Volume 6, Issue 10, October 2015 Edition

Publication for Volume 6, Issue 10, October 2015.


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A Framework for Prioritizing Intervention Projects in Slums[ ]


Slums represent major national challenges in developing countries. Various intervention strategies can be adopted to upgrade and/or replace slums, but are often faced with serious challenges; including planning, construction, social, and economic challenges. Selecting the most suitable intervention strategies for each slum area and determining the priorities of these intervention startegies are important goals in the development process. This paper presents a novel and comprehensive framework that is capable of supporting planning authorities in identifying (1) the needed intervention strategies for the slums area and (2) the optimal priorities among these intervention projects. In the proposed framework, decision are made taking into consideration three main factors; namely (1) the priority package within which an intervention project can be classified; (2) the benefit to cost ratio for each project; and (3) the construction sequence within the same area. In lieu of this analysis, the proposed framework computes an urgency factor and a vector of benefits indices for each intervention project. This paper also presents an application example to demonstrate the potentials of the proposed framework.

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Adsorption Treatment of Industrial Paint Effluent for the Removal of Pollutants by Local Clays[ ]


The use of local clay as an adsorbent for the removal of metal ions, such as, lead, chromium, silver, iron and copper from paint effluent, was investigated. In this work, adsorption of these metals onto the modified clays was studied through a process involving coagulation. Satisfactory results were obtained. Local clays have been considered a potential adsorbent for the removal of pollutants from industrial paint effluent. The effective application of local clays for effluent treatment is limited due to small surface area and presence of net negative surface charge leading to its low adsorption capacity. This work was focused towards modifying the physical structure and chemical properties of the clay to maximize its adsorption capacity. The problem of clean water can be solved by treating industrial and municipal waste water with modified clays. The treated effluents were analyzed for the concentration of chromium, potassium, lead, magnesium, manganese, iron, cobalt, sodium, silver, mercury and cadmium. Also some gross organic pollution indicators such as biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) as well as pH, acidity, alkalinity, turbidity, hardness and total dissolved solids (TDS) of the effluents were determined. The study showed a percentage removal of over 50% for all the contaminants. The modified clay was at its best performance when calcined at 650oC. The results of this study showed that the modified clays were appropriate for the treatment of industrial paint effluent.

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Dynamic Analysis of Soil Structure Interaction of Pile Supported Frame Structure[ ]


The Soil-pile-structure interaction is a complex phenomenon and which can affect the response of structure during dynamic excitation such as earthquake. To deal with such complexities, it is necessary to use numerical methods like Finite Elements for analyzing system behavior under dynamic excitation. In this paper, a five storied (G+4) two bay frame structures supported by pile group is considered for evaluation of structural response and soil structure interaction during transient event. The pile group is embedded in sandy soil mass. To simplify the full nonlinear transient dynamic problem, load time history is applied on edge of top structure beam in a lateral direction with triangular wave to predict structure response in one cycle. A Finite element method (FEM) based approach is used to model structure in ANSYS Mechanical using full transient method. The analysis load boundary conditions are derived from United States (US) Geological Survey for the creation of global shake map. This loads are typically observed high acceleration and damage levels during earth quake in past. The entire system is studied for five different peak loads with same frequency and structural responses are compared with and without soil effect under same dynamic load.

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An approach for selecting the optimum and effective combinations of machines based on specific operations using fuzzy multi-criteria decision making model[ ]


In manufacturing systems, inputs are transformed into an output by gathering inputs in an optimal way to guide the manufacturer. Machining process plays a prominent role in industry, and thus, directly affects the efficiency of the manufacturing systems. Due to highly competitive global market, the organizations are now forced to focus more on increasing productivity while decreasing cost and time by right selection of the combination of machines. Proper selection of machines justifies labor saving, improved product quality and increased production rate with enhanced overall productivity. Evaluation and selection of a combination of machines is a complex decision-making problem involving multiple conflicting criteria. Due to different importance of the conflicting criterions, the multi-criteria decision-making methods are extremely useful in the selection process of the proper machining type. This study provides distinct systematic approaches in fuzzy environments to deal with the selection problem of proper combination of machines and proposes a decision support model for the guidance of decision makers to assess potentials of four distinct traditional machining processes, namely Lathe machine, Drill machine, Grinding machine and Milling machine, in the operational process of mild steel bar of length 6 inch and diameter 0.8mm. The required data for decision and weight matrices are obtained via a questionnaire to specialists, personal trials as well as by deep discussions with experts. . Finally, an application of the proposed model is also performed and the desired combination of machines is obtained.

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Antifungal potential and Phytochemical Screening of Combretum molle leaves and stem-bark against Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid.[ ]


Combretum molle (Combretaceae) is reputed in folklore medicine for its anti-infective properties. In this study, the antifungal potential of Combretum molle leaves and stem bark extracts on the plant pathogenic fungi Macrophomina phaseolina was investigated. Combretum molle powdered plant was extracted using acetone and methanol and phytochemical screening revealed the presence of Saponins, Triterpenes, glycosides, phenols, alkaloids and anthraquinones. The stem bark extracts showed more bioactivity than the leaf extract. Agar diffusion and broth dilution techniques were used to determine the antifungal activity of the plant extracts against Macrophomina phaseolina. Both solvent extracts showed activity against the test organism with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) between 5mg/ml and 0.625mg/ml. The results justify the wide use of Combretum molle in African traditional medicine and also hold clues for plant derived compounds in the development of ecofriendly fungicides for better crop health and yield in agroforestry.

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Influence of Different Recess Technology in GaN HEMTs[ ]


Recess Technologies in GaN HEMTs were simulated to check the influence of recess in device improvement process.In this work different recess are consider and their influence on the device characteristic is carried out. Gate recess improves device transconductance but main drawback of this is reduction in drain current. For most of the sensing and communication device applications both drain current (Id) and transconductance (gm) should be reasonably high. To achive this different recess depths combination are simulated a combination of 10nm Gate and Ohmic recess shows good balanced value of transconductance (gm) and drain current(Id) without any leakage current.

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Performance Validation of the Modified K-Means Clustering Algorithm Clusters Data[ ]


In this paper, we present the Modified K-Means Clustering algorithm Analysis and performance, the clustering analysis can be used to partition the cluster data with number of choice clusters and perform each cluster if it can form properly or not and it can pertain by using the silhouette coefficient method. In this one the silhouette coefficient can apply on the group of author’s H- and G-indices with same or different features [1]. The silhouette coefficient analysis can be used to separate the distance from each resulting clusters, the silhouette value measures and shows how each point in one cluster with other points in another cluster and also visually it provides how those cluster are formed with effectively the main functionality of the clustering analysis is to identify the quality assessment of the clustering results. The silhouette index investigated and suggests that the use of the preprocessor improves the quality of clusters significantly for the h and g indices data sets. Furthermore, it is then shown that the modified K-means algorithm good quality, compact and well-separated clusters of the h and g indices data

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Comparative Evaluation of Different Digital Modulation Schemes on AWGN, LOS and Non-LOS Fading Channels Based on BER Performance[ ]


In this paper, Comparative Evaluation of Different Digital Modulation Schemes on AWGN, LOS and Non-LOS Fading Channels Based on BER Performance has been achieved. Digital modulation schemes such as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Frequency Shift Keying (FSK), Phase Shift Keying (PSK), Differential Phase shift Keying (DPSK) and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) play fundamental roles in the performance of all digital communication systems. In this paper, the evaluation of three different digital modulation schemes i.e. 16-QAM, 64-QAM and 16-DPSK are compared based on Bit Error Rate (BER) performed on Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN), Line of Sight (Rician) and Non Line of Sight (Rayleigh) Fading Channels to identify a suitable digital modulation scheme. The data modulation and data rate were considered to analyze the performance i.e. Bit Error Rate (BER) vs. Signal Noise ratio (SNR).The entire process was modeled in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. Based on simulation results, it is observed that among the three digital modulation schemes, 16-QAM showed better performance as compared to 64-QAM and 16- DPSK.

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SIMULATION AND EVALUATION OF OFDM BASED DIGITAL VIDEO BROADCASTING (DVB) OVER DIFFERENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHANNELS[ ]


Digital video broadcasting (DVB) is the television digital system. It’s however much more than a simple replacement for existing analogue television transmission, this system has many advantages such as picture quality and allows you a range of new features and services including subtitling, multiple audio tracks, interactive content and multimedia content. The main purpose of this paper is to develop and simulate a DVB system using the Matlab software – the language of Technical Computing.

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Formulation and Evaluation of Matrix Membrane Moderated Transdermal Patches of Bosentan Monohydrate[ ]


The main aim of the study was to develop matrix membrane moderated transdermal drug delivery systems of Bosentan Monohydrate and to study the effect of different rate controlling membranes on the drug release pattern. The drug reservoir membranes were prepared by using HPMC and rate controlling membranes by HPMC K4M, HPMC K 15M, HPMC K 100M and E RL PO. The effect of rate controlling membrane on drug release pattern was studied by in-vitro and ex-vivo methods. All the formulated transdermal patches were tested for physical appearance and pharmacotechnical properties. F3 (HPMC K4M: ERL PO 1:0.4) has shown a drug release of 93.93±1.23% in 24 h with a flux of 2.101±0.021 (µg/cm2/h). In case of HPMC K15M and HPMC K100M the drug release prolonged for more than 24h. Drug release kinetics was interpreted by using different kinetic models and the drug release followed mixed order kinetics, non-fickian diffusion model. The drug release mainly depended on the swelling behavior and matrix erosion of the polymer in rate controlling membrane. Stability studies were conducted according to ICH guidelines and the formulations were found to be stable. Ex vivo studies has shown a significant decrease in drug release compared to in vitro and F3 with highest drug release was selected for further studies. Based on the above studies it can be revealed that by using rate controlling membrane desirable release patterns can be obtained and the films were found to be physically acceptable and are more durable.

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Innovations in the worth of Cloud Computing[ ]


In the last few years Information Technology reach the new heights. In which the concept of cloud computing is an innovative way that accelerate the revolution that cloud organization provide more reliable service, software and infrastructural facility anytime and anywhere to its users. Cloud computing is a different way to deliver computer resource rather than a new technology; the paper defines the value of cloud computing and conventional Grid computing and its major components. This paper also highlights the advantages and disadvantages of cloud computing.

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Security and Integrity of documents by using novel algorithm of Stegnography[ ]


In Stegnography, one message is hidden inside another, without disclosing the existence of the hidden message, it apparent to an observer that this message contains a hidden message. Moreover, the information hidden by a watermarking system is always associated with the object to be protected or its owner while steganographic systems just hide information. On the other hand, cryptography can be defined as the study of secret writing (i.e. concealing (hide) the contents of a secret message by transforming the original message into a form that cannot be easily interpreted by an observer). The method considered here (diffusion and confusion) can be easily used in both applications. The hidden message can be transformed into a diffused form (i.e encrypted) and inserted into the background. The hidden information might have no relation with the text (foreground). At the same time, backgrounds are usually used with documents and so dif-fused data will not necessarily trigger the attention of an observer. Moreover, the hidden message is also encrypted which increases the security level of such documents.

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Effect of Surface modified f-CNTs on the Electrical and Mechanical Properties in Polymer blend (PC/PMMA/PS) to form Polymer Nano composites (f-PCNCS)[ ]


Nano composites PCNs and f-PCNs were prepared by a mixture of PC/PMMA/PS polymer blend, MWCNTs and functionalized f-MWCNTs by simple oxidation reaction carried in a mixture of acids HNO3, HCl, H2SO4.The functionalized f-MWCNTs were incorporated into polymer blend matrix at varying ratio of 0.1% and 0.3% at 260oC and 270oC to prepare polymer Nano composites (PNCS).The new prepared Nano composites, pure polymer and polymer blend (PC/PMMA/PS) were characterized by FTIR to check the nature of the sample. It was found that remarkable improvement in mechanical and electrical properties was observed in the case of composites made by functionalized CNTs and polymer blend.

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Improving the IEEE 802.11 WLAN Handoff process to support multimedia traffic[ ]


The multimedia services such as Voice over IP(VoIP), video conferencing, live telecast, video streaming can be provided to clients or users in IEEE 802.11 WLAN. Mobility management is an important problem of IEEE 802.11 WLAN. For de-ployment of fast real-time services, it needs stringent Quality of Services(QoS) requirements such as for bandwidth, throughput, delay, jitter and packet loss rate. . The provisions for improving the IEEE 802.11 handoff latency, there are area of improvements in the following three parameters transmission delay, delay variation and packet loss ratio. This proposed protocol improves the overall handoff interruption time as compared to MISH protocol and legacy handoff protocol along with delay of 77.67ms abiding the stringent requirements for seamless running multimedia services of less than 150ms delay for IEEE 802.11 WLAN users.

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Irrigational quality of Vamanapuram River, Kerala, India[ ]


Surface water is treated as an important source for irrigation around the world. The composition and concentration of dissolved components in water determine its quality for irrigation. One of the important considerations of water quality for irrigation is the saline or alkaline nature of the water. Characteristics of irrigational water can vary with the source of the water which may directly affects the management of soils and crops, and their associations. Assessment of irrigational quality of Vamanapuram river was carried out by means of Electrical Conductivity (EC) or Salinity index, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Chlorinity Index (CI), Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Soluble Sodium percentage (SSP) or Per cent Sodium (Na%), Residual Sodium Carbonates (RSC), Residual Sodium Bicarbonates (RSBC), Magnesium Adsorption Ratio (MAR), Permeability index (PI), Kelly’s Ratio (KR), Corrosivity Ratio (CR) and Hardness. Water resources in the highland and midland parts of the study area (i.e., S1 to S16 and T1to T3) are within the range. Samples from lowland are highly influenced by salinity, Fe and chlorinity.

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Prediction of surge height due to tropical storms for the coast of Bangladesh[ ]


In this paper an estimate of surge height associated with tropical storms is done for the coast of Bangladesh. For this purpose, a vertically integrated model in cylindrical polar coordinate system is developed. Nested numerical schemes were exercised in this study to save computer memory space and to avoid numerical instability as is appropriate for operating forecasting purpose. Vertically integrated shallow water equations are solved using a semi-implicit finite difference technique. Offshore islands of the whole coastal belt along with coastal bending are incorporated through proper stair step representation. The developed model is applied to estimate surge height at different coastal and island locations of Bangladesh associated with the severe cyclonic storm ‘AILA’ that hit the coast of Bangladesh recently. The result obtained by the model is found to be satisfactory with observed and reported results obtained through various investigators.

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Medium Optimization for PHB depolymerase production by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia using Plackett Burman design & Response Surface Methodology[ ]


The present study focuses on the optimization of the media component by the statistical way for the production of PHB depolymerase enzyme (E.C. no 3.1.1.75) by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The most important process parameters which enhance the PHB depolymerase production were screened using Plackett-Burman design. Among all the media components, PHB and pH were identified as significant variables. Further, optimal levels of these significant variables found by response surface methodology were, PHB; 0.13 g/100ml and pH 7.5. More than 2 fold increase in PHB depolymerase yield (1.501 U/ml) was obtained by using a statistical optimization approach vis-à-vis enzyme production under un-optimized conditions i.e. 0.721 U/ml activity. Moreover, validation of the model in response surface methodology reflected the accuracy and precision of the model and experimental set up. The predicted values of response surface methodology shows good correlation with the experimental values. Scale up study at bioreactor level revealed maximum PHB depolymerase production and yielded as 3.137U/ml activity.

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AWARENESS OF EDIBLE WINGED TERMITE (Macrotermes natalensis) AS A FOOD IN SELECTED COMMUNITIES OF IMO AND RIVERS STATES, NIGERIA[ ]


Inadequacy of information on available animal protein sources has been the major cause of increasing deficits in annual protein consumption in Sub Saharan Africa. Macrotermes natalensis is an edible insect, rich in animal protein and other vital nutrients but its level of awareness as regards edibility is unknown. This study examined people’s level of awareness of the edible insect in the study area, assessed the effect of demographic characteristics on its awareness, and investigated various methods of Harvesting, Processing and Marketing the species in the study area. Data for this study were collected through a set of questionnaires which was complimented with oral interviews and field observations. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as percentages, tables and charts while Chi-square was used to test for associations. Macrotermes natalensis is known by all respondents (100%) in the study area.

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Sustainable Road Transportation Practices in Nigeria.[ ]


This study focused on the Problems associated with Carbon emission level in Nigeria, the sustainable practices adopted in Nigerian Road Transport Industry to alleviate these problems, challenges it has faced and possible ways to overcome these challenges. Data was collected from secondary sources like journals, websites and Newspaper Articles. Findings revealed that despite the varying views on Global warming , the Nigerian Government have adopted practices like BRT scheme, lane and Carpooling and Organisations aspire for a future of low carbon by adopting sustainable practices in a comprehensive life cycle approach.

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Detection of Alive Human body in Military Area[ ]


The wireless communication technology are rapidly spreading to new areas such as data acquisition , building control , monitoring system and many more. These technology are also use in military area.Most of the military organization takes the help of robot for solving many risky jobs that cannot be done by the soldiers.The propose robotic system detect alive human body in military area. These system uses a specific set of sensors and a wireless camera. There are two modes where robotic system is worki.e manually operate mode and user controllable mode. Robot works in manually operated mode in which all sensor are functional for automatic action and in user controllable mode user sends the signal to robot using RF module and control it manually.

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Kinetics of Direct Reduction El-Baharia (Egypt) iron ore pellets in static bed via Hydrogen[ ]


El-Baharia iron ore is a source of iron in iron and steel Co. in Egypt. This iron ore will be used for producing iron by direct reduction of iron ore pellets using hydrogen as a reducing agent. Pellets reduction was examined under different conditions of changing hydrogen flow rate, and temperature ranging from (600oC to 950oC). The results showed that increasing both flow rate and temperature affect positively on reduction rate. The reduction kinetics was studied and it proved that the reduction controlling step was diffusion through thin ash layer with activation energy of 60.55 KJ/mole.

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Estimating the Impact on the Nigeria Crude Oil Export from 2002 to 2013. (An Arima-Intervention Analysis)[ ]


This research was done within the framework of intervention analysis to evaluate and estimate the impact of the financial crisis which became a global issue from January 2008, on Nigeria crude oil export. Secondary data on monthly crude oil export was obtained from the Nigeria National Petroleum Cooperation (NNPC) annual statistical bulletin from 2002 to 2013. The 72 months pre-intervention series was used to identify a seasonal ARIMA (0, 1, 1) (0, 1, 1)12 model, with differencing required at lags 1 and 12 to achieve stationarity. Based on the pre-intervention series model, the full intervention model was obtained. The parameters of the SARIMA and intervention models were found to be statistically significant, p-value < 0.05 respectively. The study revealed a significant 11.6 million barrels reduction in crude oil export and a significant long run effect of 7.6 million barrels. The overall intervention model was significant at 5% level based on the Ljung-Box test.

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Implementation of a Carry Look-Ahead Adder circuit using Reversible Logic[ ]


Conventional irreversible gates have been firmly established to have a loss of energy equal to kT ln(2) joule per lost bit. This is due to the loss of information at every gate that has unequal number of inputs and outputs. Reversible logic based technologies provide a way around these losses. Reversible logic is highly useful in nanotechnology, low power design and quantum computing. This paper proposes a design for a faster adder using reversible gates.

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Fuzzy Logic Control of Maximum Power Point Tracking for Inverter based Wind Generators[ ]


This research work presents the wind energy conversion system with maximum power tracking system using an expert system like fuzzy logic. The extraction of the maximum possible power available wind energy is an important area of research among the speed sensorless MPPT control of wind area. This paper presents a power point tracking (MPPT) Technique for high performance wind turbine with induction machines based on expert systems (Fuzzy logic control). The reference speed of the machine is then calculated based on the control of the Tip Speed ratio (TSR). Voltage oriented control of the machine is further integrated with an expert sensorless technique. The fuzzy logic control is proposed here to evaluate the maximum power tracking point by the simulation and the results are shown.

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Experimental Study on Creep behavior of Stone Mastic Asphalt by Using of Nano Al2O3[ ]


In recent years, many researches were done to improve service life of asphalt pavement quality against vehicles dynamic loads. For this purpose, researchers investigated different ways such as changing the aggregate gradation and using of additive material to modify bitumen and asphalt mixture. One of this ways is using of additive materials to improve asphalt properties against dynamic loads. Due to unique characteristics of nano materials, using of them in asphalt mixtures has been interested. Therefore, in this study the effect of Nano Al2O3 in improvement of creep behavior of stone mastic asphalt (SMA) has been investigated. To achieve this goal, mixtures with different content of bitumen and nano Al2O3 are made and the effects of nano Al2O3 on the SMA mixtures are investigated. The results show that adding of nano Al2O3 had great effects on improvement of permanent deformation of SMA mixtures.

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A Study of Hierarchical Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks[ ]


Wireless sensor networks consist of miniaturized battery powered spatially distributed autonomous sensor nodes with constrained computational capability. Due to the limitation of the communication range, packet forwarding in sensor networks is usually performed through multi-hop data transmission. The routing protocol in sensor network must ensure uniform energy distribution across the network, quickly converge irrespective of the network node density, and be flexible in terms of the routing framework and route computation metric. The growing interest in sensor network and the continual emergence of new architectural techniques inspired surveying the characteristics, applications and communication protocols for such a technical area. In this survey, we have reviewed the significant topology control algorithms of hierarchical networks, to provide insights how energy efficiency has been achieved by design and present a comprehensive study of different topology control techniques for sensor networks. For this protocol family, we have provided a didactic presentation of the basic concept, a discussion on the enhancements and variants on that concept and a detailed description with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages of those latest state-of-the-art protocols. Depending on the outcomes of our literature survey, we have identified a number of open research issues for achieving energy efficiency in the development of hierarchical routing protocols for wireless sensor networks.

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Elemental Analysis of Soil Samples by Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) Technique[ ]


Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), an ion beam based analytical technique has been used to analyze the essential and toxic elements in soil at ppm levels. These samples were collected from different residential locations of Rajshahi Bangladesh. The interest, very specifically, was used to investigate whether the toxic elements etc., were present in the samples; and if it were so, to see whether the concentration of these show any significant variation with season and the sampling time. 15 soil samples were prepared and analyzed by PIXE technique. Iron content in the samples studied was found remarkably high, among all of the chemical elements in the soil samples while the mean concentration of Chlorine and Chromium were very low.

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