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Marketing Of Asian Countries as Tourist Destination
« on: April 23, 2011, 02:11:09 pm »
Marketing Of Asian Countries as Tourist Destination- Comparative Study of India and Malaysia
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Author : Dr Reshma Nasreen, Nguyen Toan Thang
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, IJSER - Volume 2, Issue 4, April-2011
ISSN 2229-5518
Download Full Paper - http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Marketing_of_Asian_Countries_as_Tourist_Destination-Comparative_Study_of_India_and_Malaysia.pdf

Abstract - Tourism has gradually grown over the years as a full fledged industry. Many countries are gaining from this welcome change. The contributions of this sector to the country’s coffers are sizable for some countries, while some countries have a long way to go. This research paper attempts to study the reasons of lack of optimal contribution of this sector in India and also forays into strategies that can be adopted to capitalize on the patterns prevalent in tourist behavior. A country like India with a commendable historical significance and size has not been able to garner as much of tourist attention because of certain factors. India has a lot of offerings to whip the appetite of an avid tourist, but the varieties have either not been promoted, or if promoted lack of associated services have not led to desired synergies. After identifying the gaps between the two countries (India & Malaysia), the paper puts forth the tourists’ patterns of behavior through the data collected. The questionnaire has been administered to tourists in New Delhi and Agra (cities in India). Malaysia on the other hand has had a steady stream of tourists trickling down and benefiting its economy.

Key Words- ASEAN, Eco-tourism, Heritage Sites, MICE, Ministry Of Tourism (India & Malaysia). World Travel.

Introduction

Tourism plays an important role in the economies of a number of ASEAN as well as other Asian countries. Besides contributing to the national income, promotion of intra-regional tourism has other beneficial spillovers for trade and people-to-people contacts. The shared history and culture dating back to several centuries provides a base for tourism exchanges. A large number of tourists from Southeast Asia come to centre of Buddhist pilgrimage in India every year.
With the rise of Indian middle class with higher purchasing power, India has also emerged as a big market for ASEAN countries as a source of tourists.
According to Amrik Singh, instructor at Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism, University of Utah, “The Asia and Pacific region will be the focus of the worldwide tourism industry in the new millennium.  Over the last decade, tourist arrivals and receipts rose faster than any other region in the world, almost twice the rates of industrialized countries.” Statistics from the World Tourism Organization (WTO) for 1996 show that tourist arrivals and receipts accounted for a 15.2% and 19.4% share of the world's total respectively, a significant increase from 1985 as shown in Tables I and 2 (WTO 1997a).
In his paper, Asia Pacific Tourism Industry: Current Trends and Future Outlook, Mr Amrik Singh points out, “that the rapid growth of the tourism industry has been attributed to a number of factors including among others, strong economic growth, increase in disposable income and leisure time, easing of travel restrictions, successful tourist promotion, and a recognition by the host governments that tourism is a powerful engine of growth and a generator of foreign exchange earnings.”

Purpose of Visit % of Tourists
Leisure, Recreation and Holiday   45.45
Visiting Friends and Relatives   12.01
Business and Professional   23.00
Health and Treatment   2.20
Religion and Pilgrimage   12.24
Others   5.10
Total   100
Fig 1: Purpose Of Visit to India
(Source: Ministry Of tourism, Government of India)

As per reports in Opportunities in Malaysian Tourism Industry (2007-2009) http://www.marketresearch.com/product/display.asp?productid=1806312, the key findings include the following.
•   Singapore, Thailand and Indonesia are important sources of visitors for Malaysia. Beyond ASEAN, tourist arrivals from China and India will remain an important influence throughout the forecast period (2008-2012) as the majority of Chinese tend to weigh their spending towards consumer purchases as opposed to luxury hotel accommodation.
•   The promotion of Education Tourism will continue to be expanded to expedite the development of Malaysia as a preferred destination for international students. The projected foreign exchange earnings from this potential source of growth are estimated at RM 900 Million by 2010.
•   It is expected that expenditure by international tourists in Malaysia will increase at a CAGR of 6.63% during the forecasted period.
•   Increasing disposable income in Malaysia will open the opportunities for both outbound and domestic tourism. It is expected that per head disposable income in the country will increase at a CAGR of 5.06% during 2008-2012increase at a CAGR of 5.06% during 2008-2012.
•   It is expected that MICE (Meetings, Incentives, Conventions & Exhibitions) industry will be one of the major contributors to the Malaysian tourism industry.
Ministry of Tourism, Government of India in its Annual Report, has recognized the need for further promoting India through “Incredible India” campaign. The ministry aims to capitalize on the rich and varied history of India as well as it being the centre of origin of two important religions, Hinduism and Buddhism. Apart from the fact that India has a rich history, at present it is also becoming a preferred location for medical tourism as well as a recognized centre for higher education. The vast coastline of India, along with the charms of Northeast India beckons tourists who are nature lovers.  The purpose of visit of tourists coming to India has been summarized in the Table 2:
Although around 50 percent of the tourists coming to India go for leisure and recreation, many attractive destinations can be promoted apart from the beaches of Goa (a state in Western India) and Andaman and Nicobar Islands (chain of Islands in the Bay of Bengal, towards the east of India). In the following table some of the factors attracting tourists as well as facilitating them have been compared between the two countries. As can be clearly seen from the Fig 2, opportunity for attracting tourists is comparatively more in India than Malaysia. Throughout the length and breadth of Malaysia, not much cultural diversity can be witnessed. India on the other hand is known for its diversities and different cultures. India has got more than double the number of international airports, nine times more the number of heritage sites, three times more the number of beaches, four times more railway connectivity and ten times the area of Malaysia. But still the number of tourists coming to India is substantially less than the numbers coming to Malaysia as is shown in Table 3.

Parameters Malaysia India
No Of International Airports   5   11
Cultural Heritage Sites   3   28
No of Beaches   7   21
Railway connectivity   1,.699 km   64,015 km
Uniqueness   Eco- tourism   Historical and religious
Area   328,600 sq.km   3,287,263 sq. km
Table 2: Comparison of Attractions and Infrastructural support between India and    Malaysia  ( Download Full Paper for Table View )

Year   Malaysia
Arrivals (million)    Malaysia
Receipts (USD) billion   India
Arrivals ( million)   India
Receipts (USD) billion
2001   12.7   5.363   2.283   3.016
2002   13.2   7.502   2.073   3.012
2003   10.5   7.967   2.726   5.145
2004   15.7   6.572   3.457   5.588
2005   16.4   9.176   3.919   6.624
2006   17.4   9.889   4.447   7.805
2007   20.9   11.222   4.977   8.872
2008   22.1   14.322   5.287   10.146
2009   23.6   15.872   5.113   `10.992

Table 3: Comparative chart of arrivals and receipts of Tourists in India and Malaysia  ( Download Full Paper for Table View )

(Source: Ministry of tourism, Malaysia; Ministry of Tourism India)

METHODOLOGY OF DATA AND ANALYSIS
Scope of the Study
Tourism is one industry which has been actively promoted in India as well as Malaysia. India went on to promote itself as a tourist destination through the “Incredible India” campaign, which was launched at different film festivals around the globe as well as at national level through advertisements promoting the different states of India. Malaysia on the other hand has been promoting itself as a tourist destination through the “Malaysia-Truly Asia” campaign.
Both these countries are developing countries and Asian countries. The study aims to study the difference in the purpose of visit or similarities in the tourist’s decision making process when he/she opts for this as a vacation spot. The study would also be of help to researchers and decision makers as it is both informative and instructive.

Objectives of the study
The survey was conducted with the following objectives:
- To assess demand profiles of the foreign tourists visiting the county, this may include demand for tourist places, tourism goods and services including transport and accommodation, travel agencies, cultural services, recreation and other entertainment services.
- To assess the detailed expenditure pattern of foreign tourists visiting India, and estimates of total expenditure at all India level on specific tourism products such as accommodation, food & beverage services, passenger transport, tour operators and tourist guide services, transport equipment on rental, cultural services, recreation and other entertainment services and other tourism related products and services.
- To evaluate the performance of existing tourist facilities in the country.
- To assess the number of outbound tourists to various countries.
- To undertake market segmentation analysis.
- To estimate the average duration of stay of foreign tourists in India.
- To obtain demographic, economic and social profiles of foreign tourists visiting India and the motivational factors responsible for attracting them to India.

Research Design

Descriptive: Descriptive statistics has been used to describe the basic features of the data in this study. Simple summaries about the sample and the measures have been provided. With simple graphics analysis, the quantitative data has been analyzed.

Read More:http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Marketing_of_Asian_Countries_as_Tourist_Destination-Comparative_Study_of_India_and_Malaysia.pdf