Author Topic: Mechanisms of Tunneling IPv6 in IPv4 networks  (Read 2340 times)

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Mechanisms of Tunneling IPv6 in IPv4 networks
« on: February 13, 2012, 04:40:43 am »
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Author : Nirjhar Vermani
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 3, Issue 1, January-2012
ISSN 2229-5518
Download Full Paper : PDF

Abstract— In IpV4 major requirement is that all the IP networks should have unique network number, even if they are or if they are not connected with the internet, which results in the consumption of more addresses, due to this consumption IP addresses in IPV4, are becoming exhausted. Secondly the structure of IPV4 is of classes which had address spaces with different size and studied independently. To manage this problem internet experts focus on the use of Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR) and Dynamic Host Configuration protocol (DHCP) to manage the address space. But due to the growth in usage of internet CIDR and DHCP are not working properly as an alternative. It is becoming challenging to retain the large routing tables, network authentication and security of the network which is the major requirement in the current cyber age.

Index Terms— Sub netting, IPV6, IPV4, Tunneling, Teredo, Routing, DHCP, Tunel Broker
 
INTRODUCTION:-
IPV4 is the version number 4 of the internet protocol, ituses 32 bit addressing scheme and has exclusive 232=4294967296 IP addresses, and it is the first version which is deployed on the internet broadly. The main usage of the IPv4 is on the Ethernet and it doesn’t assure the delivery of the packets or about the sequence in which the packets are transported and about the delivery of same packet again and again.so it works on the concept of performing its best effort to deliever the data from source to destination. It has a checksum in its header which detects and then removes the corrupted data.

In IpV4 major requirement is that all the IP networks should have unique network number, even if they are or if they are not connected with the internet, which results in the consumption of more addresses, due to this consumption IP addresses in IPV4, are becoming exhausted.

Secondly the structure of IPV4 is of classes which had address spaces with different size and studied independently. To manage this problem internet experts focus on the use of Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR) and Dynamic Host Configuration protocol (DHCP) to manage the address space. But due to the growth in usage of internet CIDR and DHCP are not working properly as an alternative. It is becoming challenging to retain the large routing tables, network authentication and security of the network which is the major requirement in the current cyber age.

IPV6 AS AN ALTERNATIVE:-
IPV6 or IPng (Internet Protocol of Next generation) is the version number 6 of the internet protocol, it uses 128 bit addressing scheme and has exclusive 2128 =3.40282366920938446346337460743177e+38 IP addresses, which are enough to keep internet alive for a long period of time. Though a new version known as IPV6 (Internet Protocol version number 6) has also been introduced and also its deployment is under process but still the progress is very slow.

IPv6 was introduced as an alternative to solve the problems or at least minimize the problems which we are facing in the internet protocol version 4.so in ipv6 first of all larger space for addresses was introduces which is assumed to be enough for next 30 or 35 years, unique addressing with a complete hierarchy of addresses has been introduced which depends on the prefix of address instead of classes as in ipv4,it helps in keeping the well-organized routing in the core and in outcome is the small routing tables, and this efficiency in routing tables also helps in maintaining better security and authentication in networks.

TRANSITIONS FROM IPV4 TO IPV6:-
Internet is running successfully on the IPv4 from last 20 years or so, but now there is a time to move forward toward the new IP version 6 because the unallocated addresses in ipV4 is expected to be allocated in next 5 or 6 years, and then IPV4 alone cannot fulfill the requirements of ever growing cyber population, so IPv6 transition has been accepted as the most promising solution for now.

DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSITION:-
Major difficulty in the transition phase is that from last 20 years or so internet is running on IPv4 so it is very hard to transferthis huge internet from ipv4 to ipv6 and it can only be done gradually. Experts are continuously researching about the transition and its effects on the users and internet service providers, and what will be the best scenario and effective mechanisms for transition and how this will arise or solve security issues.“One of the problem faced by organizations especially website operators ,wanting to deploy IPv6 is the lack of information on IPv6 adoption and the quality of service provided by the IPv6 internet.”[EvaluatingIPv6AdoptionintheInternet]

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