Volume 6, Issue 10, October 2015 Edition

Publication for Volume 6, Issue 10, October 2015.


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Public Service Motivation: Incidence and Antecedents in Pakistan[ ]


The deteriorated performance of public service deliveries in Pakistan is a multifaceted problem. One of the possible solutions could be a reliance on the motivation of public sector employees to serve their fellow citizens. This type of motivation is called public service motivation (PSM), which is a multidimensional construct. However, the very existence and the variation of PSM are dependent upon the socio-historical conditions of a country. Keeping in view the scarcity of research about the concept of PSM in Pakistan, this study has answered two empirical questions. First is about the existence, and the second is about the antecedents of PSM in Pakistan.

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Assessment of the pollution impact in the Winam Gulf[ ]


The pollution of the environment increased considerably in the past century due to industrial expansion, rapid growth of human population as well as the effects of resealed toxic compounds from domestic sewage wastewater systems. In the recent decades the levels of heavy metals in the soils, water and sediments have become critically higher as a result of sewage water and sewage sludge on agricultural fields, around industrial cities and along main roads. It is therefore necessary to periodically monitor the levels of heavy metals within cities so as to take remediation measures. Water samples from eight sites in Winam Gulf were analysed for heavy metals in order to assess the impact of anthropogenic activities on heavy metal input into the Lake. Three samples from each sampling site were mixed to form composite, digested using HNO3 and HCl and analyzed for heavy metals using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Measurements of electrical conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO) and total dissolved solids (TDS) were done at the sampling sites. The TDS were within the WHO permissible range except for R. Kissat which had a higher value of 799.5 mg/L. The mean values of DO were, however, lowest at R. Kissat (0.7) ppm. Other sites like Tilapia beach, Yatch and Dunga had also low DO values. The electrical conductivity values in the study area were found to be in the range of 372.3 at R. Kibos to 1239 µS/cm at R. Kissat. R. Kissat had the highest level of salinity (0.6 PSU), while R. Kibos had the lowest level (0.18 PSU). The levels of trace heavy metals in most of the samples were above WHO standard. The levels of heavy metals show that the Winam Gulf is highly polluted and there is need to come up with strategies to clean up using biosorption technique.

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DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF MULTI BAND RECTANGULAR MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA FOR C BAND AND X BAND APPLICATIONS[ ]


Nowadays, due to a continuous growth in communication users, It is required to develop the antennas offering wide bandwidth. In this paper antenna described for the broadband finite ground plane. The antenna designed with 11.4051mm× 8.388mm radiating copper patch with ground plane design with 21.0051mm x17. 988mm. The primary radiating elements are rectangular microstrip patch antenna in the upper side with probe feed and use finite ground plane are inverted U shaped printed slot for four different frequency applications which is smaller in size compared to other available multiband antennas. From the result, it is observed that, the return loss of -15.71 dB is achieved at the first resonant frequency of 6.72414 GHz, -26.33 dB at the second resonant frequency of 8.27 GHz, -20.79 dB at the fourth resonant frequency of 11.38 GHz and -14.46 dB at the fifth resonant frequency of 14.48 GHz. This slot coupled microstrip patch antenna for satellite communication having a multi band operation covering C and X band along with wide bandwidth.

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GENERALIZED RELATIVE ORDER OF FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL COMPLEX VARIABLE ANALYTIC IN THE UNIT POLYDISC[ ]


Through out in this paper we consider generalized relative order of a function of several complex variable analytic in the unit poly disc with respect to an entire function and prove several theorems.

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Performance analysis of relay selection scheme for amplify and forward protocol in rayleigh fading environment[ ]


In this paper a relay selection scheme for amplify and forward relaying is proposed to select one relay from multi-relay networks. The selected relay by the proposed algorithm cooperates only if the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the source-relay-destination link is greater than the SNR of the source-destination link. A theoretical bit error rate performance of the proposed scheme is derived. Computer simulations are performed to validate the theoretical developments. The outage probability of the proposed scheme is simulated for different threshold value. Moreover, a power allocation algorithm based on bit error rate minimization is applied. The performance of the proposed relay selection scheme is compared with other existing schemes.

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Li-Fi': Data Transmission through illumination[ ]


It is often frustrating when the slow speed of network leads to limited connectivity and long processing hours while using wireless internet either at home network or coffee shop or airport or competing for bandwidth at a conference. As more and more users are tapped in with their devices, the clogged airwaves make it difficult to latch on a reliable signal.

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ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF DIESEL-DEGRADING BACTERIA FROM OIL CONTAMINATED SOIL IN MANSEHRA, PAKISTAN[ ]


The present work was conducted to isolate and identify bacteria from oil- contaminated soil to evaluate their role in biodegradation of commercial diesel under laboratory conditions. Diesel fuels are used by different vehicles, diesel generators and especially heavy transport vehicles. Its manufacturing, transportation, utilization and disposal have the threat to pollute the surrounding environment. Biodegradation is one of the biological processes to remediate the pollutants. This is the cheaper and easy method as compared to other methods like direct burning, land foaming and bioventing because diesel smoke has a carcinogenic effect.

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FACTORS LEADING TO BRAND SWITCHING IN CELLULAR PHONES: A CASE OF PAKISTAN[ ]


The purpose of this study is to analyze those factors which influence brand switching in cellular phones in Karachi city. Now Pakistan has emerged as the fastest growing market in the world. Mobile phones are now becoming the necessity of life. Day-by-day competition is now becoming more complex among the well-known mobile phone companies.

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE QUALITY OF SERVICE OF GSM NETWORK DURING CROWD UPSURGE IN UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, NIGERIA.[ ]


Despite the fact that GSM network have been in Nigeria for more than a decade, it is widely observed that each time there is a major event in a certain location and there is movement of people to that area, it is always very difficult to get a call through within the period by which the event is holding. The ultimate purpose of the research is to establish a baseline that correlates network quality and performance within an area with the upsurge of people during major events and characterize such areas where improvement can be achieved in terms of upgrading and optimizing the network elements preparatory to such events taking place. In addition to finding bottlenecks militating against optimal network performance, this work aims to identify the cause or the limiting factor impeding good quality of service and hence, select a management action to remove the problems and safeguard quality of service degradations.

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PREVALENCE OF SUBCLINICAL THYROID DISORDERS AND ITS CORRELATION WITH AGE AND SEX, AMONGST NIGERIANS RESIDING WITHIN ABAKALIKI METROPOLIS[ ]


Introduction: The prevalence and incidence of thyroid disorders is influenced primarily by sex and age. Age and sex significance in the prevalence of subclinical thyroid disorders among Nigerians residing within Abakaliki metropolis was established in the study.

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IMPACT OF AIR TEMPERATURE IN THERMAL COMFORT OF INDOORS OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN UMUAHIA URBAN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA[ ]


Achieving indoor thermal comfort in residential buildings, is very essential, because little we do take place outside. Most residences in Umuahia urban of Abia State Nigeria are cells of unhappiness because their indoors are thermally uncomfortable, thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of air temperature in thermal comfort of residential buildings in Umauhia urban. This was achieved by carrying out air temperature measurement and questionnaire survey of some randomly selected residences in the area to determine the thermal perception of inmates, also evaluate thermal performances of the same residences in response to air temperature. The experiment took place in rainy and dry seasons of 2012, 108 respondents were obtained from twenty seven (27) residences. Data loggers, digital thermometers and measuring tapes were major instruments used, while thermal comfort parameters measured were air temperature, relative humidity and air velocity. The result revealed that 70.3% of the residences did not achieve acceptable indoor thermal comfort, while 69.1% of the respondents voted discomfort. Analysis of respondents also revealed that the inhabitants of the residents with unacceptable temperature, also voted discomfort, thus agreeing with the study index. It was discovered that the residences failed, due to their designs. The study recommended that all building designs originate from the architect.

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IMPACT OF DISCOUNT RATES ON STOCK PRICES: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR OF KARACHI[ ]


How the stock prices of the stock reacts to the changes in discount rates is an important factor to the overall risk assessment of any particular stock .Discount rate is the interest rate at which banks and other financial institutions borrow credit from the Federal Reserve bank (state bank of Pakistan) The discount rate turn out to be the base interest rate for most customer borrowing as well because banks usually discount rate is used as a benchmark for the interest charged on the loans by most of the banks. Whereas, A share price is the price of a solo share of a number of marketable stocks of a company, derivative or other financial asset. The stock price is the maximum amount somebody is eager to pay for the stock, or the lowest amount that it can be accepted for. Some empirical studies have been done on the topic in the past taken in account the relationship of discount rates with the stock prices and the stock return.

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BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS FOR NABLA FRACTIONAL DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS OF ORDER LESS THAN ONE[ ]


In this paper, a fractional order (0 < < 1) nabla difference equation satisfying two point boundary conditions is considered. Existence and uniqueness of solutions are established using contraction mapping theorem and nonlinear contraction mapping theorem. The results are illustrated by some examples.

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The Dielectric Properties of Rat Kidney upon Exposing To Low Static Magnetic Field Intensities[ ]


The aim of the present work is intended to evaluate the effect of static magnetic field (SMF) on rat's kidney. The rats were exposed to SMF of intensities of 10, 14, 18 and 22 milliTisla (mT) for a whole week for one hour daily. The dielectric properties, permittivity (?), electrical conductivity (s), loss tangent (tand), and relaxation time (ts), were measured to the rat’s kidneys over frequency range of 1 kHz to 1 MHz, before, immediately after exposure, and after one week of exposure. The results showed that there are significant differences in the dielectric properties of samples under investigation compared to the control (no SMF irradiation). The relaxation time showed significant variants of rat's kidney upon irradiation to SMF intensities, especially the 10 mT dose.

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