Volume 6, Issue 10, October 2015 Edition

Publication for Volume 6, Issue 10, October 2015.


IJSER Research Group http://www.ijser.org/forum/index.php Register for IJSER Research Forum      IJSER Xplore IJSER Xplore Research Paper Database

Pages   [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [U]
 



Production of Biogas from Different Ratios of Rice Husk and Kitchen Waste[ ]


Production of biogas produced from different ratio of rice husk and kitchen waste was conducted under anaerobic conditions. The experiment included loading three different mix ratios of 3:1, 1:3 and 1:1 of rice husks and kitchen waste respectively diluted with the same amount of water before being mixed in varied proportions. 75g of rice husks and 25g of kitchen waste was mixed with water and loaded into digester A. 25g of rice husks and 75g of kitchen waste was mixed with water and loaded into digester B. Finally, 50g of rice husks and 50g of kitchen waste was mixed with water and loaded into digester C. Each treatment was performed once. Biogas production was measured for a period of 14 days and the volume of gas produced was determined by water displacement method at different temperatures. Biogas production started on the 2nd day, and reached apex on the 9th day for digester A. For digester B, biogas production started on the 1st day and attained maximum on 9th day. Production reached its peak on the 9th day for digester C. The total gas production for digesters A, B and C were 19.30ml, 28.42ml, and 24.94ml respectively at different temperature. The study shows that the largest volume of biogas production was obtained using the 1:3 mix ratio of rice husks and kitchen waste, while also the 1:1 mix ratio of rice husks and kitchen waste as compared to 1:3 mix ratio respectively has more yield. Therefore, kitchen waste is effective for the production of biogas than rice husks. Finally, for a developing country like Nigeria, where wastes are not productively used, wastes generated from animals and plant wastes can be effectively managed through conversion into biogas. Wastes are therefore turned to wealth which increases the income generation of the society.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Windows Bioinformatics Platform: Approach for Molecular Docking in Drug Discovery[ ]


There are many reasons may cause effort useless, impossible or incapacitating in traditional drug discovery, e.g. the traditional way of development a new drugs takes 10-15 years and costs 400-800 millions US dollars, and complex diseases like cancer are regulated by large, interconnected networks with many pathways affecting cell proliferation, invasion, and drug resistance reaching to deadlock [18]. The fact that most of bioinformatics tools based on linux environment when try to dock using open source the Autodock Vina (a next generation of Autodock 4) in drug discovery and avoided working under windows platform (which is common in use) because from view of practice it has some gaps/drowbacks. This research offers the development of high-throughput method in both biology and chemistry that can be used the bioinformatics tools in drug discovery, as insilico method in drug discovery based on molecular docking using Windows platform, and solving all technical problems which contained it. The experimental result reveals the suggested approach gives windows platform results matching to linux platform, i.e. experimental result shows solving all the conjugation bugs/gaps to the windows platform when implementing the docking procedure.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Application of Thermodynamic Models to Hydrate Formation Prediction during Surface Production Well Testing Using the Ratio Factor Method[ ]


Hydrate formation, one of the problems encountered during surface production well testing, is governed by many factors including, the kinetics and thermodynamics of the system. In this paper, a thermodynamic model which centres on changes in the Langmuir constant of the guest molecule(s) under operating field conditions as crucial parameter in hydrate formation process is presented. Acquired surface production well testing data (pressure, temperature and choke size) from a hydrate well using a real time data acquisition system were used to determine the effect of choke size variation on Langmuir constant and thus on hydrate formation. A generalized correlation for evaluating Langmuir constant for large cage/cavity under field conditions was developed and expanded to incorporate variations on the choke sizes. The developed model shows that as the choke size increases, Langmuir constant decreases leading to decrease in the rate of hydrate formation. Since the driving force for hydrate formation is the product of fugacity and Langmuir constant, it then follows that as Langmuir constant approaches zero due to increasing choke size, this product also approaches zero thereby leading to zero hydrate formation.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The geological and geotechnical properties of earth materials of Plateau State University, Nigeria in relation to its suitability for facility layout[ ]


This study aims at establishing the sub-soil types and profile to ascertain the geotechnical characteristics of the underlying soils in Plateau State University, Nigeria and recommend appropriate foundation design and construction of projects in the area. Ten (10) trial pits were dugged from where representation samples were taken and subjected to laboratory tests. They are predominantly fines (silt and clay), an indication of its great influence on the engineering properties of the soil as a whole. From the plasticity values, the soils exhibits low to medium swelling potential of 11 – 23.6. The bearing capacity of the soil at 1.5m as compared with the standard values of net bearing capacity of North central zone which is between 250-500 KN/m2 is within the recommended standard for engineering works as by calculation stands at an average of 1131. 6kN/m2. Considering the moderate compressibility of the soils, any proposed foundation in the area should be supported on raft foundations founded. However, where the project precludes the use of raft foundation pile foundation should be employed to transmit the load to the underlying soil stratum.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidaemic Effect of Allium Cepa in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes[ ]


Type 2 diabetes is a global public health crisis that threatens the economies of all nations, particularly developing countries. It is generally characterized by hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia culminating in severe morbidities. Epidemiologic studies and randomized clinical trials show that type 2 diabetes is largely preventable through diet and lifestyle modifications without major recourse to pharmacological measures. This study aimed to assess the antidiabetic and antilipidaemic activities of Allium cepa (onions) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into eight (8) groups of five rats each (n=5). Groups 1a and 2a served as the control groups. Diabetes was induced in the rats by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60mg/kg). The normoglycaemic groups (1b, 1c and 1d) and the streptozotocin-induced diabetic groups (2b, 2c and 2d) were treated with graded doses of A. cepa extract (ACE) (0.4g/100gbw, and 0.6g/100gbw) and metformin (0.5g/100gbw) respectively 28days. The body weights and fasting glucose level of the animals were monitored weekly. At the end of the experiment the rats were sacrificed, blood samples were centrifuged to obtain the serum for biochemical analysis. The pancreases were excised for histological study. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS statistical tool and expressed as mean±SEM. Results show that ACE caused an increase in the average weight at the end of the experiments in all non-diabetic animals treated with varying doses of Allium cepa. Fasting blood glucose levels of diabetic rats was reduced by 50.00% and 35.05% on administration of 0.4g/100gbw and 0.6g/100gbw of Allium cepa respectively. Treatment with Allium cepa significantly (p<0.05) decreased the total cholesterol level (0.4gm/100gm [230.22±15.79], 0.6gm/100gm [220.75±21.06] in a dose dependent manner. The levels of triglycerides (180.10±15.64), high density lipoprotein (80.15±2.97) and low density lipoprotein (224.22±32.88) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats studied. Histology of the pancreas showed evidence of aplastic islet cells that were not healed by the Allium cepa or metformin. In conclusion, Allium Cepa (EXTRACT) demonstrated significant antidiabetic and antilipidemic activities in diabetic rat, but the mechanism needs to be established.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Simulations of Seepage Flows in Dam Subjected to Varying Phretic Levels[ ]


New Ede dam embankment is loosed and permeable and results from previous report established the possibility of erosion of fine particles from upstream to downstream of the dam embankment. Seepage problem was also suspected within the dam embankment due to the internal erosion. In this paper, seepage analysis of the earth dam was primarily conducted to evaluate the dam safety against the leakages through the embankment dam. Steady- state analysis, using SEEP2D was employed to investigate the seepage within the dam body at different water levels. As a particular boundary condition for analysis, the water level fluctuation was incorporated to simulate seasonal change and as a result; the various seepage phenomena were quantified such as flow rate, heads, hydraulic gradient, pore water pressure, velocity and seepage quantity. Correlation analysis was carried out to determine coefficients and significant levels; while regression equations were generated, using ANOVA to relate the dependent variable - water level with other seepage parameters (independent variables). The results of the simulated flow net showed ranges of seepage values of 8.1033 x 10-7 - 2.4396 x 10-7 m3/s/ unit width; for water levels at 19.6 m and 11.6 m respectively. At maximum and minimum phreatic levels of 19.6m and 11.6 m and full length of 877 m of dam axis, total seepage value were 7.11 x 10-4 m3/s (42 L/min) and 2.14 x 10-4 m3/s (13 L/min). There was high level of correlation between the seepage parameters (R > 0.99) and significant at < 0.05. The seepage quantities flowing through the dam suggested that the dam body was saturated regardless of water level. The result of this study showed that there is possibility of piping, internal erosion and excessive leakage through the dam.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Assessment of Bulb pungency level in Indian onion cultivars under influence of low doses of Ionizing radiation and short term storage[ ]


Investigation on the assessment of the chemical quality changes in different Indian onion (Allium cepa L) cultivars under the influence of low doses of gamma-irradiation and short-term storage was carried out. Cured bulbs of both onion (var.Bellary red) and shallots(var.Ascalonicum) were irradiated to low doses of gamma rays (0, 22, 72, 128 and 150 Gy) in gamma chamber (Model GC-5000) at dose rate of 6.28 kGy/hr and were stored at room temperature storage (26± 3ºC; 60-75% RH)conditions for short-term storage upto 75 days. Response of irradiated and non irradiated bulbs of these cultivars to short term storage in terms of major chemical quality parameter the total pyruvic acid ate content was distinct and notable. Combined effect of gamma irradiation (128.04 Gy) and short storage time ( up to 64 days) had significant impact on increase in pools of the total pyruvic acid content of both onion(22 µ mol/ml.juice) and shallot(28.50 µ mol/ ml.juice) bulbs as compared to their non irradiated ones(17 and 27 µ mol/ml.juice) with better retention of other quality attributes(texture, color) and with no significant losses of nutrients, and pungency characteristics in these onion cultivars during 64 days of storage period.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alternatives to Cement in Concrete - A Review[ ]


In the present world, concrete has become a vital part of our lives. With each passing day, the use of concrete is increasing at a very high rate. One of the main constituents of concrete is Portland cement. With the increase in use of concrete, the manufacturing and consumption of cement has increased drastically. Although cement has exceptional binding properties and is very suitable for use in concrete, the manufacturing of cement results in emission of large amounts of CO2. Due to this, researchers have started finding alternatives to cement that are economical as well as environment friendly. Fly ash, Silica Fume, Metakaolin and Ground granulated blast furnace slag are industrial by-products which provide excellent binding properties to concrete and serve as a replacement of cement. These alternatives are generally termed as Supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). The use of these materials not only helps in reducing the consumption of cement but also serves as an efficient method for their safe disposal. This paper reviews the effect of using the various alternatives that can be used in concrete as partial replacement of cement. The literature review of various researchers reveals that a single alternative cannot provide all the benefits that cement does. Rather, a suitable combination of these products can be incorporated in concrete to provide properties similar to or better than that of Portland cement concrete.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Upgrading of Abu-Tartur calcareous phosphate via selective leaching by organic acids[ ]


Abu-Tartur PR contains about 49.20% apatite mineral equivalent to 21.8% P2O5 and more than 50% of undesirable components including about 26% carbonate minerals. In this study acetic acid was used to eliminate the carbonate content of Abu-Tartur PR which would save acid consumption besides increasing the tenor of P2O5, U and Ln. The relevant acetic acid leaching factors involved the grain size, the acid concentration, the S/L ratio and the reaction time. Upgrading of Abu-Tartur PR has resulted in a marketable and industrially acceptable phosphate grades (about 30% P2O5) besides improving the assay of both U and Ln.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Critical Analysis of Consultant’s Role in Bridge Design[ ]


Skilled and experienced manpower can create wonders in civil engineering, as it facilitates the development of country. This can be achieved by Design consultants who have a major role to playin the construction of civil industries. It may happen, as is gen-erally the case in many fields that some errors do creep in the perception of the consultants while designing structure. The case studies presents the status of situation in design and construction of bridges and also emphasises the need of proof consultant in complicated bridge designs.Some interesting examples of conflicting interests of consultant and client are presented here. The precautions that need to be taken in preserving the interest of client are described in this paper.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tuning of Fuzzy Logic Controller for a DC Motor Based on Particle Swarm Optimization[ ]


This paper presents an active method to determine the parameters of the membership functions of a F.L. Controller. To provide an optimum performance of the system, the parameters of the membership functions of a fuzzy logic system can be tuned through particle swarm optimization (PSO), so the shape of these functions will vary according to the variables, then the fuzzy control output changes and the performance of the system will be changed.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Characterization of Biopolymers and Biosurfactant for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery in Niger Delta Reservoirs[ ]


Microbial EOR is a cost effective, environmental friendly technique used in the oil industry to increase recovery through the inoculation of microorganisms in a reservoir to extract residual oil by different mechanisms from microbial metabolites. For this study, Bacillus polymyxa (G2) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (G1) were isolated, characterized and identified in the laboratory among other microbes using brackish water. This was based on the cultural morphology, microscopic examination and other biochemical tests. Two main recovery mechanisms were focused on as metabolites from these microbes could prevent viscous fingering as a result of biopolymer production from G2 and interfacial tension reduction through the production of biosurfactants from G1. The action of these microbes on crude oil samples from the Niger Delta region was also investigated. Results from the analysis showed a considerable decrease in certain fluid properties such as gel strength and viscosity. However, this study has shown conclusively that considerations must be given to the type of oil reservoir and its characteristics before choosing a potential microbial candidate for the recovery process.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
MODIFICATION OF A MOTORISED QUADCYCLE[ ]


Transportation is on the increase everyday due to the growth in population. Without transportation, there could be no development in both social and economic aspect, as a pursuit of sufficient and effective transportation; the society needs innovations and creations from those in the field of engineering to device a means to solve the problem. Based on the above, this research work has modified an existing quad cycle to ease transportation. The modification brought about improved rigidity by the use of a thick square iron of 50mm thickness. Its load bearing capacity moved from one passenger to 4 passengers (approximately 310kg). Comfort and stability was achieved by repositioning the wheels from one front, two rear to two front and two rear wheels. The development of the quad cycle was accomplished with a sum of N 232,660.00.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The effect of cohesion and level of groundwater on the slope instability using finite element method[ ]


Slope stability analysis is one of the most important topics in geotechnical engineering. Slope stability can be analyzed using one or more methods. Analytical and numerical methods are available but numerical methods are quickly, reliable, accurately and so we able to perform parametric and comprehensive study of slope stability with complex boundary conditions. In this research numerical analysis by finite element software PLAXIS version 8.5 showed that the slope angle and rainfall has the most influence in the safety factor analysis. Also for layered slope variable cohesion or friction angle for each layer has been investigated. The analysis has been done using Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model. The slope stability analyses are performed to assess the safe and economic design of human-made or natural slopes (e.g. embankments, road cuts, open-pit mining, excavations, and landfills). In the assessment of slopes, engineers primarily use factor of safety values to determine how close or far slopes are from failure. When this ratio is greater than 1, resistive shear strength is greater than driving shear stress and the slope is considered stable. When this ratio is close to 1, shear strength is nearly equal to shear stress and the slope is close to failure, if FS is less than 1 the slope should have already failed. Thus, for this research the critical safety factor is considered 1. This means that in parametric study, change in the value of soil cohesion continues until the FS is equal to 1.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
POSSIBLE EFFECT OF GROUND WATER ON CONCRETE STRUCTURES OF NOIDA AND GREATER NOIDA[ ]


Noida and Greater Noida are cities in India under the management of the New Okhla Industrial Development Authority and Greater Noida Industrial Development Authority located in the part of National Capital Region of India. Noida is a city that has grown very fast laterally and vertically in an unpredictable manner. Large number of buildings in the form of group housing societies, residential colonies, shopping complexes, hospitals, flyovers, small bridges etc has been constructed or under construction. Majority of these structures are designed for reinforced cement concrete type. Apart from few structures which have been built with pre-cast concrete or ready mix concrete, vast majority of the structures are being constructed in the conventional way. Ground water is the sole source which is being used for mixing and curing purpose. In present study water samples from twenty five locations of the Noida and Greater Noida region were analyzed for their suitability for mixing and curing purpose in concrete as per the provisions of IS 456-2000. Based on the outcome of the study some critical sectors which could experience different types of problem in concrete structures have been identified. The present paper highlights typical concrete durability problems being faced recently in some concrete structures which were constructed just few years ago or the structures upcoming in these sectors. A mapping has been done to assign the problems which may come in each sector.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Integrated Geophysical Approach to Aquifer Delineation in Crystalline Basement Environment[ ]


Aquifer delineation and characterization could be somewhat challenging in Crystalline Basement Complex environment, where they are associated with either saturated weathered Basement or fractured Basement. Increasing demand for water occasioned by domestic and industrial purposes resulted in delineation and characterization of aquifer properties at a site within the crystalline basement environment, where two boreholes have been drilled (BH1 and BH2). Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and Electrical resistivity methods were used. Twelve (12) VLF-EM profiles of length 120 – 160 m, with 10 m station separation oriented in east-west direction and twenty-five (25) VES stations were occupied. Three peak positive raw/filtered real VLF-EM anomalies identified are presumed to be water-filled fractures or faults; thus implying possible locations suitable for groundwater development. Four geoelectric layers were delineated namely: top soil, clayey sand/sandy clay, weathered layer and basement rock. The weathered layer is characterized by resistivity values which range from 28 to 1309 Om, and thickness values of 2.9 to 15.1 m. Longitudinal unit conductance (S), Transverse unit resistance (T), and coefficient of Anisotropy (?) have values ranging from 0.03 – 0.16 mhos, 382 – 8517 Om2, and 1.05 – 2.24 respectively. These results are indicative of the aquifer protective capacity, hydraulic conductivity, aquifer productivity and hydrogeologic significance. BH1 failed because it was drilled into the weathered basement at a location characterized by fairly low transverse resistance, while BH2 was drilled into a localized fractured basement with fairly high recharge attributed to extent of fracture network, high transverse resistance and coefficient of anisotropy. Thus, fracture network and its depth extent are of great importance in selecting fractured basement aquifer as groundwater development site. Integration of electromagnetic profiling with electrical resistivity methods has shown to be complimentary tools in determination of groundwater potential and reduces uncertainties in predicting drillable positions. Robust assessment of the weathered basement and fractured basement aquifer parameters has assisted in locating productive borehole position in basement complex environment. This creates opportunities for efficient resources management, and reduces the risk of sinking unproductive boreholes.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Measurement of Metals and Radionuclide Concentrations of Water for Domestic and Other Purposes in Ozoro, Delta State, Nigeria[ ]


A survey of radionuclide concentrations in the various sources of water for domestic `and other purposes (like poultry, fish farming, recreation etc.) of the crude oil producing community of Ozoro, Delta State, Nigeria was carried out using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (heavy metals). The study area was divided into three sections for the purpose of sample collection namely; Okpaile, Polytechnic environs and NDC. Samples of well-water, rain and bore-hole water were collected from these areas and analyzed for heavy metals and radioactivity concentrations. The results indicated that values for 40K in Bq/l ranged from 12.68 – 769.68, 232Th < 0.12 – 3.38 and 0.62 – 1.48 of 238U. Annual effective doses computed from measured concentrations showed low values: 0.03 – 1.74 for K-40; 0.16 – 0.37 for Th – 232 and 0.01- 0.34 for U – 238 in mSv/y. For lead (Pb) (0.181 – 0.245 mg/l), copper (0.000 to 0.007 mg/l) Zinc (0.001 to 019gm/l), Nickel (0.1-0.13mg/l), iron (0.02 – 1.42mg/l) manganese (0.008 – 0.032 mg/l) and cadmium below detection limit. Some of these concentration levels in samples from Okpaile for both well and rain water are above World Health Organization (WHO) maximum permissible limits for Pd and Fe. The general results showed that water in the study area had acceptable quality for domestic utilization except the ones that contain excess lead and iron which may require treatment.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Critical State Behavior of Van der Waal gases & Conformation to Nelson-Obert Characteristics[ ]


Ideal gas law although widely used has restricted validity as it does not apply to gases which deviate from ideal conditions. Gases in a compressed state can no longer be described by ideal gas law. In this paper we discuss Van der Waal Equation of State which was proposed to account for the shortcomings of ideal gas law. We primarily discuss systems in which real gases are under equilibrium conditions. Compressibility factors for various substances are tabulated and the calculations are validated by accentuating conformance with Nelson-Obert standard compressibility chart. We also present the nature of pressure fluctuation curve with inversion temperatures which can facilitate designing of units meant for systems under phase equilibria.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The Effects of NIOMCO Iron Ore Dust Wastes on the Yield of the Pyrolysis of Rubber from Waste Tyres[ ]


The effect of National Iron Ore Mining Company (NIOMCO) iron ore dust waste on the yield of the pyrolysis of rubber from waste tyres was studied in this research work. 200g of the washed chipped tyre waste was weighed into a reactor (specially designed steel container that can withstand very high temperature) and connected to a distillation set-up. This was heated at a constant temperature of about 3000C and timed starting from when the distillate (fuel) started coming out, for 45 minutes. The temperature of the vapor was also monitored with a thermometer. The iron ore dust waste of a varied mass of 10g, 20g, 30g, and 40g were added to a fixed mass of 200g of the washed, chipped waste tyre respectively. It was observed that the higher the iron ore dust waste added to the waste tyre, the higher the yield and the lower the temperature at which the fuel started coming out. Flammability test was carried out on the fuel and it shows a typical burning to that of diesel.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
EXTRACTION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF THE OIL EXTRACT FROM THE SEED OF UMBRELLA TREE (TERMINALIA MENTALIS).[ ]


The increase in demand and different applications of oils foster the search for vegetable and seed oils that are of high quality to meet up with the increasing rate of its demand worldwide. Oils are known to have important biological activities. In this study, the extraction and physicochemical characterization of the oil from the seed of Terminalia mentalis (umbrella tree) was carried out. The physical properties of the oil compares favorably with those of the conventional vegetable and seed oils like cotton seed oil, soybean oil and groundnut oil among others. The results obtained for the chemical properties showed 38% oil yield, 1.5 refractive index, 0.871 g/ml density, 0.052 mgKOH/g acid value, 2.600 mEq/Kg peroxide value, 140.223 mgKOH/g ester value, 54.567 gI2/100g iodine value and 140.275 mgKOH/g saponification value. These make the oil suitable for use in the industry except in the ink and paint industries because of its non drying property which is due to its low iodine value content.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The Effect of Differential Settlement of Supports on a Large Steel-Framed Boiler Supporting Structure[ ]


The paper gives details of the distribution of forces induced in the members and variation of steel weight of an existing Boiler supporting structure, due solely to a vertical settlement of any column. The construction is described and typical frames were chosen and analyzed elastically. From this approach, a pattern appears to emerge, and it is hoped that this information will be of use to engineers engaged in the design of such structures on difficult sites where sizeable differential settlements may have to be accepted.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
EFFECT OF AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ON A COMBINED REGENERATIVE AND REHEAT GAS TURBINE CYCLE USING MATLAB[ ]


In recent development of gas turbine cycles, new software for calculating thermal efficiency and power output of a combined reheat-regenerative cycle are applied.There are one compressor and one turbine used in regeneration gas turbine cycle and one compressor and two turbines are used in reheat cycle. In the combined cycle, one compressor and two turbines namely, HP turbine and LP turbine are used in this work. The temperature after reheating assumes to be reaching at the same temperature of HP turbine inlet.A full numerical model for the engine is built. This model takes into account the variations in specific heat and the effects of turbine cooling flow. Also, the model considers the efficiencies of all components, effectiveness of heat exchangers and the pressure drop in relevant components. The thermodynamic analysis has been performed using MATLAB software. The parameters taken in the well defined range for overall pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperatures and ambient temperature. The cycle performs the analysis for various regenerative effectiveness and various turbine inlet temperatures. It is found that the mass flow ratedecreases on increasing the regenerative effectiveness while increases on increasing the turbine inlet temperature. Also found that the heat required in the burner decreases for higher regenerative effectiveness.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The Effect of Relative Discharge on Local Scour Downstream Combined Structure[ ]


In this research, a study was conducted experimentally to investigate the scour hole dimen-sions downstream the combined structures which consist from weir and gate due to the effect of the relative dis-charge (Qr) between the flow above the compound weir to the flow under the gate. Twenty models have been de-signed, and every model is formed from composite weir consists of two geometric shapes with rectangular gate of constant dimensions.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Moving Object Detection and Extraction for Video Editing[ ]


A novel approach for extraction of foreground object and using the extracted object in applications like object cloning in a video, insertion of object in an another video, increasing speed of objects in a video. Gaussian mixture model is used for foreground extraction as it deals effectively with lighting changes, repetitive motions from clutter etc. Further a fully automated way of extracting the object from video along with its relative motion is developed. Such extracted object can be inserted in videos of same scene or different scenes to produce pleasant visual effects.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Prestressing Effect on Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened Against Shear[ ]


The present study deals with the nonlinear finite element analysis of continuous reinforced concrete (RC) beam strengthened by carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheet against shear. Normal and high strength concrete are investigated. ANSYS V15 program has been used to achieve the present work. Nine beams have been studied. For some beams, longitudinal CFRP sheets have been suggested to be added to study the effect of prestressing on the beam response. Different levels of prestressing have been applied. Also the position and length of such sheets have been considered to determine the best configuration.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Pages   [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [U]