Volume 5, Issue 10, October 2014 Edition

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Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Using Simple Chemical Route[ ]


Metal and metal oxide particles are intensively pursued because of their prominence in different fields of applications in Science and Technology. In this paper, copper oxide nanoparticles are synthesized by wet chemical precipitation method and are characterized by using XRD (X ray diffraction), SEM ( Scanning Electron Microscopy) and EDAX ( Energy Dispersive X ray Spectroscopy) . XRD data reveals that copper oxide was formed as CuO and it has monoclinic structure.The particle size of the nanoparticles formed have sheet like structures with approximately 20-30 nm width and 100-200 nm length.This method is convenient, easy and effective in comparison to the known methods of synthesis of nanomaterials like thermal decomposition of precursors, co- implantation of metal and oxygen ions and ultrasonic spray pyrolysis.

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Crank-Nicholson-Du Fort And Frankel-Lax-Friedrich’s Hybrid Finite Difference Schemes Arising From Operator Splitting For Solving 2-Dimensional Heat Equation[ ]


We develop hybrid finite difference schemes arising from operator splitting to solve 2-D heat equations. We develop Crank-Nicholson-Du Fort and Frankel-Lax-Friedrich’s method. We determine that the hybrid Crank-Nicholson-Du Fort and Frankel-Lax-Friedrich’s method is the more accurate than the pure Cranck-Nicholson Scheme. This method is also unconditionally stable because they are Crank-Nicholson based. The methods that involve Du Fort and Frankel discretization are three-level.

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Performance comparison of IEEE802.11a Standard in Mobile Environment[ ]


The IEEE802.11a standard uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). It can provide data rate up to 54 Mbps in Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN’s). This standard is used in indoor applications as well as in vehicles i.e. mobile environments. In this paper, we evaluate Bit Error Rate (BER) by changing the number of pilots using multiple modulation schemes such as BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM and 256 QAM. We also analyze the BER with varying user velocity. The overall simulation has been performed using MATLAB as the simulation tool.

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Solar Operated Photovoltaic Line Follower Robot[ ]


In today’s world of industrialization, no single branch of Engineering and Technology can be considered independent. In order to increase productivity and profitability, industrial products are designed with the technology involving Mechanical and Electronics principles i.e. Mechatronics. Robotics is one of the developing areas in mechatronics & has a vital importance in various fields such as agricultural, aviation, automobile, medical, non-conventional energy systems, space technology etc. In context of energy crisis, the concentrated efforts are very much necessary to increase the energy transformation efficiency along with energy conservation. The successful attempt has been made in the present work to design, manufacture and test the solar operated Line Follower Robot. The Robot follows black line path & also it can be automatically moved in all four directions free from the black lined path using Infrared sensors (IR). The robot is controlled by burning embedded C programming in ATMEGA 8 Microcontroller and is operated using two DC motors to drive two wheels. Photovoltaic effect is used for the rotation of the motor that enable the movement of the robot. As solar energy is clean, green, free and widely available, can be one of the best alternatives for the current robot operations. In the current paper the same concept is proposed and illuminated in detail.

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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENT TECHNIQUES IN REAL-TIME DIAGNOSIS OF STATOR AND ROTOR FAULTS IN INDUCTION MACHINES[ ]


This work involves the development of an artificial intelligent (AI) scheme in the detection of rotor and stator faults in induction machines. Using discrete wavelet transform technique to process the stator current signals measured from faulty motors with isolated cases of rotor and stator faults, the signals are then matched against known fault signatures for the types of fault. The statistical features of fault signals such as mean, Skewness etc. were then extracted and fed to an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for training. Different ANN architectures were then compared in terms of their accuracy in classification. The network with the lowest mean squared error was then tested with separate data set and the results found to be satisfactory

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DETECTION AND ANALYSIS IN POWER DISTRIBUTION NETWORK: ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK BASED FAULT[ ]


Early detection and location of faults in networks has been a major challenge in power systems engineering as it results in loss of energy, revenue and damage to equipment and facilities. The reason for this delay in detection is because, in most cases operators of these network rely mainly on information/complaint provided by customers without actually having a scheme to check and verify the information whether it is misleading or correct. This work developed an Artificial Neural Network(ANN) based program written in mat lab 7.5 environment to detect various kinds of faults in the network. The results obtained when compared to exiting results from power holding companies were found to be satisfactory.

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Development and Designing Of Mounted Structure[ ]


Our paper, ”Development and designing of Mounted Structure” intends to develop a rigidly mounted structure. This structure can further be used for validation of real life scenarios in various fields of engineering. We intend to propose a design in similar case.

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Malaria drugs among the health services providers - A cross Sectional Study in Hodeida-Yemen[ ]


Using malaria drugs irrationally is a big problem( Kelly Chibale,Economic drug discovery and rational medicinal chemistry for tropical diseasesPure Appl. Chem., 2005) and can be harmful(Taylor WR WNW. Antimalarial drug toxicity:. WHO/Tropical Disease Research, Geneva, Switzerland. 2004), Malaria resistant is another result (Richard & Joanna Coast, Antimicrobial resistance: a global response ,Bulletin of the World Health Organization2002 ) , Resistance reduces the effectiveness of these drugs, leading to increased morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure, malaria overdignosis In Hodiedah complicate the situation(overdiagnosis of malaria among the health services providers in hodeida-yemen al-selwi2009) . Malaria drug policy must be known and practiced (An urgent need to re-examine malaria drug policyAlmiklafi2011) . This study tries to answer to many questions in this concern to avoid such catastrophe.. Questionnaires and depth interviews should be conducted with Health service providers to answer the study questionnaires, about their knowledge about malaria drugs policy, and how malaria drugs are prescribed, and finally if they thought there are some drugs which become resistant and sure their evidence in this concern.

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SYNTHESIS NEW LEGAND {[5-(FURAN-2YL)-1,3,4-THIADIAZOLE-2-YL]IMINO}ETHANAL WHITH SOME TRANSITION METAL COMPLEXES[ ]


The solid complexes of Fe(II), Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II), andCu(II)) with Synthesis of {[(5-( Furan-2-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)imino}ethanal]have been synthesized and characterized by using the spectroscopic IR,1HNMR, Mass as well as by elemental analyses C,H,N and Molar conductance the were studied.It may be concluded that the ligand coordinate through Nitrogen atoms shown in Scheme (2). for all the complexes. The ligand acts as a didentate ligand coordinating through the oxadiazole nitrogen and the nitrogen of C=N group .This view is further supported by the appearance of a band corresponding to the metal–nitrogen stretching vibration at 542–563 cm–1 in the complexes . The physicochemical data suggest the octahedral geometry for all complexes except for Ni and Cu complexes which were tetrahedral respectively.

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The effect of thyroid hormone levels on different kidney Function tests.[ ]


Thyroid dysfunction causes significant changes in kidney function. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism affect renal blood flow and glomerualr filteration rate (GFR). Thirty five patients (16 male, 19 female) with primary hypothyroidism and thirty five patients (16 male, 19 female) with primary hyperthyroidism were enrolled in this study. Serum creatinine and serum urea were determined by using colorimetric method. Serum cystatin C were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Estimations of the GFR calculated by clearances [estimated GFR based on creatinine (CKD-EPI equation) and estimated GFR based on cystatin C]. When total thyroxine (tT4) and total triiodothyronine (tT3) are normalized in primary hypothyroid patients, creatinine decreased and creatinine- based eGFR increased significantly. In contrast, cystatin C increased and eGFR based on cystatin C decreased significantly. When total thyroxine (tT4) and total triiodothyronine (tT3) are normalized in hyperthyroid patients, creatinine increased and creatinine-based eGFR decreased significantly. In contrast, cystatin C decreased and cystatin-C based eGFR increased significantly.

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Using Ridge Regression model to solve Multicollinearity problems[ ]


In this research ,we introduce two different methods to solve Multicollinearity problems, these methods include ordinary least square (OLS) and ordinary ridge regression (ORR), with using data simulation to compare between methods using three samples of different sizes (25,50,100). According to results ,we found that ridge regression (ORR) is better than OLS method ,when the Multicollinearity is exist, and We conclude that the sample sizes affects the results of estimated values, whenever the sample size increases, the case results of the methods of Estimation stables increase.

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STUDY ON EFFECT OF CARBON STEEL FIBERS AND POLYPROPYLENE FIBERS ON SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE[ ]


The effect of carbon steel fibers and polypropylene fibers on self compacting concrete was studied in this paper. The self compacting concrete is a concrete that can be placed and compacted by its own weight. Self compacting concrete provides several economic and technical benefits and the use of fibers in self compacting concrete extents its possibility. Various researchers were performed the slump flow test, compressive strength test and flexural strength test to study the effect of fibers on fresh and harden properties of self compacting concrete.

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Numerical Modeling of Limestone Rock Mass Loaded to Failure above Underground Karstic Cavities using FLAC2D Software : A case study of Al Kharj Region - Saudi Arabia[ ]


The stability and potential building hazard arising from karstic cavities within the shallow limestone rock mass are a special feature of the urban environment in the city of Al Kharj (located in the south of Al Riyadh, Saudi Arabia). Numerical modeling analyses using FLAC2D , have been applied to determine the behavior of the rock mass layers above these randomly underground voids usually continuously under complex solicitation (water pressure, loading from new building at the surface and pre-existing voids). The modeling has been validated by using the geotechnical characteristics of shallow limestone which have taken based on the bibliography; initial strength parameters of the limestone were derived from laboratory testing also in the bibliography. These computer modeling analyses have been combined with the field observations and geotechnical testing. This paper describes the modeling FLAC2D being applied, the manner in which the results are used by Civil Engineers to design a type of a new building foundations above these underground voids. More field tests will be recommended as geophysical investigation in order to make a mapping allows to geo-referencing these shallow underground voids within the urban area.

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Secure communications based on lag synchronization of chaotic complex nonlinear systems with parameters identification[ ]


Our main goal of this paper is to study secure communications via lag synchronization of chaotic complex nonlinear systems based on adaptive control theory. We try to transmit message from the transmitter system to the receiver system. The transmitted message is modulated into the parameter of the chaotic complex system which consider as the transmitter system. It is assumed that the parameter of the receiver system is unknown. Based on the adaptive control theory the controllers are designed to synchronize two identical chaotic complex Chen systems with unknown parameter as an example. Thus, the uncertain parameter of the receiver system is identified. The information signal of the message can be recovered accurately by the estimated parameter. The corresponding theoretical results and numerical simulations demonstrate the validity and feasibility of a secure communication via chaotic complex nonlinear systems based on adaptive control theory.

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Broadband Over Power Lines: Internet Everywhere[ ]


The Internet is the ever growing industry and is destined to stay so. The service providers are trying to cover as much geography as they could. This is possible with Broadband over Power Lines. The BPL uses the utility power lines to carry internet signals to the users, thus increasing the area covered. Hence internet is made available to places where conventional access technology can’t reach.

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Enhance wireless Capacity through Multi-hop Scheduling[ ]


Today’s, throughput capacity of a wireless network is big challenge and also, single-hop scheduling communication requests was not consider routing nor power control problems. In a single hop it targets only an approximation that is optimal up to a factor that is logarithmic in the number of requests. In this type scheduling algorithm The NP-hard problems are occurred when it compute any network’s capacity up to a small insecurity. In existing paper, used Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR) and greedy algorithm which are not able to deal with difficult scenario as efficiently one of the biggest drawback of greedy, its compute three time longer than approx A. In existing paper[1], by applying the single-slot subroutine repeatedly to realize an O(log n)-approximation (where is the number of communication links) for the problem of minimizing the number of time slots needed to schedule a given set of arbitrary requests. All these problems are overcome in our proposed system.

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A Comparative Study of Rectangular and Circular Microstrip Fed Patch Antenna at 2.45 GHz[ ]


A Comparative study of rectangular and circular shape microstrip fed patch antennas for bluetooth application is presented in this paper. The resonance frequency is chosen at 2.45 GHz which is suitable for industrial scientific and medical (ISM) band applications. Computer Simulation Technology (CST) microwave studio is used as the software environment to design and compare the performance of the antennas. Based on the results and analysis, it is noted that the rectangular patch antenna shows about 6 dB higher return loss than the return loss of circular patch antenna. In addition, rectangular patch antenna has improved gain value of 7.12 dB than that of the circular patch with gain of 6.87 dB. However, circular patch antenna offers 5.5 MHz higher bandwidth as compared with the rectangular patch. The radiation efficiency of both rectangular and circular shaped microstrip fed patch antennas is nearly the same.

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A Reverse Engineering Technique for Reproducing Spare Parts using Computer Vision System[ ]


With the great progress in the industrial technology, raise the efficiency of public and private sector and reduce dependence on imports of spare parts, Taking the direction of research in the field of reverse engineering have a significant impact on the greater reliance on domestic production engineering. A reverse engineering technique for reproducing small spare parts of the machines was proposed by using computer vision system, the damaged spure gear was used as spare part. The sensor in this study is a CCD digital Camera with high resolution for more accurate images and more details (non contact sensor). The images of the spare part was integrated by image processing algorithms which were designed. The contents of the images was recognized and analyzed to extract dimensions and engineering data through designed algorithms. The data collected was transferered to 3D solid model to reconstruct the 3D spare part which will translated to constration drawings required for poduction department for reproduce the part. The proposed system will be a kernel that can be continuously developed to include a wide base of spare parts that we need to change and constantly adjusted.

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Evaluating the Deployment Problem of a Wireless Sensor Network on the University of Nigeria, Nuskka Campus for the Detection & Tracking of Vehicles[ ]


This paper provides an analysis on the deployment of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) on The University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN) campus for vehicle detection and tracking. The need for such a network for this particular community will be to provide accurate monitoring information of vehicles coming in and out of the campus environment. This, in time, will help in showing the statistics analysis of vehicles per parking on campus and provide surveillance information essential for the security and well being of the university community. The deployment techniques of a WSN have significant impact on its operational performance. This paper, therefore, focuses on the deployment strategies that will make vehicle detection and tracking a realization on The UNN campus.

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A Comparative Study on Speckle Reduction Techniques in Medical Ultrasound Images[ ]


In medical image processing, image denoising has become a crucial task. Medical Ultrasound images are widely used but are easily affected by speckle noise. Denoising of speckle affected images is necessary for proper diagnosis. Speckles can be reduced by various spatial and frequency domain filtering techniques. Many other techniques are also proposed in the literature. This paper compares three such speckle reduction techniques and they use anisotropic diffusion, logarithmic contourlet based and wavelet based thresholding technique. Wavelet is the emerging technique and is proved to be better in terms of quality measured via the performance evaluation criteria such as PSNR (Peak signal to noise ratio), MSE(Mean Square Error) and so on.

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Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Measles Prevention among Mothers of Under Five Years children attending under 5 clinic in Bauchi Town[ ]


Measles (rubella) is among the leading causes of child morbidity and mortality worldwide, although, routine measles immunization coverage has increased from 29% in 1994 to 59.7% in 2009. This coverage is still relatively very low; due to this low coverage rate and prevailing poor living conditions, measles outbreaks frequently occur in different parts of Nigeria, more especially in Bauchi state. This study was conducted to review the knowledge, attitude, and practices of measles prevention among mothers of under Five Years children attending under 5’s clinic in Bauchi Town. A descriptive cross- sectional study design was used to collect data via convenience sampling method. 60 mothers formed the sample size of the study. The reliability of the study instrument was obtained by means of cleaning the data, while the validity was established through Cronbach’s Alpha reliability test of 0.89 values and analyzed using tables, percentages and chi-square test. Majority of the respondents were in agreement with the statement that measles is among the most common cause of death in children, and also shows that, higher mortality among children infected with measles is couple with malnutrition. Several factors such as infectiousness, greater difficulties in vaccination, in carrying out surveillance, and in detecting infected individuals make measles hard to control talk less of eradicating it. To avoid this tragic effect of measles, Immunization as one of the most powerful and cost-effective weapons of modern preventive medicine should be adopted as prevention and control means. Therefore, it is crucial to immunize children if they are found un-immunized after the age of 9 months.

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Corrosion Inhibitory Effects of a new Synthetic Schiff Base on Aluminium in Sulphuric Acid Solution[ ]


In this investigation, the inhibitory effect of a new synthesized (E)-N-(4-methylphenyl)-1-(4-nitrobenzyl) methanimine Schiff base (SBMNM) on the corrosion of aluminium in 2M H2SO4 solution was studied using weight loss and gasometric techniques. The Schiff base was prepared using reflux method; the characterization was carried out by electronic absorption spectra, infrared spectra, solubility and melting point tests. The results showed that the inhibition efficiency decreased as the temperature increased, a physical reaction mechanism is proposed. The plot of log (wi-?w) against time gave linear graph which suggests a first order reaction mechanism. The percentage efficiency was 75.43% at 1.0x10-2M concentration of the Schiff base. The negative free energy of adsorption obtained confirms a spontaneous adsorption. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm result showed a deviation from an ideal Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation.

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Performance and Analysis of an Evaporative cooling System : A Review[ ]


This paper represents working principles, and performance of evaporative cooling technology under broad range of operating conditions. The effectiveness of evaporative cooling in different application can be discussed in this paper and benefits in terms of power consumption, cost savings and environmental impacts, specifically for the facility required to support conventional air-conditioning and the facility required to support space cooled via evaporative cooling. This paper also discusses desiccant assisted evaporative cooling and heat and mass transfer analysis. The superior cooling of air and ventilation can be provided by evaporative cooling system while consuming less energy and also provides environmental friendly cooling technologies.

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