Volume 7, Issue 10, October 2016 Edition


Publication for Volume 7, Issue 10, October 2016.


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Qualitative and quantitative set cardinal[ ]


Mathematics is a science that models almost anything and everything in the real nature. Mathematics has been called the language of the universe. The paper introduces the concept of the sets containing only two types of elements, classified "matter and/or antimatter" natural elements. It is about expanding the universal set by including in it all the "antimatter elements" rather than the "matter elements" which context have in consequence. "Matter elements" and "antimatter elements" are posed to be clearly denoted as elements of a different type in a set. The paper introduces the idea of the signed cardinal of the set. When a set A contains only matter elements or when the number of matter elements is higher than the number of antimatter elements than the cardinal of the set A is denoted +card(A). When the set contains only antimatter elements or when the number of antimatter elements is higher than number of matter elements than the cardinal of the set A is denoted -card(A). The introduced signed cardinal denotes the matter-antimatter qualitative property (+ or -) of the elements and the number of elements denotes the quantitative property (card(A)) of the elements in a set.

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Factors Contributing to the Stress Levels of Nurses in Chinese Hospitals[ ]


It is evident that stress factors are caused by organizational stressors and demographic stressors. However, this is not studied in detail in consideration of nurses in hospitals in China. As a result, this study aims to explore the impact of the demographic, employment and organizational factors related to stress of Chinese nurses.The quantitative study was conducted using participants from five general hospitals in Wuhan City of P.R. China. The study consists of information gathered from 1,233 nurses from various departments of the hospital. For this study, data was collected through a two-part questionnaire. The first portion included the collection of demographic information, such as age, sex, religion, living status, marital status, and annual household income, health care type, present health situation, smoking, alcohol consumption, and working hours. The second portion included the collection of organizational and occupational information, such as profession, years of experience in profession, and full or part time work. Other data is also collected through the perceived stress scale involving 14 items (PSS-14).The hypotheses were all accepted because the p value is significant in the ANOVA test and included: Demographic, Employment and Organizational factors have an impact on the stress level of Chinese nurses.Even when controlling for demographic factors, it is shown that employment and organizational factors contribute to the stress level of Chinese nurses within different departments and different hospitals in Wuhan city of P.R. China.

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Investigations of Partial Constrained Layer Damping treatment effect on Vibration Analysis[ ]


Constrained layer damping treatment is used to reduce structural vibration. Constrained-layer damping is a mechanical engineering technique for suppression of vibration. Typically a visco-elastic or other damping material is sandwiched between two sheets of stiff materials that lack sufficient damping by themselves. In the constrained layer damping technique the damping material is bonded to the structure similar to the free layer damping technique, then an another constraining layer having very high stiffness is constrained over the damping material.

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Screening, Production and Partial Purification of Protease from Pseudomonas Spp. and their Potential Applications[ ]


The present study was carried out for the isolation of proteolytic bacteria, production, purification and designing the process parameters for optimum proteolytic enzyme activity as well as its potential application. Different soil samples taken from fish market, slaughter house, and poultry waste soil were processed according to the microbiological criteria for the isolation of proteolytic bacteria. All the isolates were screened for the protease ability and the isolate showing highest proteolysis was selected for further studies. The production of protease was carried out by fermentation by shake flask method at 37ËšC. The supernatant of culture media were obtained after centrifugation, and was assayed for protease activity as well as total protein content. Partial purification of enzyme was done by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by dialysis. Then the application of the enzyme was done by investigating the ability of the enzyme to solubilize blood clots, and de-staining blood stained white cotton cloth. Based on the biochemical studies the isolated organism was found to be Pseudomonas spp. The highest protease production was found after 24 hours of fermentation, while the optimum pH was 8.0, the optimum temperature of enzyme activity was 35ËšC. The partially purified enzyme showed the ability to remove blood stain in the white cotton cloth, and the enzyme was also able to dissolve blood clots. Based upon the results of the study, this protease might find broad applications in detergents and pharmaceutical industries.

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Bioremediation of Chromium Contaminated Soil: Reduction and Optimization under Laboratory conditions[ ]


This study had the objective of isolation and enrich Cr(VI) potential reducing microbial strain and to determine the optimal conditions for Cr(VI) as well as to study its performance under optimal conditions. Chromium contaminated soil sample were taken from Salem Steel Plant, the physicochemical analysis of this soil showed that its pH was 9.54, the electrical conductivity was 0.36 mS, while the turbidity of this soil was found to be 3.50 NTU. Mineral salts such as Iron, Copper, Manganese, Zinc, Nickel, Cobalt, Lead, Aluminum, Vanadium, Chromium, Molybdenum, Mercury, Arsenic and Cadmium. However chromium was present at the highest amount ot 17.896 ppm. The isolation of chromium resistant bacterial strains from the soil sample collected was done followed by their characterization. Two strains Bacillus subtilis and Sphingomonas spp were found to be resistant to chromium. However Bacillus subtilis was found to be resistant at higher chromium concentration and consequently was used in this study. The determination of optimal conditions for Cr(IV) reduction by Bacillus subtilis was done using parameters such as carbon source, pH, and temperature. Results from this study showed that the reduction of Cr(VI) was more effective at pH of 7, temperature range between 30–37˚C and also when Glucose is used as carbon source. The bioremediation of soil sample by Bacillus subtilis was performed at optimal conditions. The results from this study revealed that there were a tremendous reduction of hexavalent chromium after 15 days. This confirms the ability of isolated strain for removal of Cr(VI) from soil and therefore it can be a potential candidate in insitu chromium bioremediation.

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Factors predicting treatment adherence among patients with heart failure in Vietnam[ ]


Reducing the rate of re-hospitalization among heart failure (HF) patients is a major public health challenge. Treatment non-adherence is a crucial factor shown to trigger re-hospitalization. This study describes treatment adherence and explores the predictive ability of education, knowledge, depression and nurse support on treatment adherence among adult Vietnamese HF patients. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 82 subjects, diagnosed as HF class II and class III, who were assessed during treatment follow-up visits to the outpatient cardiovascular department of Namdinh General Hospital, Vietnam. Structured interviews and questionnaires were used to collect data via the Personal Information Questionnaire, Treatment Adherence Heart Failure Questionnaire, Dutch Heart Failure Knowledge Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II and Nurse Support Treatment Adherence Questionnaire.

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Effect of salicylic acid and salt stress on the growth and some biochemical parameters of Mentha suaveolens[ ]


Salinity presents a limiting factor for plant growth in the word, in this vision we have tried in this work tostudy the effect of salicylic acid at concentrations of 10 mM, 20 mM and 30 mM, on growth and biochemical response of Mentha suaveolens grown under salt stress at 150 mMNaCl.

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Heavy metals in the waters of Tajikistan’s Rivers[ ]


Results of calculations of the limiting health hazard indicator of water for 35 sampling points on the main rivers of Tajikistan were represented. Water samples were analyzed by means of neutron activation analysis.It is shown that the water in all mountain rivers of Tajikistan is clean. In the north of Tajikistan, almost all the rivers are polluted. Pollution caused by anthropogenic factors.

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Enhanced Quality of Services in WiMAX Network using Scheduling Algorithm[ ]


In the past years, wireless communication is developed considerably. Also, like WiMAX network, broadband wireless networks are also taken into attention. In these networks, Quality of Services (QoS) is used for various Application support. These programs include internet telephone, multi-media services such as video broadcast, video conference and etc. Providing the quality of service is complex in a multi-service WiMAX environment as it data flow, traffic behaviors and quality requirements have different services. It is possible that a unique scheduling algorithm is not adequate due to the features of distinct quality of service of each service. Thus, selecting a suitable scheduling algorithm is important in providing the quality of service of these broadband wireless access networks. According to the previous approaches there are various scheduling algorithms, for example, First-In-First-Out (FIFO), Priority queue (PQ), Weight Fair Queuing (WFQ), Round Robin (RR), Deficit Round Robin (DRR), Modified Deficit Round Robin (MDRR), was done. The outcomes demonstrated that proper determination of scheduling algorithms can enhance the required quality of service for various activity sorts of users. The Haziea is the best scheduling algorithms in this assessment is resolved based on the base jitter, throughput and most extreme got activity for every servicing class and particular application.

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Numerical Relay Algorithm for Blackout Prevention[ ]


The serious electric grid disturbance was occurred in the Northern part of India on 30th and 31st of July 2012, this led to low voltages at the Gwalior end in the event of high line loading causes major shutdown of power in eight States. The reason was unnecessary tripping of distance relay due to load encroachment, weak inter-regional corridor and number of feeders was disconnected for maintenance purpose. To prevent occurrence of such situation a new algorithm is proposed for numerical relay to protect national or regional grid during load encroachment and power swing. The new algorithm is tested using the PSCAD software and it gives the results as we desired to prevent the unforeseen blackout in electricity grid.

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A Monitoring System For a sub-Class Of Hybrid Systems[ ]


In this paper, an approach for synthesizing a monitoring system to insure the detection of interruption, permanent and/or intermittent faults in a sub-class of hybrid systems namely continuous flow systems, is presented, this approach is based on system modeling using hybrid automaton with stopwatch, the faults detection is guaranteed by timer violation. The timer calculates the elapsed time from the beginning of operating cycle of the system. The obtained results show that the monitoring system is able to detect rapidly the considered types of faults. A classical example is dedicated to illustrate our approach; the results obtained confirm the effectiveness of the proposed work.

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Techniques of Increasing Micro Grid Reliability[ ]


One of the methods used today to increase power grids reliability is dividing the main (unified) grid to Micro Grid. This paper offers a study what is the technique that can be used to increase micro grid reliability. The reliability indices will be either customer base indices or energy sales base indices. The techniques will vary according to variable factors. Factors based on micro grid size, and the others based on the number of persons use this grid. The improvement impact for the different techniques will make the main map, which technique will be better for each micro grid. Techniques target the outage time & techniques target the outage loads.

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Adaptive Algorithm-based DFE for Low PAPR Consumption and Effective Bandwidth Utilization of MIMO LTE OFDM[ ]


This paper focused on low PAPR consumption and efficient bandwidth optimization for MIMO LTE Downlink OFDM system excluding cyclic prefix (CP). The FDADFE is subjected to extract the performance based on specific parameters for better BER characteristics. The 3GPP LTE employs OFDM in downlink transmission, which experiences relentless inter-symbol interference (ISI) in high frequency selective fading channels. Although cyclic prefix (CP) is employed in the OFDM symbols to eliminate ISI completely, it consumes bandwidth and power. In this work, a frequency domain adaptive decision feedback equalizer (FDADFE) is introduced. The equalizer applies both RLS and LMS algorithms to adapt the filter coefficient that makes the system more convergent executing less time. Although complexity grows in the proposed system, the simulation results prove that, the FDADFE with OFDM system excluding CP in LTE outperforms the conventional OFDM system including CP in LTE in terms of both power and bandwidth efficiency with better BER performance.

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Supra i-Open Sets and Supra i-Continuity on Topological Spaces[ ]


In this paper, we introduce and investigate a new class of sets and maps between topological spaces called supra i-open sets and supra i-continuous maps, respectively. Furthermore, we introduce the concepts of supra i-open maps and supra i-closed maps and investigate several properties of them.

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Road Network and its Evaluation for Sustainable Development in Al-Hilla City, Iraq[ ]


Al-Hilla city is the capital of Babil governorate, which is one of the most important governorates in Iraq. It represents the central link point between the northern and southern governorates. In general, road network in Iraq is suffering from many problems due to mismanagement, decline in governmental support and confusing political situation. Therefore, there is a real need to study its current situation to provide more accurate information that is required for its development. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the spatial and temporal changes in road network within Al-Hill city from 1999 to 2015. Both spatial and attribute data about road network in Al-Hilla city were integrated under the GIS environment.

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Evaluation of Health and Safety Practice in Building Construction: A Case Study in Addis Ababa[ ]


The construction industry has been seen as one of the hazardous industries. This is because the industry has a poor health and safety performance record compared to other industries all over the world. Labor law in every nation provides that it is the duty of an employer to ensure that every worker employed works under satisfactory, safe and healthy conditions. The research is focused on evaluating the health and safety issues in building construction projects in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The roles of the Client, Consultant and Contractor in health and safety consideration during project implementation were examined. It also determined the factors affecting health and safety performance of laborers.

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Grapheneto supplement conventional Electrode Materials in Lithium Ion Batteries: Opportunities & Challenges[ ]


Graphene is extracted from graphite and possesses some the ideal characteristics of very light weight, high conductivity, and chemical stability. The conventional materials used as LIB electrodes fail to meet the increasing demand of more efficient, faster, and lighter charge storing cells. This magnifies the role of graphene to be used as supplementary material for achieving higher levels of battery charge capacity, reduced charge losses during discharge, and greater cyclic stability over a longer duration. The researcher has examined graphene as a hybrid or supplementary element with lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), manganese oxide, (MnO2¬), and cobalt oxide(Co3O4), which are currently used as cathode materials, and with lithium titanium oxide (Li4Ti5O12) and silicon (Si), which are presently used as anode materials.Graphene as supplementary cathode material exhibited benefits of greater charge capacitance and cyclic stability, while at the anode it exhibited benefits of reduced discharge losses and reduced volumetric expansion. The integration of graphene at anode was met with fewer challenges than at the cathode as anode act as active charge carrier during the charging process and carbon-family elements serve as good charge retainers.

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Method of Transforming Coordinates of a Vehicle-mounted Accelerometer: Example Application of Calculating Lean Angle of a Motorcycle[ ]


When mounting an accelerometer onto a vehicle, it may be difficult or inconvenient to align the sensor's axes with the desired directions of x, y, z. One way to overcome this issue is to mount the sensor in an arbitrary direction and then mathematically transform the acceleration readings from the sensor coordinate system to the vehicle's coordinate system. Described is a simple method to determine the transformation constants (components of the rotation matrix) and a sample code for an Arduino microcontroller. Once computed, these 9 constants can be used to transform any other vector quantity between the sensor and vehicle reference frames, for example, gyro and magnetometer readings. A practical example is given where an accelerometer/gyro module is used on a motorcycle to calculate forward acceleration and lean angle during a turn.

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SECURE WITH ANNOY CONTROL CLOUD DATA ACCESSUSING DECISIONAL BILINEAR DAFFIER-HELLMANALGORITHM[ ]


Cloud computing is a computing concepts, which enables when required and low maintenance usage of resources, but the data is shares to some cloud servers and various privacy related concerns emerge from it. Various schemes like based on the attribute based encryption have been developed to secure the cloud storage. Most worklooking at the data privacy and the access control, while less attention is given to the privilege control and the privacy. In this paper, we present a privilege control scheme Anonymity Control to address and the user identity privacy in existingaccess control. Anonymity Control decentralizes the central authority to limit the identity leakage and thus achieves partial anonymity.It also generates the file access control to the privilege control, by which privileges of all operations on the cloud data can be managed in a proper manner. We present the Anonymity Control-F, which prevents the identity and achieve the anonymity. Our security analysis shows that both Anonymity Control and Anonymity Control-F are secure under the Diffie–Hellman assumption and our performance evaluation exhibits the feasibility of our schemes

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Aggression- Cause, Effect and Help[ ]


Youth indulgence themselves in various aggressive behaviors leading to significant psychosocial dysfunctions. The present study assesses the prevalence of aggression among youth and to assess the risk factors of aggression among youth. Many methods such as Anger Data sheet, Resilience Scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Scale, were administered on 7654 participants using survey design. Data was collected from different communities (college, residential, apartments and workplace) of Bangalore, Jammu, Indore, Kerala, Rajasthan, Sikkim and Delhi. 45% were female and 55% were male. The mean age of the sample was 19.8 years. Comparative analysis was carried out by Pearson correlation. It was found that about 17.7% of the youth has high mean aggression score on Buss-Perry Aggression Scale. Males have high mean score on aggression than females. Males experienced more verbal aggression, physical aggression and anger than females. Younger age group (16-19 years) experienced more aggression than older age group (20-26 years). The risk factors of the youth aggressions were identified as physical abuse in childhood, substance abuse such as alcohol and tobacco, negative peer influence, familyviolence,academic disturbance, psychological problems attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, suspicious, loneliness, mood disturbance, negative childhood experience and TV and media.

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Towards the Design of Cyber-Physical System via Multi-Agent System Technology[ ]


Advances in digital electronics have led to a significant increase in the number of systems that couple the digital (cyber) systems with the physical world, namely what have become known as the Cyber-Physical System (CPS). The design of CPS requires a significant amount of reasoning with respect to unique challenges and complex functional, reliability, and performance requirements. This paper presents the suitability of Multi-Agent System technology towards resolving some challenges in the design of CPS. In the proposed method, challenges that are common to most CPS design and the attributes and behaviour characteristics of agents in Multi-Agent System to tackle such challenges are outlined. The correctness of this approach is shown from the perspective of Agent-Oriented Programming (AOP) with Java Agent Development (JADE) Platform where agents exhibit autonomous and interactive behaviour. The capability of agents in MAS to interact with one another and with their environments; their flexibility and freedom to monitor, control and change their behaviours are considered appropriate solutions to the prominent CPS design challenges.

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Electrical Aspects Of The Rocket Ion Propulsion System[ ]


A rocket is a machine that develops thrust by means of rapid expulsion of matter. The major components of a chemical rocket assembly are a rocket motor or engine, various types of propellants (the majority of which consist of fuel and an oxidizer i.e hypergolic liquid propellants), a frame to hold the components, control systems and a cargo such as a satellite. A rocket differs from other engines in that it carries its fuel and oxidizer internally, therefore it will burn in the vacuum of space as well as within the Earth's atmosphere. The cargo is commonly referred to as the payload. A rocket is called a launch vehicle when it is used to launch a satellite or other payload into space. At present, rockets are the only means capable of achieving the altitude and velocity necessary to put a payload into orbit. Therefore the most important part of the rocket remains the propulsion system. It is the propulsion system that generates the thrust which enables the rocket to achieve the velocity that can counter the earth’s gravitational force and take the rocket into space and thus, it is the need of the hour to devote available resources to research about new ways to propel the rockets, increase efficiency and reduce operation costs etc. This paper considers basic functioning of rockets while focusing on ion propulsion systems. It presents calculations to the same effect and briefly delves into both potential power sources and choice of propellants.

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PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES AND GC-MS ANALYSIS OF PROPOLIS TRIGONA SPP. FROM TWO REGIONS IN LAMPUNG PROVINCE OF INDONESIA[ ]


This research was designed to determine the phytochemical components and characteristics of the ethanol extract of propolis Trigona spp. collected from two different areas from Lampung provinces in Indonesia using GC-MS. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of twenty different compounds in ethanol extract of propolis Trigona spp. of West Lampung region. The main phytochemical compounds that are identified from propolis origin West Lampung region is dimethyl amine hydrochloride C2H8ClN as much as 9.71% and twenty compounds identified only twelve compounds were reported to have biological activity. The ethanol extract of propolis Trigona spp. of South Lampung region showed the presence of twelve different bioactive compounds with the highest peak area of 5.92% for methane, tetranitro- (CN4O8), of twelve compounds were identified only eight compounds that are reported to have biological activity. This study showed that propolis origin Indonesia Lampung province is a potential source of natural bioactive compounds for biological and pharmacological applications and has the presence of bioactive compounds that differ from each territory.

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Cost and Benefit Analysis of Rigid and Flexible Pavement: A Case Study at Chancho –Derba-Becho Road Project[ ]


Road construction projects have been implemented all over Ethiopia as part of the national development plan. Roads are one of the country’s basic infrastructural facilities where high amounts of budget allocated every fiscal year planning period. Since the cost comprises of a large portion of government investment, a careful evaluation of the alternatives is utmost importance to make the right choice for a particular project. In the history of Ethiopia road development program, almost all of the road pavements are flexible, and it demands high foreign currency for asphalt material importing from abroad. In addition, flexible pavement needs to be maintained and rehabilitated within a few years after its initial construction. In view of the emerging cement factories and the availability of cement in Ethiopia, it is practical to consider rigid pavement as one of the alternatives.

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HEAVY METALS ANALYSIS OF COAL DEPOSITS AT MAIGANGA IN AKKO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA,GOMBE STATE, NIGERIA[ ]


The effects of toxicity of heavy metals in mining areas in Nigeria have madethe need for analysis of Maiganga coal as adopted by this research to examine its environmental effluence. The analysis of coal sample was carried out by the used of X-ray fluorescence and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). Thetrace metals examined were; lead, nickel, cadmium, calcium, magnesium, and manganese and the values obtained using AAS were;5.53 ppm, 8.2 ppm, 1.54 ppm, 25.2 ppm, 0.41 ppm, and 1.95 ppm respectively. Meanwhile, X-ray fluorescence Spectroscopy revealed that Maiganga coal contained the following metallic oxides of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, TiO2, MnO2, Na2O, with compositions per gramme of 45.67%, 14.85%, 8.56%,11.81%, 4.04%, 1.18%, 0.20% and 0.38% respectively. Non- metal oxides such as; P2O5, and SO3 were also present in small quantities of 0.43% and 12.02%.The result of analysis showed that Maiganga coal contained negligible amount of toxic metals when compared with the WHO recommended standards. The coal was good source of energy compared with any other coal in the world.

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Adverse Effects of Gas Flaring on Galvanized Roofing Sheets and Some Agricultural Crops at Mkpanak, Ibeno Local Government Area of AkwaIbom State[ ]


Gas Flaring in the oil-rich Niger Delta Region of Nigeria continues to degrade the environment, affecting human, animal and plant lives. Even inanimate objects are affected. Increase in temperature of the atmosphere, greenhouse effect, acid rain/acidification of aquatic environment, poor agricultural yields and changes in the ecosystem etc. have been mentioned as some of the adverse effects. A field study was conducted to investigate the adverse effects of gas flaring on galvanized roofing sheets and some agricultural crops at Mkpanak, Ibeno Local Government Area of AkwaIbom State. Corrugated galvanized roofing sheet of length 243.84 cm and width 66.04 cm which has been exposed in use for one year and four months, was collected from the study area and cut to a size of 100 × 100 mm each using metal scissors. There was also general examination of some agricultural crops and farmlands in the area under study. The quantities of Zn, Fe, Mn, Na, Mg, Ca, Cr, Pb and Ni on the sheets were determined.

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EFFICIENT ALGORITHMS FOR MINING OF HIGH UTILITY ITEMSETS[ ]


The utility of an itemset represents its importance, which can be measured in terms of weight, value, quantity or other information depending on the user specification. High utility itemsets mining identifies itemsets whose utility satisfies a given threshold. It allows users to quantify the usefulness or preferences of items using different values. Thus, it reflects the impact of different items. High utility itemsets is useful in decision making process of many applications, such as retail marketing and Web service, since items are actually different in many aspects in real applications. One of its popular applications is market basket analysis, which refers to the discovery of sets of items (itemsets) that are frequently purchased together by customers. However, in this application, the traditional model of FIM may discover a large amount of frequent but low revenue itemsets and lose the information on valuable itemsets having low selling frequencies. We propose a novel framework for mining closed+ high utility itemsets (CHUIs), which serves as a compact and lossless representation of HUIs. We propose three efficient algorithms named AprioriCH (Apriori-based algorithm for mining High utility Closed+ itemsets), AprioriHC-FD (AprioriHC algorithm with Fast Discarding unpromising and isolated items) and FCHUD (Fast Closed+ High Utility itemset Discovery) and the integration of closed itemset mining and high utility itemset mining and find possible to develop other compact representations of high utility itemsets inspired by our work to reduce the number of redundant high utility patterns.

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Intervention for Healthy Lifestyle of Adolescents; A Systematic Descriptive Review[ ]


Prevalence of health related behaviours such as smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet practices which are risk factors for Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) including mental illness are very common among adolescents. However comprehensive intervention studies addressing these lifestyle practices are yet to be initiated especially in developing countries. This systematic descriptive review aims to identify types of interventions, elements and components of interventions addressing lifestyle of adolescents in published literature and propose implication for further research. The primary data search was carried out with predefined protocol in PubMed and additional hand search was one in other electronic data sources. The search resulted in 192 titles. After screening with inclusion and exclusion criteria, fifteen studies were included in the final review. The results are discussed under two categories; lifestyle intervention components and study characteristics. Intervention components emerged from the review were categorized into adolescent focused, parents and family focused and teachers and school focused. Adolescents’ focused intervention components were again subdivided into counseling, theory classes, behaviour and behaviour modification techniques, handbook and text materials, mobile and internet and skill building. Dearth of literature in the area from developing countries and limitations in the existing literature demand for further research.

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Studying of Effect The High Range, Water-Reducer/ Super plasticizer, Retarding admixture on Properties of Concrete[ ]


Due to high temperatures in Iraq, especially in the summer, concrete pouring need to be under certain circumstances, where concrete need to addition some additives to increase the workability and delay the initial setting time.In recent decades, tremendous success has been achieved in the advancement of chemical admixtures for Portland cement. Most efforts have concentrated on improving the properties of concrete and studying the factors that influence on these properties. Since the compressive strength is considered a valuable property and is invariably a vital element of the structural design, especially high early strength development which can be provide more benefits in concrete production, such as reducing construction time and labor and saving the formwork and energy. The effect of superplasticizer and retarding properties of fresh and hardened concrete has studied; the properties of concrete such as slump, compressive strength and water absorption under normally curing concrete, hence, an experimental investigation conducted to determine the optimum dosage for the admixture and to study the effect of over dosage of the mentioned admixture, together with one control mixed. The difference between concrete mixes comes from dosage of admixture, which used at amounts 500,1000,1500 and 2000 ml/ 100 kg of cement were prepared. The test results revealed that effect of admixture on properties of concrete are dependent upon it dosage.

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Corporate Social Responsibility Learning in the Ethiopian Leather and Footwear Industry[ ]


The past few decades have shown an increasing progress towards business role in social and environmental concerns other than business as usual. Such corporate social responsibility role became an important tool for corporate success and inclusive development. To that end, learning business organizations strive to erudite sustainability practices to meet the interests of stakeholders. Applying organizational learning concepts and norm life cycle theory, this study was carried out to investigate CSR learning in the leather and footwear firms of Ethiopia. It was carried out as a qualitative case study, informed by the selected leather and footwear firms, industry association and leather industry development institute along with literature review. Interviews and content analysis of policy/regulatory documents were the main methods employed. Findings show that firms’ learning social responsibility is at emergence stage with the state and foreign market pressure as key motivators. While regulating environmental and labour conditions, the state offers incentives for higher economic responsibility of firms. Then, there exists collaborative learning in the firm-state institutions affinity while civil society organizations are away from nurturing responsible investment. Because firms see each other as rival, there is isolation which deters inter-firm learning.

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Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Lactobacillus spp Isolated from yogurt samples collected from three different places of Lahore[ ]


Lactobacillus is a gram positive, catalase negative, oxidase negative, endospore forming, rod shaped bacteria products. Aim of this study is to know antibiotic susceptibility and resistance of lactobacillus. For this purpose lactobacillus was isolated from a common yogurt sample. Lactobacillus was isolated then identified through gram staining and other biochemical tests. Antibiotic discs in this study (Penicillin, Streptomycin and Norfloxacin) were applied to the isolated colony of lactobacillus. Three samples were collected from different locations of Lahore. The samples collected contained, Milk sample, Yogurt sample and cheese sample. After observing the results it was concluded that Norfloxacin has the higher activity against lactobacillus than that of streptomycin and penicillin. Streptomycin has an intermediate activity, while penicillin has the lowest activity.

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A new R library for discriminating groups based on abundance profile and biodiversity in microbiome metagenomic matrices[ ]


The use of modern molecular techniques in the study of the human microbiome hasrevealed an extraordinary diversity of microorganisms. There has been great interest in associating specific groups of organisms with health and disease. However, little is known about changes in the structure of the microbial community due to changes in the health status of the host. To assessthese changes in the composition and structure of the microbiome, we focused our interest onthe modifications in relative species abundance using metagenomics.

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Sputum conversion rate at 2nd, 5th and 7th months of the anti-TB treatment among sputum smear positive TB patients at nineteen health centers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.[ ]


Background: Microbial Tuberculosis (TB) produces a chronic or acute bacterial infection that primarily attacks the lungs, but which may also affect the kidneys, bones, lymph nodes, and brain. TB is among the three greatest causes of death among women aged 15-44. There were 9.4 million new TB cases in 2009 including 1.1 million cases among people with HIV. In 2007, according to WHO report, DOTS coverage reached 95 percent of the population. Sub-Saharan Africa carried the greatest proportion of new cases per population with over 260 cases per 100, 000 populations in 2011. The objective of this study was to assess sputum conversion rate at 2nd, 5th and 7th months at nineteen health centers for five years on smear positive tuberculosis patients who were taking anti TB treatment.

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