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Technical Audit – “A Throughfare of System Perfection”
« on: February 13, 2012, 04:20:10 am »
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Author : Prof. S. B. Srivastava
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 3, Issue 1, January-2012
ISSN 2229-5518
Download Full Paper : PDF

Abstract: When the design parameter of any equipment is fixed, it indicates the beginning stage of any equipment and at this stage; it is not possible to find out the exact requirement which the equipment has to fulfill. For utility equipments, it can not be anticipated what will be the actual operating requirements. The engineering concept during commissioning of the equipment is well guided by the experts and their guidance is limited for only a short period. With the passage of time and change in environment, the operating condition of the equipment changes. At this stage, the performance of the equipment/industries shows a downward trend. Sometimes, the system, situations and circumstances of working change. It affects the operating condition of Industries or Institutions even incurring huge losses. Every work is followed by certain technicality and if the technicality is deviated, the out come will affect performance. This is the main reason behind the continuous analysis and methodical approach to improve performance and to reach towards system perfection. Technical Audit is a “tool” to create awareness, develop skills, integrate knowledge, upgrade technicality, increase profitability, productivity: improve working conditions and quality of life. Technical Audit delights Owners of industries and also the Customers.

   Technical Audit is one of the most important Improvement Tool for big Industries and Multi National Companies. It is a well known fact that the improvement aspect always exists everywhere. Only there is the need to identify what should be that improvement. Small-small improvements are not the big things but all the small improvement together makes a heaven. Technical Audit is a systematic approach to study and identify the improvement for system perfection, productivity and profitability.

Index Terms: Technicality, Profitability, Efficiency, Consumption, Performance, Owner’s delight, Standardisation, Idle Spindle, Data, Technical Audit.

Abbreviations: AICTE – All India council of Technical education, ESP – Electro-static precipitators, DM – Demineral, ETP – Effulient treatment plant, DG – Diesel Generator, NDT – Non destrictive testing, RH – Relative humidity, ETME – Emerging trend in mechanical engineering, MMM – Madan Mohan Malviya, DC – direct current, et al – and others

INTRODUCTION                                                             
TTechnical Audit is one of the audits where the facts are searched; facts are studied; facts are indicated and sug-gested. It is not a fault finding Audit. When any Institution / Industry / Enterprise are launched, the situations, circums-tances and conditions are different. With the passage of time all these situations, circumstances and conditions are al-tered. In the starting of any unit, certain practices are stared which are economical at that time but after the some periods, the same practice becomes uneconomical and a burden on the employer. The burning example of this fact is that at the starting of Grasim Nagada (a chemical factory), a system was formed that every employee will be given some liters of milk free of cost when he will come on duty. Since at the starting time the TOTAL OPERATION was on a small scale but after the passage of time the capacity was enhanced to a manifold extent, the number of employees has also increased to a manifold extent. The new plant chemical division has also opened side by side. Now all the employees are demanding for milk and multi millions are expended as the cost of milk. Similarly, for cement plants, earlier the wet process manufacturing was feasible but due to technological development the feasibility of wet process cement units became outdated. The units which have not adopted dry process are now closed. Technical audit gives the right suggestions at right point, at right time for tho-roughfare to system perfection and increase profitability.
In technical Audit the technicality of every system, equipment, process, stores and inventories, spare parts, ad-ministration, commercial activities and each inputs are studied with out any prejudices. During the study the areas where the improvement is possible is highlighted.
Literature Survey:

Survey of the research literature indicates that either the re-search have been directed out on General Auditing Principles or procedures and not on the Effectiveness of Quality Audit itself. This has also been confirmed by Rajendran and Devadasan (2005). The only exception is Health and Milne (2002) and Franka Piskar (2006) who have given some contribution to Value Added Quality Audit.

The contribution of Zutshi and Sohal, (2002) represent the practical   experience of eight prominent auditors with respect to adoption of EMS/ISO 14001 (a quality system) by Australian Organizations. The issues and benefits relating to the quality auditing processes are discussed. The aims of research by Terziovski et al (2002) were to examine the role of non financial auditors and the audit process with respect to the existing ISO 9000 Quality Standards. They concluded that conformance auditing has a role in the early stage of quality system implementation.

However, the effectiveness diminishes as the quality system matures. It has been observed by research results that 89% of the organizations firmly follow implementation of audit recommendations. Audit results, showing thrust on quality audit is recognized [Beecroft, (1996); Pivka and Ursi, (1999); Seddon, (2001); Heras et al., (2002); Magd and Curry, (2003); Fuentes et al., (2003); Pan, (2003); Piskar, (2003); Pivika, (2004);

Marki, (2005)], for their theoretical and empirical work. Bhatt et al. (2004) worked on quality and cost improvements in neonatal prescribing through clinical audit. By completing the audit cycle, improved therapeutic care has been achieved with more accurate drug monitoring target and reduced the drug cost. Similar findings have also been reported by Wickramasinghe and sharma (2005), Smith and Manna (2005), and Souillard et al. (2005). Oliverio Mary Ellen (2007) has given thrust to Audit Quality in U.K. Financial Report Counsel in Feb. 2007. S. Nagata et al, (2008), has given valuable information for improving Product quality through Audit System in April 2008..

Duraisamy, P. & James, Estelle & Lane, Julia & Jee-Peng Tan (1997). in their topic “Is there a quantity–quality tradeoff as enrollment increase, evidence from Tamil Nadu, India, have high lighted that increased enrollment of student requires increased resources and also it decreases the quality. Deolalikar, Anil & Hasan, Rana & Khan, Haider & Quibria, M.G., 1997, have pointed out in their research topic “Competiveness and human resource development” University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 1997, have the importance of human resource in quality education. David de la Croix & Matthias Doepke, 2007, in their topic "To segregate or to integrate- education, politics and democracy”, said that it is the responsibility of Government to provide quality education to their citizen and resources for education should be managed by the Government. Alderman, suggest in their paper that the roll for private delivery of schooling services to poor households in developing countries is of importance if college maintains good resource. Puja Vasudeva Dutta, 2006, suggests about the gap between the wages of teachers and its effect on quality education. Monazza Aslam, 2003, finds in their research the difference in government and private education in Pakistan and quality. Geeta Kingdon & Francis Teal, 2004, points out that the performance of students is related with the wage of the teachers. Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, 1997, describes the condition of female education in India.

Srivastava, S.B., March 2009, “Technical Audit for Improve-ment of Educational Quality” (A case study of Indian Engi-neering colleges where Customer itself is the Input and Final Product), has given good thrust on Technical Audit. Srivastava, S.B., October 2009, “Quality and Profitability Improvement by Technical Audit” a case study of process plant published in   “International Journal of Computer Science and Engineering”, indicates the importance of Technical Audit in process plant.

Srivastava, S.B., October 2009,“Technical Audit to Improve Maintenance Effectiveness” Published in proceedings of National Conference, “Engineering Trend in Mechanical Engineering, ETME 2009  at MMM Engineering. College Gorakhpur, .sponsored by “AICTE”, is one of the important eye openers for industry owners. Again Srivastava, S. B., January 2010, “Manpower Assessment of a Chemical Plant” by Technical Audit – a case study, published in International Journal of “Engineering, Science and Technology” indicating the importance of technical Audit.
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The present work aims at giving more value to the Technical Audit which will result in the profitability of the organiza-tions e.g. audit of equipment effectiveness, system effective-ness, process effectiveness, method audit etc for reaching a step forward towards Zero defect in product quality. A case study of a Chemical Industry is presented below for the same purpose

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