Volume 6, Issue 9, September 2015 Edition

Publication for Volume 6, Issue 9, September 2015.


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Effect of the obesity on the pulmonary function test[ ]


Obesity is a global health hazard. As standards of living are continuing to rise, weight gain and obesity are posing a growing threat to health in countries all over the world. These obese individuals are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality because of its relationship with various metabolic disorders. It is also known to cause alterations in pulmonary functions, so the present study was planned to assess the effect of obesity on pulmonary function tests in adult males and females. To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), ratio between FEV1/FVC, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) among nonsmoking adult males and females. Data were collected from 247 of adult healthy subjects with range age 32.63, There were 112 males and 135 females subjects, was classified on the basis of sex specific BMI as normal weight, overweight, obese, and moderate obese groups. Pulmonary function test (PFT) and body mass index (BMI) were compared among sex and BMI groups. Subjects underwent spirometry tests according to American thoracic society standards with measurement of the following values, the forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEF). We found no significant differences in FVC and PEF (p value ˃ 0.05) in comparison between the obese and non-obese subjects, but there were a significant FEV1and FEV1/FVC with increasing BMI for adult females. An increase in BMI had no significant effect on spirometric measurements in adult males. Mean FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and PEF were found a high significant differences (P- value ˂0.0001) between mean spirometric values of men and women for all range BMI overweight, obese, and moderate obese.

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GIS Technology for El-Gedida Iron Ore to satisfy the Requirements of Egyptian Blast Furnace[ ]


In recent years Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has been developed and used extensively in mining industry. It is a powerful tool in many operations that support the decision-making, to search for new economic deposits. This paper aim to use GIS technique to find the locations that satisfy the requirements of blast furnace of Egyptian Iron and Steel Company from El-Gedida iron ore and to calculate the volume of iron ore that can be extracted from these locations. ArcInfo 9.3 software package was used to achieve this work.

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Performance Analysis DiffServ based Quality of Service in MPLS Network's[ ]


Over the last years, we have seen a rapid deployment of real-time applications on the Internet, there have been also many research works about Quality of Service (QoS). Internet had new trend with an evolution for development of new applications for all customers. These new applications required an increase in bandwidth guaranteed over the networks, with new services that are developed and deployed. The new Enhancement in providing quality of service (QoS) on the Internet is based on the Different Services (DiffServ). DiffServ divides traffic into small classes and allocates network resources on a per-class basis. In this architecture, packets are marked with different DiffServ code points (DSCP) at edge routers, and the priority for packet's is given via the value of this field. In the other hand, MPLS is a fast forwarding mechanism depends on Labels. The main advantage of MPLS is its support for traffic engineering which result in best utilization of network's resources like link capacity. The integration of using MPLS (as a forwarding mechanism) with DiffServ (as a QoS mechanism) offer high Quality of service especially for real time applications (such as VoIP, Video Conference. We simulate and Evaluate in this paper the performance of MPLS-DiffServ network's by means of OPNET simulator. Our results showed Superiority of MPLS-DiffServ over other kinds of networks and then was clear in decreasing End-to-End delay, delay variation, upload response time, queuing delay, and Traffic Dropped, also in increasing the traffic received.

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Estimation of Maintainability in Object Oriented Design Phase: State of the art[ ]


Object oriented designing is an essential part of software environment. This study focuses on a set of object oriented metrics that can be used to measure the maintainability of an object oriented design. These metrics for object oriented design focus on measurements that are applied to the class and design characteristics. These measurements permit designers to access their software early in process, making changes that will reduce maintainability and improve the continuing capability of the design. In our paper we studied those metrics using empirical analyses for three package designs for the same software. We also found out that value of RFC doesn’t need to be low for developing a less fault prone software.

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Nonlinear behavior investigation of zyncite-iron semiconductor junction[ ]


In this paper, we present the investigation of zyncite-iron semiconductor junction voltage-current characteristics. They were measured on the special measurement stand, in the octopus, or curve-tracer pattern. Nonlinear behavior, such as hysteresis, S-type negative dynamic resistance, and memristance-like behavior, were observed. The test stand is especially convenient to use for students, on electronics/material science classes.

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The environmental aftermath resulted from chemical bombardment of Halabja Territory for the period 1988-2014[ ]


Halabja a small Iraqi city exposed to chemical weapons near the ending of Iraq-Iran war in 1988. This incident caused many death cases as well as injuries for the survivors. Most of the victims were civilians and many of them still suffering after 26 years. In the recent paper questionnaire forms distributed in Halabja territory. The sample volume was 100 forms distributed on four areas of the territory. The study showed that Kani-Vocla gave the highest number of martyrs. The destroyed houses reached 1748 house distributed over the territory. A group of diseases like ocular symptoms, hard breathing, and the body and skin malformation still hurt the survivors. The random immigration increased due to the bombardment that reached 75% of Halabja citizens. The shelling destroyed most of the water and ground environment.

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The Effects of Technical and Non-Technical Losses on Power Outages in Nigeria[ ]


Adequate and reliable electricity supply is widely accepted as a sine qua non for the rapid socio-economic development of any nation. Researchers, over the years, have attributed electricity supply failures mostly to dilapidated electrical equipment, poor maintenance culture etc. Only a few considered the contributions of transmission and distribution losses to frequent power outages. This paper fills the gap by focussing on the effects of technical and non-technical losses on power outages in Nigeria. This study emphasizes the need for more radical measures than are currently being applied to reduce system losses and make the nation’s electric power system holistically more efficient.

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Effect of Ion beam irradiation on the Physical and Chemical Properties of plasticized poly ethylene terephthalate (PET) polymer used in Medical Device[ ]


Ion beams have been found to be widely applicable in improving the structure and physical properties of polymers. In this paper, the effect of ion bombardment on physical and chemical properties of plasticized poly ethylene terephthalate (PET) was studied. Polymer samples were bombarded with 3 keV Ar ions to fluencies ranging from 2.8125 x 10 17 to 5.625 x 10 17 ions cm−2. The pristine and ion beam bombarded samples were investigated using TGA thermal Analyzer and FTIR spectroscopy, PET were evidently changed after irradiation. Ionizing radiations always have a large effect on the physical properties of polymers. The thermal stability of PET at various ion fluencies was illustrated increase from 439.65 to 442.88°C the pristine sample and those samples bombarded with Ar ion at the highest fluence.

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Cloud removal using multi-temporal satellite images and fuzzy logic[ ]


Satellite images are often obscured by cloud cover and shadows. This poses a major challenge to processing of data regarding the surface underneath. Various methods have been proposed by different researchers to obtain cloud and cloud shadow free images from satellite images. In this paper, an approach is suggested which generates cloud free image from multi-temporal images. This paper briefly reviews the existing methods for reconstruction of cloud contaminated images and then suggests an approach based on segmentation of image using Fuzzy logic. The cloud contaminated patches are detected in an image using Fuzzy C means algorithm. Following this step, blobs are detected and those pixels are replaced with the corresponding pixels from the cloud free image under the assumption that the land cover changes insignificantly during a short period of time. Filtering technique is used to remove the visible seams in the reconstructed image. Experimental analysis is conducted on satellite images and results are obtained. Both thin and thick clouds are removed effectively. We have also compared the performance of various segmentation algorithms in cloud detection. This proves the improved performance with the proposed approach.

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Further development & updating of paper for Mystery of Fermat Number[ ]


With the help of N-equation property and Ns-Nd operation which was published in August edition 2013 an attempt was made to penetrate the mystery of Fermat Number and it was published in June & July edition 2015 of this journal. With further development of different properties of N-equation now it is felt necessary to update the papers of Fermat Number and to reestablish its proof that it is always composite for n > 4, on solid ground. Earlier proofs seem to be not so convincing as it is now. This paper contains some new properties of N-equation, rearrangement of points with little change and the proof of Fermat Number in a different angle.

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Understanding Real Time OS Concepts[ ]


Real-time operating systems have conquered the world of computing in a very short span. It is detailed system software. The word ‘real time' does not refer that system reacts rapidly, it denotes that there are solid and set time requirements that must be conformed at the requisite situation. If these time requirements are not completed, the results will be mistaken or untrustworthy. The basics of Real Time Operating Systems (RTOS) will be argued in this analysis. What a real-time operating system (RTOS) is, how RTOS are used for computation and manage applications, and how they changed from general idea operating systems like Windows.

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On-Request Channel Allocation in LTE Cellular Networks[ ]


Long-term evolution (LTE) femtocells represent a very promising answer to the ever growing bandwidth demand of mobile applications. They can be easily deployed without requiring a centralized planning to provide high data rate connectivity with a limited coverage. Femtocell is low-power, very small and cost effective cellular base station used in indoor environment. However, the impact of Femtocells on the performance of the conventional Macrocell system leads interference problem between Femtocells and pre-existing Macrocells as they share the same licensed frequency spectrum. Frequency Reuse (FR) is an effort of manipulating the frequency resource allocation upon terminal's location to improve system capacity. In this paper, an efficient method to improve system capacity through interference management in the existing FemtoMacro two tier networks has been proposed. In the proposed scheme, a novel frequency planning for two tiers cellular networks using frequency reuse technique is used where Macro base stations allocate frequency sub-bands for Femtocells users on-request basis through Femtocells base-stations to cancel interference. Going to implement power allocation or distribution based enhance ment of channel capacity taken as throughput in this paper.

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Factorial Analysis of Al-Si-Mg Alloy Cast Hardness Based on Thickness and Ultimate Tensile Strength[ ]


Factorial analysis of the hardness of Al-Si-Mg alloy cast was carried out based on its thickness and ultimate tensile strength (UTS). A two-factorial empirical model was derived, validated and used for the analysis. The derived model showed that the hardness of the Al-Si-Mg alloy cast is a linear function of its thickness and UTS. The validity of the derived model expressed as: ξ = 0.19 ϑ + 0.0003ɤ + 46.0 was rooted on the model core expression ξ - 0.0003ɤ = 0.19ϑ + 46.0 where both sides of the expression are correspondingly approximately equal. Evaluations from generated results indicated that the standard error incurred in predicting the hardness of Al-Si-Mg alloy cast for each value of its thickness & UTS considered, as obtained from experiment and derived model were 0.5497 and 4.8667 x 10-8% & 0.4463 and 0.8758 % respectively. The hardness of Al-Si-Mg alloy cast per unit thickness & UTS as obtained from experiment and derived model results are 0.1857 and 0.19 HRB /mm & 0.2128 and 0.2177 HRB/ Nmm-2, respectively and the correlations with thickness & UTS were all > 0.95. Deviational analysis shows that the maximum deviation of model-predicted hardness of Al-Si-Mg alloy cast from the experimental results is less than 2%. These invariably translated into over 98% operational confidence for the derived model as well as over 0.98 reliability response coefficients of Al-Si-Mg alloy cast hardness to its thickness & UTS.

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Effects and Solutions of Marine Pollution from Ships in Nigerian Waterways[ ]


The effects of marine pollution are enormous, ranging from impairment of surface water quality, disruption of aquatic growth, and reduction of amenities, affecting the health of man, etc. The main problem that leads to the pollution of aquatic environment is the attitude of not adhering to laid down standards for the protection of marine environment. Based on this, investigations have been made on Nigerian waterways in finding solution to these problems. Questionnaires were formulated, and research responses gotten were inputted in tables. After analysis, 84.7% of the responses showed that pollution of the marine environment and aquatic lives affects the economy of such community being polluted and the health of people are affected negatively. It means that the solution to the pollution of the aquatic environment is for the enforcement of the necessary laws by Government, such as the IMO regulations, to ensure that full compliance by operators within the industry in order to conserve and protect aquatic resources, provide safe seafood for human consumption and protect means of livelihood. Re-educating the citizen, ship owners, crew of a ship, oil exploring companies, and other corporate bodies, to be concerned and responsible for the respect and protection of the marine environment would also bring about control to the rate at which the marine environment is polluted especially from the vessels. This will go a long way in protecting the Nigerian waterways

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Logo Recognition using SURF Features and kNN Search Tree[ ]


In the contest of brand value and identity, the logo represents the company and gives strong impact on its reputation. So it is quite challenging to recognize a logo to maintain its standard level while designing. In this work, only SURF features are considered for logo recognition on gray scale image data. kNN search tree algorithm is used to get the nearest neighbors distance of SURF features between two different images. The percentage of matching features is calculated to recognize logo successfully. This percentage matching measurement of different data sets leads to recognize the logo of any organization undoubtedly when reference image dataset contains that logo.

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Automated Person Identification System Using Walking Pattern Biometrics[ ]


This paper provides a new human identification system based on the walking pattern biometrics of a person

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GLOBAL IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY ON DEFORESTATION[ ]


Deforestation in several countries has led to the crumbling and disintegration of forest with high effects of vulnerability on forest habitat, vegetation structures and extinction of wild life. Unfortunately deforestation affects the sustainability of the environment on a global scale with more detrimental effects on developing countries. Consequences of deforestation include global warming, flooding, climate change, water and air pollution. Removal of trees without proper replacement with new ones threatens human live which can lead to poverty. Findings reveal that at least 70% of the developing world lives below poverty line. This paper talks about deforestation on a global scale, how it affects human life, its benefits and how we should join hands with the relevant authorities to stop the damages done to the environment by cutting down trees.

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Virtual Team Development[ ]


The office of upcoming generation my not look like our offices at all. Virtual Team development is going to become a prevalent concept where work means logging in to the companies’ management website from your home and collaborating with the colleagues who work for different teams. The physical location like building becomes least important in the case. In this ways company can hire best of the talents regardless of their locations. The efficiency of the company can be enhanced by handing off work across time zones that make them to be productive all the times.

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Dynamic Load Distribution Cross-layer Algorithm for Video Transmission over IEEE 802.11n WLANs[ ]


The advancement of the Internet technologies has brought with it a tremendous amount of multimedia traffic. Medium access coordination function incorporated by using distributed coordination function (DCF) has the limited quality of services (QoS) in Wireless networks. So it is necessary to have a mechanism for QoS on a wireless network that video and voice over Internet protocol (IP) services can run with good quality along with other data services. This simulation analyzed the performance enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA) 802.11n for video transmission in light and heavy load using without mapping, static, adaptive and dynamic cross-layer mapping techniques. The proposed dynamic load distribution cross-layer algorithm gives better average throughput and PSNR value compared against the results derived from EDCA IEEE 802.11n, Adaptive Cross-Layer Mapping, Dynamic Adaptive Cross-layer mapping mechanism and the static mapping algorithm.

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Introduction to SMAC- Social Mobile Analytics and Cloud[ ]


SMAC (Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) is an integration of four technologies that have become the drivers of innovation in businesses at present.

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Enhanced ac-To-ac Frequency Changer Based on Multi-Phase Smart Comparative Commutation[ ]


Direct AC to AC power conversion was always a challenge to be proposed as an alternative for the DC-link one. This is due to multiple of reasons such as less complexity, power regeneration, and unity power factor privileges. However, the challenge is represented by producing a direct AC to AC system with output waveforms having reduced total harmonic distortion comparable or superior to that generated by the DC-link converters. In such a trend this paper introduces an enhanced AC-to-AC frequency changer with reduced total harmonic distortion frequency spectrum compared to the envelope cycloconverter one. This proposed work introduces smart comparative phases switching carried out via a processing unit that detects and measure the analogue voltages of each phase and sends a switching triggers to the power switching circuit. The proposed work reflected an effective reduction in output waveforms harmonic content (about 60%) compared to the envelope cycloconverter with low cost system requirements.

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Shielding Effect During Fracture of Stainless Steels[ ]


The role of some microstructural features in blocking the fracture path was investigated for duplex stainless steels (DSS). Sets of fatigued specimens , Wedge Open Load WOL , were heat treated at 475ºC for different times and pulled to failure either in air , CT specimens , or after kept in 3.5% NaCl with polarization of -900 mV/ SCE i.e WOL specimens . Fracture took place in general by ferrite cleavage and austenite ductile fracture in transgranular mode. Specimens measured stiffness ( Ms ) was affected by the aging time, with higher values measured for specimens aged for longer times. The ratio of the measured stiffness to the predicted stiffness was observed to increase with the crack length. Microstructural features played a role in " blocking" the crack propagation process leading to increase the resistance of the material to fracture, R-curve vs crack length , specially for specimens aged for short times. Unbroken ligaments/ austenite were observed at the crack wake. These features may exerted a shielding stress , blocking effect , at the crack tip giving resistance to the crack propagation process i.e the crack mouth opening was reduced.. Higher stress intensity factor KIC values were observed with increased amounts of crack growth suggesting longer zone of unbroken ligaments in the crack wake. The shielding zone was typically several mm in length.. Attempt to model the bridge stress was suggested to understand the role of ligaments / unbroken austenite in increasing the fracture toughness factor.

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475°C Embrittlement in Stainless Steels[ ]


The effect of 475°C embrittlement on the mechanical properties of duplex stainless steels (DSS) was investigated. Specimens of compact tension specimens (CT) were heat treated at 475°C for different times and pulled to failure in air. Hardness was measured and fracture surface was studied for each specimens using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Depends on treatment time results showed that specimen hardness , fracture mode , cracking bath , fracture toughness and the crack length were affected by the treatment at 475°C. An increase in specimens hardness was clearly measured with increasing treatment time at 475°C. The ferrite phase fractured in a brittle manner with more tendency to cleave with increasing treatment time. No intergranular failure was observed for all tested specimens. The austenite phase fractured in a ductile manner, plastic deformation, and showed no effect of heating at 475°C on this phase fracture mechanism.

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Evaluation of Background Radioactivity In Ogbete Coal Mine Dumpsites In Enugu, Nigeria[ ]


The assessment of naturally occurring radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K in Ogbete coal mine dumpsites in Enugu were carried out using gamma-ray spectrometry with high purity germanium detector to determine the natural radionuclide in the dumpsites and to evaluate the hazards these might have on the public. The calculated average activity concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K in the samples were 18.7 ± 2.9 Bqkg-1, 24.4 ± 2.2 Bqkg-1, and 164.4 ± 17.3 Bqkg-1 respectively. The mean activity concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K in the present study is much lower than the world-wide average values of 33 Bqkg-1, 45 Bqkg-1 and 420 Bqkg-1 respectively. The present study revealed that the calculated average absorbed dose rate, indoor annual effective dose rate and outdoor annual effective dose were found as 31.2 nGyh-1, 0.15 mSvy-1 and 0.04 mSvy-1 respectively. The mean values of the absorbed dose rate, the indoor and outdoor annual effective dose rates are much lower than the world average recommended safety limits. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended the annual effective dose equivalent limit of 1mSvy-1for the individual members of the public and 20mSvy-1 for the radiation workers. Therefore it can be concluded that the present study area is radiologically safe from radiation hazards and will pose no harmful effects to the environmental and the living population.

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Web Service Security[ ]


Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) plays a very important role in Information System. Researchers are pointing out that the number of Information Systems based on SOA in next few years will significantly outnumber the legacy Systems. The reason behind this is the advantages that are offered by SOA itself and the technology used for development of SOA. SOA is based on Web Service (WS) Technology and inherits advantages and disadvantages of WS Technology. This is especially important in the context of SOA security issues that differ from legacy system security principles. SOA security issues are resolved through WS security solutions, like Trusted communication principles via SOAP, WS-Security, WS-SecureConversation; Trusted Web via WS-Trust, WS-Federation, and Trusted service via WS-Policy, WS-PolicyAssertion, WS-PolicyAttachment, WS-SeurityPolicy; WS-Authorization, WS-Privacy. This paper addresses the security mechanisms that are used in SOA based Information Systems in both design as well as implementation level. The brief explanation of each of the SOA security solution is given. An overview of compatibility issues as well as positive and negative sides of these solutions in SOA is also explained.

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Toxicity Evaluation of Cnidoscolus Aconitifolius on Female Albino Wistar Rats[ ]


Toxicity evaluation of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on female albino Wistar rats was investigated by monitoring toxicity indices such as serum glutathione, antioxidant capacity and elevated cyanide in serum and urine and elevated serum thiocyanate and nitrite. Feeding of female albino Wistar rats with Cnidoscolus aconitifolius containing 12.7 mg CN-1kg-1wt/wt gave the following results; group D (animals fed with 50% Cnidoscolus leaves) had the highest mean concentration value (538.19 ± 39.28) for total cyanide (TCN)(µg/ml) in urine while the control group (animals fed with only commercial feed) had the least concentration value(29.65 ± 4.42) in urine and for free cyanide (FCN)(µg/ml) in urine, group D had 53.39 ± 1.66 while group A had 0.7 ± 0.68. But for serum total cyanide (µg/ml), the control group had the highest mean concentration value of 3.079 ± 1.52 and 1.266 ± 0.1 for serum free cyanide (FCN)(µg/ml) whereas group D had 0.358 ± 0.102 for serum total cyanide and 0.106 ± 0.08 for serum free cyanide. Total antioxidant capacity of the analysis was also observed using Sorbo method (1953) with respect to thiocyanate ion concentration in serum (µm/ml). Serum thiocyanate concentration was found to occur highest in group D with 3.50 ± 0.27 and the control group had the least with 0.15 ± 0.03. Decrease in whole blood glutathione (an important biological antioxidant) was also observed and group D contained the least mean value with -0.018 ± 0.008 (µg/ml) while the control group had the highest with 0.260 ± 0.003 (µg/ml). Increase in nitrite (N-nitrosamine precursor) was also observed. Group D had 19.94 ± 2.00 mean concentration value (µm/ml) whereas the control group had the least with 9.62 ± 1.17 (µm/ml). The toxicological implications of these findings are discussed.

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Deficit Irrigation Management Practice for Major Crops in Kunigal Command Area[ ]


The increase in water demand has resulted in new methods of saving water worldwide with about 70% of water being used in agriculture globally, water saving techniques has to be practiced. Irrigation technologies and irrigation scheduling may be adopted for more effective and rational uses of limited supplies of water. Deficit irrigation is one of the methods designed to ensure the optimal use of allocated water. It maximizes water use efficiency for better yields per unit of irrigation water applied through by exposing the crops to a certain level of water stress either during a particular period or throughout the growing season. A study is carried out to review the crop yield responses to deficit irrigation in Kunigal command areas. The major crops taken for study include rice, pulses, groundnut, sugarcane and millet (ragi). Simulation are carried out using agro-climatic data development of irrigation schedules under deficit irrigation and evaluation of current irrigation practices were done by crop growth simulation software CROPWAT 8.0 developed by FAO. From the simulation, it is evident that deficit irrigation incurs yield reductions in proportional to water stress magnitudes but saves substantial amount of water. The recommended deficit irrigation practice is to water stress the crop during mid stage of crop cycle thus saving more water & incurring acceptable yield reductions to the farmers.

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Integrating Landsat-ETM and Aeromagnetic Data for Enhanced Structural Interpretation over Naraguta Area, North-Central Nigeria[ ]


Structural interpretation over Naraguta area was carried out using aeromagnetic and Landsat ETM data with the objective of delineating the linear features of the study. Several image processing and analytical techniques were applied to the aeromagnetic and landsat data to improve the data quality and resolution. Linear features identified in the study area revealed principal trend directions in the NW-SE, NE-SW, N-S and E-W directions with the N-S trend been dominant. Results of the 2-D spectral analysis of the aeromagnetic data revealed a two depth source model. The depth to the deeper magnetic source bodies has an average depth of 2.03km. This layer may be attributed to magnetic rocks of the basement, lateral variations in basement susceptibilities and intra- basement features like faults and fractures. The shallower magnetic sources with an average depth of 0.265km could be attributed to near surface magnetic sources, which are magnetic rocks which intruded into the sedimentary overburden. Most of the interpreted lineations were observed to correspond to the trends and positions of the trans-oceanic fracture zones in the area. There is also a marked correlation of the location of the Younger Granite Ring complexes and the lineaments in the study area. This observed relationship may be attributed to tectonic control of secondary mineralization in the study area. Most of the lineaments also correlated with the orientation of the drainage lines indicating that the drainage system in the area may be structurally controlled. Finally, the drainage pattern in the study area was observed to be dendritic which is indicative of lithological heterogeneity.

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