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen, Rijndael [4, 5] and was selected from five finalists. Advancement in computation speed every day puts lots of pressure on AES and AES may not with stand attack for longer time. This work focuses on improving security of an encryption algorithm, beyond AES. Though there are various techniques available to enhance the security, an attempt is made to improve the diffusion strength of an algorithm. For enhancing the diffusion power AES Rijndael in MixColumn operation the branch number of MDS matrix is raised from 5 to 9 using a new 8X8 MDS matrix with trade off of speed [8, 9] and implemented on R8C microcontroller.

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Design of HDLC Controller Using VHDL[Full-Text]
K.Sakthidasan, Mohammed Mahommed

In this paper, we explore a High-level Data link control published by International Standards Organization (ISO). HDLC is one of the most enduring and fundamental standards in Communications. HDLC is in itself a group of several protocols or rules for transmitting data between network points. The HDLC protocol also manages the flow or pace at which the data is sent. The data is organized into a unit called a frame. HDLC controllers are devices, which executes the HDLC protocol. Some of the key operations of the HDLC protocol implemented are handling bit oriented protocol structure and formatting data as per the packet switching protocol, it includes Transmitting and receiving the packet data serially and providing the data transparency through zero insertion and deletion. This controller generates and detects flags that indicate the HDLC status. The device contains a full duplex transceiver, with independent receive and transmit sections for bit-level HDLC protocol operations. The design is completely Synchronous, with separate clock inputs for receive and transmit allowing the two sections to operate asynchronously. These operations have been implemented using VHDL.

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Research Papers Published in March 2011 Edition
Full Paper Download:http://www.ijser.org/ResearchPaperPublishing_March2011.aspx

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Research Papers Published in February 2011 Edition
Full Paper Download: http://www.ijser.org/ResearchPaperPublishing_February2011.aspx

A study of application of Data Mining in demonstrating Business Intelligence[Full-Text]
A.Mohammed Khalid Kaleem, B .Mohammed Iquebal Akhter

Business intelligence (BI) has been referred to as the process of making better decisions through the use of people, processes, data and related tools and methodologies. Data mining is the extraction of hidden stating information from large databases. It is a powerful new technology with large potential to help the company's to focus on the most necessary information in the data warehouse. This study gives us an idea of how data mining is applied in exhibiting business intelligence thereby helping the organizations to make better decisions.

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Design and Implementation of Mobile and Internet Product Access Information and Its Administration System[Full-Text]
Yoong Cheah Huei, Lim Chin Wee, Koh Zheng Kang and Nelson Chin Rong Jie

Internet has become a ubiquitous access to information. Mobile smart phones are becoming popular today as well in the area of interactive information retrieval. Many applications are developed on these mobile intelligent machines. This paper presents the design and implementation of a seamless distributed product access information system that can be accessed through Internet and/or Google Android smart phones. The system uses a hybrid approach of master-slave and peer-to-peer communication models. This system may help to increase business activities in an area because consumers can access to more information about products that they are interested to purchase anywhere with Internet connection and any time. In addition, these customers are able to know about shops that sell a particular product, including the price and the shops addresses. This might help to save their shops hunting time. The main purpose of the administration system is to help the administrator manage the system.

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Optimized AES Rijndael implementation on embedded controller R8C[Full-Text]
R.Elumalai, Dr.A.R.Reddy

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Rijndael algorithm has gained popularity as it is deployed in various embedded systems. Realization of AES algorithm on microcontroller with minimum memory will be useful for deploying it in low cost applications. R8C microcontroller from Renesas is one of the popular microcontrollers in industrial application, being low cost and versatile processor having all peripherals like three UART, three timers, SSU, I2C, LIN, USB, 10 channels ADC with operating frequency at 20MHz. This paper discusses the implementation of AES on R8C controller its speed and memory requirement for the same.

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Use of Frequency Modulation Technique to Improve Security System[Full-Text]
Shaikh Md. Rubayiat Tousif, Shaiyek Md. Buland Taslim

A wireless fire alarm and other passive circuit elements has been designed and implemented. The designed alarm circuit could detect any kind of smoke and generate an alarm signal that would be sent to the control room by frequency modulation technique. The designed transmitter could operate around 100 MHz. A monopole antenna has been used for transmitting the signal carrying the information in the free space. An antenna length of 41cm has been used for the design convenience. The transmitting signal has been successfully received at a distance of 53 feet without any disturbance by FM receiver. The operating frequency of the transmitter was found out to be 97 MHz and comparison shows a very good agreement between the measured value and the calculated value. The designed wireless fire alarm has been very dynamic in terms of performance and the transmitter part successfully demonstrates the basic principle of FM transmitter.

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Design of Low-Power CMOS Cell Structures Using Subthreshold Conduction Region[Full-Text]
Vishal Sharma, Sanjay Kumar

Subthreshold (leakage or cut-off) currents are a necessary evil in traditional VLSI design methodologies. These currents increase exponentially as threshold voltage scales, creating a serious problem for traditional design approaches. This work is based on the exclusive use of subthreshold conduction currents to perform circuit operations, turning this problem into an opportunity. It yields a dramatic improvement in power consumption compared to traditional circuit design approaches. This improvement makes it feasible to design extreme low-power circuits with such an approach. The CMOS digital circuits for this work have been designed using standard TSMC 0.18 μm Technology.

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Shake-down Satellites on core-level regions of the XPS for Europium (III) Compounds[Full-Text]
Dr. Sameer Sinha, Ajay Vikram Singh

We have observed "shake-down" and "shake-up" satellites evidenced on core-level regions of the XPS binding energy data base for europium(III) compounds, in which Eu cation have various chemical environments: simple oxide Eu2O3 , Eu mixed oxides with organic oxalate, acetylacetonate [Eu(CH3COOCH3)3] or inorganic sulfate [Eu2(SO4)3] , Nitrate [Eu(NO3)3] , carbonate [ Eu2(CO3)3 , Eu2(C2O4)3 ] ligands.

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An Efficient Key Management Scheme for Wireless Network[Full-Text]
Yogendra Kumar Jain, Vismay Jain

Sensor networks have great potential to be employed in mission critical situations like battlefields but also in more everyday security and commercial applications such as building and traffic surveillance, habitat monitoring and smart homes etc. However, wireless sensor networks pose unique security challenges. While the deployment of sensor nodes in an unattended environment makes the networks vulnerable to a variety of potential attacks, the inherent power and memory limitations of sensor nodes makes conventional security solutions unfeasible. Key Management is a major challenge to achieve security in wireless sensor networks. In most of the schemes presented for key management in wireless sensor networks, it is assumed that the sensor nodes have the same capability. This research presents a security framework WSNSF (Wireless Sensor Networks Security Framework) to provide a comprehensive security solution against the known attacks in sensor networks. The proposed framework consists of four interacting components: a secure triple-key (STKS) scheme, secure routing algorithms (SRAs), a secure localization technique (SLT) and a malicious node detection mechanism. Singly, each of these components can achieve certain level of security. However, when deployed as a framework, a high degree of security is achievable. WSNSF takes into consideration the communication and computation limitations of sensor networks. While there is always a tradeoff between security and performance, experimental results prove that the proposed framework can achieve high degree of security, transmission overheads and perfect resilience against node capture.

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A novel fast version of particle swarm optimization method applied to the problem of optimal capacitor placement in radial distribution systems[Full-Text]
M.Pourmahmood Aghababa, A.M.Shotorbani, R.Alizadeh, R.M.Shotorbani

Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a popular and robust strategy for optimization problems. One main difficulty in applying PSO to real-world applications is that PSO usually needs a large number of fitness evaluations before a satisfying result can be obtained. This paper presents a modified version of PSO method that can converge to the optima with less function evaluation than standard PSO. The main idea is inserting two additional terms to the particles velocity expression. In any iteration, the value of the objective function is a criterion presenting the relative improvement of current movement with respect to the previous one. Therefore, the difference between the values of the objective function in subsequent iterations can be added to velocity of particles, interpreted as the particle acceleration. By this modification, the convergence becomes fast due to new adaptive step sizes. This new version of PSO is called Fast PSO (FPSO). To evaluate the efficiency of FPSO, a set of benchmark functions are employed, and an optimal capacitor selection and placement problem in radial distribution systems is evaluated in order to minimize cost of the equipment, installation and power loss under the additional constraints. The results show the efficiency and superiority of FPSO method rather than standard PSO and genetic algorithm.

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An Effiecient Modeling Technique for Heart Sounds and Murmurs[Full-Text]
Kiran Kumari Patil, Dr.B.S Nagabhushan, Dr. Vijaya Kumar B.P

Cardiac auscultation is highly subjective and a cognitive process and the amount information that can be obtained by listening heart sounds largely depends on the expertise, experience and acuity of the ear of the physician. In general, the classification and interpretation of heart sounds and murmurs is based on a adjective 0-6/6 grade scale and described by using "faint", "soft", "loud", " high pitch", "clear", "thrill", "tremor", "musical" and others terms. These terms are not well-defined and suitable mathematical models are not available. Apart from that, the adjective scales vary among the doctors and difficult to derive a standard model for heart sound quality and correct clinical interpretation. In this research paper, we propose a novel framework based on psychoacoustic principles and derive psychoacoustic models for the heart sounds and murmurs. We discuss the theoretical foundations, psychoacoustic principles and derive the mathe-matical models for the psychoacoustic features such as loudness, sharpness, intensity, strength, roughness, tonality etc. for a set of heart sounds and murmurs. The proposed framework helps in deriving heart sound quality and also used for the comparison and correlation with normal and pathologic murmurs and enhances clinical decisions.

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Oscillation Properties of Solutions for Certain Nonlinear Difference Equations of Third Order[Full-Text]
B.Selvaraj, I.Mohammed Ali Jaffer

In this paper some sufficient conditions for the oscillation of all solutions of certain difference equations are obtained. Examples are given to illustrate the results.

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Modeling and Detecting Damage in Rails & Avoidance of collision in the Tracks[Full-Text]
Ramesh Shunmugam, Ramesh.K

One of the major problems that railroads have faced since the earliest days is the prevention of service failures in track. As is the case with all modes of high-speed travel, Rail is manufactured in different weights; there are different rail conditions wear, corrosion etc. present there are a significant number of potential defects possible and the task has to be performed with some speed to reliably inspect the thousands of miles of track stretching across the land failures of an essential component can have serious consequences. The main problem about a railway analysis is detection of cracks in the structure. If these deficiencies are not controlled at early stages they might cause huge economical problems affecting the rail network unexpected requisition of spare parts, handling of incident and/or accidents. The main part of the work was to carry out a feasibility study on two methods for detection of cracks in the tracks and avoidance of the collision between the rails. The detection of cracks can be identified using the UVRays, CAN Controller & GSM. The avoidance of collision can be carried out using IR Rays.

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Comparative Study of Scheduling Algorithms in WiMAX[Full-Text]
Mohammed Sabri Arhaif

In recent years, telecommunication operators are constantly seeking more efficient wireless broadband service, while telecommunication technology is continuously upgrading its access network technologies to cope with the high demands for high-speed internet access and multimedia service by end-users. WiMAX seems to be the solution as it is able to provide easy deployment, high speed data rate and wide range coverage. Most importantly, WiMAX provides Quality of Service (QoS) that can support all kinds of real-time application in wireless networks that includes priority scheduling and queuing for bandwidth allocation that is based on traffic scheduling algorithms within wireless networks.

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Utility of PSO For Loss Minimization and Enhancement of Voltage Profile Using UPFC[Full-Text]
A.S Kannan, R. Kayalvizhi

The loss minimization is a major role in Power System (PS) research. Transmission line losses in a PS can be reduced by Var compensation. After the establishment of power markets with transmission open access, the significance and use of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices for manipulating line power flows to relieve congestion and maximize the overall grid operation have been increased. This paper presents a method to provide simultaneous or individual controls of basic system parameters like transmission voltage, impedance and phase angle, which are controlling by using Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method is used to compute the power flow in optimum value. The performance of this technique is tested using IEEE - 14 bus system through the MatLab/Simulink simulation software package. The simulation results of test power system show that the location of the UPFC has been able to enhance the voltage level of the test power system and also minimize the transmission line losses.

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Software Process Models and Analysis on Failure of Software Development Projects[Full-Text]
Rupinder Kaur, Dr. Jyotsna Sengupta

The software process model consists of a set of activities undertaken to design, develop and maintain software systems. A variety of software process models have been designed to structure, describe and prescribe the software development process. The software process models play a very important role in software development, so it forms the core of the software product. Software project failure is often devastating to an organization. Schedule slips, buggy releases and missing features can mean the end of the project or even financial ruin for a company. Oddly, there is disagreement over what it means for a project to fail. In this paper, discussion is done on current process models and analysis on failure of software development, which shows the need of new research.

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Theory of Infinite Dimensions & Parallel Universe[Full-Text]
Vikrant Saxena

Theory of universe is an ultimate topic of debate since past centuries, its beginning, and existence and how it will going to end is remained a question, without any concrete evidence to prove it. Parallel universe is also a nice topic for brainstorming and its proof. I have deducted many innovative Ideas and concrete proofs to solve this problem and developed a satisfactory theory underlying the universe.

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Research Papers Published in February 2011 Edition
Full Paper Download: http://www.ijser.org/ResearchPaperPublishing_February2011.aspx

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Author : Krittika Dasgupta, Abhirup Roy Choudhury, Abhijit Chanda, Debabrata Nag
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, IJSER - Volume 2, Issue 4, April-2011
ISSN 2229-5518

Download Full Paper- http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Clinical_and_Computational_Study_of_Geometry_and_Heamodynamics_of_Arterial_Stenosis.pdf


Abstract— Stenosis is abnormal narrowing of blood vessels. The presence of stenosis in arteries may cause critical flow conditions. It may finally lead to stroke and heart-attack. A clinical study has been done on more than 130 patients along with computational study using 2D axisymmetric rigid model of stenosis in the carotid artery. Assumed shapes of deposition zone and the degree of occlusion used in the analysis were taken from clinical data. The Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid flow have been considered as the governing equations and it has been solved with varying flow parameters using standard CFD software package. The radial velocity profiles at various points of the flow field, the centerline velocity plot and the centerline pressure plots have been obtained from computational study and compared with the clinical data.

Index Terms— Arterial flow, Clinical validation, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Heamodynamics, Mathemetical Modeling, Stenosis, Stenosis geometry.

INTRODUCTION                                                                     
IN the present century arterial stenosis is one of the  major causes behind death in all parts of the globe.  Arterial Stenosis is abnormal narrowing or restriction present in the inner wall of blood vessel due to the depo-sition of cholesterol, fatty materials, cellular waste etc. It may happen in all large or small arteries, commonly in Coronary artery, Carotid artery, and Peripheral artery. In the present case study we only emphasize on Carotid  artery stenosis. Carotid artery is one of the larger arteries, present in our neck region. The normal geometry of the artery is divided into three segments, Common Carotid Artery (CCA), External Carotid Artery (ECA) & Internal Carotid Artery (ICA). The deposition of plaque may vary in shape: simple to complex structures and in dimension. Flow through these complex structures is commonly   associated with flow separation, stagnation, recirculation, secondary vortex motion, plaque rupture etc.
Efforts have been made to model stenosis and its complex hemodynamics by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and experimental analyses since 1990’s. Ku and others have made detailed studies on the fluid mechanics of vascular systems hemodynamic changes due to stenoses [1, 2]. Johnston and Kilpatrick (1991) studied the effect of geometrical irregularities in the wall of a stenosed artery for Reynolds numbers from 20 to 1000 [3]. Tang et al [1995-1998] used 3D models for steady viscous flow in an elastic stenotic tube with various stenosis stiffness and pressure conditions [4]. In past experiments blood flow has been considered both as Newtonian or Non-Newtonian fluid depending upon the radius of the blood vessel. Haemodynamic studies have been made for both steady and pulsatile flows. However, no special emphasis is given in the stenosis geometry and previous studies used idealized models using definite curves (Cosine curve, Smooth curves, Irregular Geometry). In this study, a detail care has been taken to obtain more realistic stenosis geometry after going through more than 130 patient’s real time Ultrasound Doppler Examination data.

2   CLINICAL STUDY
2.1 Data Collection
More than 130 ultrasound images of vascular stenosis have been acquired for our analysis of Carotid arterial stenosis. All these patient data have been collected ran-domly from different well-known multi specialty hospit-als in eastern India. It has been ensured during data col-lection and throughout the work that no patient identity is revealed. Only the information about age and sex has been noted along with other necessary clinical informa-tion for every patient data.

2.2 Study and Analysis
Each patient data are reviewed thoroughly and very carefully to identify the common geometry and occurrence of stenosis/plaque in the artery. Maximum and minimum deposition heights, length of constriction, percentage of diametric reduction are also noted for each and every data.

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