Volume 5, Issue 10, October 2014 Edition

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ON Minimal "?*" -Open Sets[ ]


In this paper, we introduce and discuss minimal "?*" -open sets in topological spaces. We establish some basic properties of minimal "?*" -open sets and provide an example to illustrate that minimal "?*" -open sets are independent of minimal open sets. we obtain an application of a theory of minimal "?*" -open sets and we defined a "?*" -locally finite space.

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Testing and Analysis of the Correlation between Engine performance and Engine life[ ]


Engine performance is a function of the mileage of the engine. As the number of years of usage increases, the performance of the engine also reduces due to a number of factors like mechanical losses and wear and tear. This was the primary assumption made by the authors and testing was done to validate this statement. The aim of the paper is to validate the primary assumption, quantify the power loss due to an increase in mileage and finally enumerate the factors that have led to the power loss. This paper stresses on the importance of proper maintenance engine maintenance by proving that there are considerable losses even in well-maintained engines. Thus the authors believe that this paper is an important contribution to the field of automotive service and maintenance.

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Optimizing Performance of Crowdfunding Actors using Neural Networks[ ]


Crowdfunding is the practice of funding a common source or venture by various resources that include capital revenue, investment of monetary shares, or hard revenue which is typically done via the internet services. It includes non-profit organizations, donations, creative works, products etc.1 It facilitates the raising of capital for a variety of purposes, using numerous variations of the model by bringing in multiple scalable actors and platforms that define themselves in a sectoral vertical rather than by the type of finance they provide, or the type of ideology being invested upon. As referred, by one early-stage equity expert, described it as “the practice of raising funds from two or more people over the internet towards a common Service, Project, Product, Investment, Cause, and Experience or SPPICE.”2 From Generations, the technique has been disciplined to various genres of the society using statistical methods by the agents to necessitate the goal of achieving an idea into a project.

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Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Enhancement Using Artificial Neural Networks[ ]


The paper attempts to modify the conventional Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) to obtain a customized and more secure algorithm.

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Effect of Varying Physical Parameters on Thermochemical Liquefaction Products of Kraft Lignin using 3%Ru/Aly(SiO4)x Catalyst[ ]


Thermochemical liquefaction of Kraft lignin using Ru/Aly(SiO4)x catalyst produced gaseous, aqueous,char and oil at 350OC under 40atm hydrogen and 40atm carbon monoxide, . The effect of temperature , pressure ,slurry solvent, reaction time and feedstock variation on carbon based yield(%Y), carbon based conversion ( %X), mass of carbon and hydrogen recovered as oil (%CHR), H/C and O/C atomic ratio of oil parameter and product distribution were studied.ICI lignin was a better feedstock than Kraft lignin in terms of quality and yield.Water /tetralin slurry system gave the highest yield and %CHR .Hydrogen proved to be a better reductant with the highest products yield.The best oils at 350OC in terms of H/C andO/C atomic ratios were obtained at zero reaction time.The study also showed that the capital cost liquefaction of Kraft lignin can be reduced under vacuum at zero reaction time without a catalyst or reductant in a water slurry at 350Oc or below.

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Condition for the formation of an Ideal Ramanujan Number (IRN) having two wings a3 ± b3 = c3 – d3 where (a ± b) > 1& c – d = 1[ ]


This is further little development of the theory by which mystery of Ramanujan number was penetrated and published in this journal IJSER vide April edition 2014. It includes the condition to have a Ramanujan relation of two wings where one wing is the difference of two cubes of two consecutive positive integers and for other wing the algebraic sum of two elements is more than one. Ultimately it may follow equating of infinitely many wings with the difference of two cubes of two consecutive positive integers. With the development of this theory it has been felt necessary to redefine the earlier definition of IRN and RN.

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Simulation And Analysis Of A Common Security Threat (Black Hole) In Wireless Ad Hoc Networks[ ]


AD-HOC is a temporary wireless network between mobile Nodes like laptop computers and smart phone or any device with wireless adapter, so we can call it mobile ad-hoc network (MANET), MANT is none infrastructure network based on several routing protocols, the most important protocol is AODV. AODV (Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector) is an important Reactive routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks, Since AODV is none infrastructure network, it will be unprotected and there is no any prerequisite security against a attacks and malicious Nodes, Black Hole and Wormhole attacks are the main critical attacks against ad-hoc Nodes. In ad-hoc wireless network the expression (Black hole) refer to malicious nodes that conform the request data packet instead of destination node to routing reply message which involve the fresh routing sequence number. Immediately after the Sender Node receive the reply message from the Black hole node it will start sending data packet ,All data packet will be lost and will not reach the real destination node. The black hole nodes decrease the network performance and exhaust its neighbor’s nodes resource. In this Paper, we will try to simulate data transmission over ad-hoc wireless network and the AODV Routing Table , In the same simulation we will imitate the black hole attackI

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Feasibility of Solar Desiccant Evaporative Cooling: A Review[ ]


This term paper presents a review based on study of the solar desiccant evaporative cooling technology, which was undertaken from a selection of aspects including background, history, current status, concept, types, system configuration, operational mode, research and industrialization, as well as the future focuses on R&D and commercialization. This review work indicated that the DEC technology has prospective to be an alternative to conventional mechanical vapor compression refrigeration systems to take up the air conditioning duty for buildings and transportation also. Owing to the continuous progress in technology innovation, particularly the heat and mass transfer and material optimization, the DEC systems have obtained significantly enhanced cooling performance over those the decade ago and now a days it is using with Solar apparatus also.

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Minimization Of Call Drop In Code Division Multiple Access 2000ix In 3g Wireless Network[ ]


This paper focuses on the minimization of call drop in code division multiple access 20001x in 3G wireless Network System. During the data collection procedure the average calls intensity expressed in terms of the average attempt calls, as well as the number of answered calls and busy calls for each A-interface route at mobile station controller test point were collected from the operation and maintenance centre which is made by Accalel with model number 165R and has a maximized capacity of 50,000 cells and 15,000 transmitter. There data were collected 24 hours for days, months at daily bases. Results show that between 9.00am and 10.ooam 17203 calls were answered which is 59% of the total calls at arrived at the network while between 11.00pm and midnight 25% of the attempted were answered compare to the former rate of reduction.

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Study of the biological effect of Thymus vulgaris extracts on spermatogenesis in experimentally infected white mice Balb/c by Toxoplasma gondii[ ]


The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii has a world-wide distribution, It is an obligate intracellular parasite that appears in many species of mammals and birds. In this study, I have evaluated the effect of Alcoholic extract of Thymus vulgaris on Testes weights , Body weight , Gonadosomatic index, Daily Sperm Production , Motility and Viability, Testosterone and Fertility between Toxoplasma gondii group as compared to the other groups . The white mice Balb/c (n=60 ) were divided into four groups ,control group (n=15) , FT group that that received tachyzoites of T. gondii (n=15), ST group that received tachyzoites of T. gondii , plus Alcoholic extract of Thymus vulgaris 1 cc per mouse daily by oral gavages method (n=15), and TT group of Alcoholic extract of Thymus vulgaris which received Alcoholic extract of Thymus vulgaris 1 cc per rat daily by oral gavages method (n=15). Animals were kept in standard condition. In 4week after inducing toxoplasma, 3 cc blood was collected for testosterone , testes tissues of mice in whole groups were removed and then prepared for analysis. Serum total testosterones and sperm parameters were significantly decreased in groups that were infected with T. gondii, in comparison to control and Alcoholic extract of Thymus vulgaris groups. Testes weights in toxoplasma group significantly decreased in comparison to control group (P<0.05).

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Syntheses new legend [a4-methyl benzaldehyde[5-(3-furyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]hydrazine]with some transition metal com-plexes[ ]


Anew ligand [a4-methylbenzaldehyde[5-(3-furyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]hydrazine] (L) and its Cr(III),Fe(III) Co(II), Ni(II)and Cu(II) complexes were synthesized. The authenticity of the ligand and its transition metal complexes were established by elemental analyses and conductance measurements, as well as spectroscopic (IR, 1HNMR, mass). . It may be concluded that the ligand coordinate through Nitrogen atoms. for all the complexes. This view is further supported by the appearance of a band corresponding to the metal–nitrogen stretching vibration at–cm–1 in the complexes. The molar conductance studies suggest an tetrahedral and octahedral geometry of the complexes .the Ni and Cu atoms leading to the formation tetrahedral geometry .Octahedral geometry was proposed for the(Cr(III),Fe(III)andCo(III)prepared complexes

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DCCR: Document Clustering by Conceptual Relevance as a Factor of Unsupervised Learning[ ]


Present document clustering approaches cluster the documents by term frequency, which are not considering the concept and semantic relations during unsupervised or supervised learning. In this paper, a new unsupervised learning approach that estimates similarity between any two documents given by concept similarity measure is proposed. This novel method represents the concept as set of word sequences found in given documents. In regard to demonstrate the significance of the proposal we applied on set of benchmark document datasets.

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Fast Clustering Algorithms for Segmentation of Microarray Image[ ]


Microarray technology allows the simultaneous monitoring of thousands of genes. Based on the gene expression measurements, microarray technology have proven powerful in gene expression profiling for discovering new types of diseases and for predicting the type of a disease. Gridding, segmentation and intensity extraction are the three important steps in microarray image analysis. In this paper, three different clustering algorithms such as K-means, Moving K-means and Fuzzy C-means are used for segmentation of microarray images. In all the traditional clustering algorithms, number of clusters and initial centroids are randomly selected and often specified by the user. In this paper, a hill climbing algorithm for the histogram of the input image will generate the number of clusters and initial centroids required for clustering. It overcomes the shortage of random initialization and achieves high computational speed by reducing the number of iterations. The experimental results show that Fuzzy C-means has segmented the microarray image more accurately than other three algorithms.

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Hydraulic Network Model of Water Distribution System in Al Hakeem Quarter, Maqil District, Basrah, South of Iraq[ ]


A hydraulic network model has been constructed by using EPANET program to simulate the water distribution system network of Al-Hakeem Quarter at Maqil district in the Governorate of Basrah. The model is calibrated according to the observed head in 6 junctions. Head at selected junctions is measured by Bourdon gauge. The best results of the model are selected according to a trial and error procedure based on three common statistic coefficients (root mean squared error, standard error, and coefficient of correlation). This model can be used if any changes, such as the addition of elevated tank to the region, addition of another pumping station, or an expansion of the network take place in the future.

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Comparative Deterministic Analysis of Bentonite, Pig Dung and Domestic Salt and Charcoal Amalgam as Best Resistance Reducing Agent for Electrical Earthing Applications[ ]


This paper presents a comparative evaluation of bentonite, pig dung and domestic salt and charcoal amalgam as artificial compounds for earth resistance reduction. The properties which demonstrate effectiveness of these compounds as resistance reducing agent are investigated in this study. Moisture content, moisture retaining capacities and electrical conductivity were the properties considered. The effect of these compounds on soil resistivity is demonstrated using the Wenner Array soil resistivity measurement set up in a soil box. Pig dung yielded the best result, reducing the resistivity of the soil from 74.94?-m to 8.26?-m followed by bentonite, 9.25?-m and salt and charcoal, 10.87?-m. Also, it was observed that the pig dung decomposed after a certain period of time bringing about a reduction in the reacting mass and moisture content of the dung and consequently affecting the value of the earth resistance. Again, domestic salt leaches away into the soil over time and the charcoal corrodes the earth electrode while no significant demerit was discovered for bentonite. Based on its limited demerit, this study recommends bentonite as the best resistance reducing agent for electrical earthing applications.

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Study of Experimental Energy and Exergy of mono-crystalline PV Panel in Adrar Region, Algeria[ ]


This article presents the modeling and experimental validation of three different efficiencies i.e. energy, power conversion and exergy of mono-crystalline photovoltaic module. The experimental data sets are carried out in the Research Unit in Renewable Energies in the Saharan Medium, Adrar, Algeria (0.18 W, 27.82 N). The test was performed during three days from March 21 (cloudy day) to March 23-22 (two clear days), 2013. We find from the cloudy day that the energy efficiency varied between 22.3% and 17.2%, the exergy efficiency varies between 5.3% and 12% and power energy efficiency varies from 12.3% to 16.1%. However, from the clear days (i.e. March 22) the energy efficiency varied between 10.83% and 21.85%, the exergy efficiency varies between 7.98% and 14.54% and power enegy efficiency varies from 8.1% to 16.38%. While, from the clear days (i.e. March 23) the energy efficiency varied between 9.28% and 22.1%, the exergy efficiency varies between 1.8% and 15.5% and power enegy efficiency varies from 7.55% to 16.83%.

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Estimation of Methane gas Emission from Solid Waste disposal sites in Kano, Nigeria[ ]


Estimation of methane gas emission from four municipal solid waste dumpsites in Kano, Nigeria was carried out. The amount of methane gas emissions from the four dumpsites from the year 2012- 2040 were predicted using LandGEM landfill gas emission model. The maximum methane emission from Court road dumpsite is 4.655E+05 m3/year which would be generated in the year 2016 and would decline to 1.786E+05 m3/year by the year 2040. The maximum methane emission from Hajj Camp dumpsite is 2.995E+05 m3/year which is expected to be generated in the year 2018 and would decline to 1.215E+05 m3/year by the year 2040. The maximum methane emission from Maimalari dumpsite is 4.197E+05 m3/year which would be generated in the year 2024 and would decline to 2.206E+05 m3/year in 2040, while for Ubagama dumpsite the maximum emission is 6.014E+04 m3/year which would be generated in the year 2040 and the minimum is 3.053E+04 m3/year in the year 2012.

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Solar Energy Potential in Nigeria[ ]


In Nigeria, Solar Energy Potential varies from 3.5¬¬¬-7.0kWh/m this work, Nigeria is expected to produce electricity that would be enough to service all parts of the country instead of some people getting access to electricity and others do not because power stations are not enough for the citizens. And it is also expensive to extend national grid to some remote part of rural areas. So, this work deals with the design of solar panels that generated 89,126.0608 mega watts of electricity from solar energy if 0.1 percent of land mass of Nigeria would be used as solar farm. Calculations were also done to find the states that have the highest and lowest solar energy potential in Nigeria.

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Genotoxic and Teratogenic Effect of Congenital TORCH Infection[ ]


TORCH is a group of infectious organisms which causes malformations in new born foetus. There is good evidence that some maternal infections, especially during the early gestation, can result in foetal loss or malformations because of the foetus’s inability to resist infectious organisms and the DNA damages caused by them. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the somatic DNA damage in TORCH positive children by CBMN assay and to correlate the results with various socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. The study was carried out in 45 study and 16 control subjects. The study clearly demonstrated that the mean CBMN frequency with respect to the demographic and clinical risk factors such as maternal age, paternal age, duration of married life, cytogenetic analysis, history of illness, history of drugs intake, etc had increased level of somatic DNA damage in CBMN assay. Thus the study indicates a positive correlation between congenital TORCH infection and the extent of somatic DNA damage i.e. increased levels of somatic damages were observed in subjects with more risk factors associated with genetically based conditions and demographic variables.

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British India?...[ ]


This scientific research article focus that in the Global History of Anthropological Science, the Ancient human race of India shall be broadly classified into three Categories. In proto Indo-Europe language these races shall be called as below.

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Leadership behaviors and its effects on employees’ happiness[ ]


Leadership behavior has a critical role in the creation of successful organizations (Larsson & Vinberg, 2010). The positive leaders can influence their followers and make them happy; which will be reflected in their performance and productivities of the organization positively. Leader mode can have a deep impact on people’s outcomes, so they should be aware of its effects and use efficiently to motivate their followers, and also to let them express their creativities in the way that can make a profitable impact for everyone. The leader can create a healthy environment, which has long-lasting effects on the organizations, and the leader encourages employees’ to invest in themselves, in order to contribute in company success. In order to achieve a great outcome, the followers need 4 things from the leader: Trust, compassion, stability, and hope (Rath & Conchie, 2008).

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Sparse Itemset Mining Using Minimal Infrequent Weighted Itemset Algorithm[ ]


Extraction of fascinating information or patterns from the immensely colossal corpus.Sparse data analysis are important for several applications such as finding association between infrequently purchased retail items and analysis of biomedical data as rare patterns. Hence sparse item set mining plays major role for sparse data correlation. In the proposed system, first the weighted item sets are identified then by using these weights, relevant items are differentiated thereby infrequent item sets are discovered. FP-growth algorithm that accomplishes Minimal Infrequent weighted Item set (MIWIs) Mining is used to efficiently perform the correlations of dataset from different transactions. Experimental results show the efficiency of proposed system using synthetic data set and real data set. The proposed work contributes the techniques that may concentrates in decision making system that support domain expert’s targeted actions based on the characteristics of discovered MIWIs

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An Innovative and Revolutionary Step in Wireless Communication Field i.e. 4G wireless System[ ]


This paper presents the latest technique of wireless communication called as 4G wireless systems. The 4G system was originally envisioned by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It includes the specification, mobile management, quality of service, wireless standard, objective and approach. The development in this field from first generation to third generation and by eliminating the weakness there in have forced to develop technology to provide broadband services which has resulted in the existence of 4G wireless system. This system is safe and secure for everyone.

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Contamination Of Soils Around Garbage Dump[ ]


The concentration of heavy metals was studied in the soil samples collected around the Pantang municipal solid waste (MSW) open dumpsite. This study sought to determine the chemical effects of un-engineered landfills on surrounding soils. Soil samples were collected on the site, uphill and downhill relative to the garbage dump for laboratory testing and analysis.

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Deploying Renewable Energy Microgrids To Improve India’S Electricity Scenario Challenges & Opportunities[ ]


The paper explains the concept, benefits and features of standalone and smart micro grid systems. The architecture, design, operation and control of the Micro Grid systems in various modes is visualized. An overview of the autonomous microgrid and Smart Grid technology is presented. This is followed by prsenting brief account of the Indian electricity scenario and Government initiatives to minimize energy poverty and promote energy equity, energy security and sustainability of energy and environment through the application of micro grid technologies. The younger generation, especially engineers and technologists are sensitized to involve themselves in eradicating energy poverty and strengthen sustainability of energy and environment. And finally, the new paradigms in the Smart grid design and benefits accruing there from including from adaptation of the renewable energy resources and smart grid technology describe the highlights of this paper.

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Leveraging On E-learning Platform For The Enhancement Of Computer Studies In High Schools[ ]


The teaching and learning of computer studies in high school in developing countries of the world will achieve a better result if the instrumentality of electronic learning is deployed. As the penetration of internet increases, accessibility to quality and relevant materials through e-learning platform will provide an alternative method to compliment the traditional way of teaching and learning. The target groups here are the high school students who are unable to attend classes because of scheduling, transportation problems or other restrictions. This means that from the comfort zones of each student, that is, from home, learning is made possible through a web based e-learning system. The fact that students only study abstract computer studies makes it difficult for them to be interested in the field of computer science. But with this project, there will be a lot of change; that is more secondary school students wanting to further their education in computer science. That is why the interface is easy to navigate and allows the user/learner to be in charge of the system. The design was done using PHP as the front end and MySQL as the back end.

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Matlab Simulation of Photovoltaic System for Speed Control of BLDC Motor[ ]


In this paper we have carried out the speed control of the brush-less direct current (BLDC) motor and studied the behavior of the motor by analyzing performance parameters, being modeled and simulated in the MATLAB 2011b. The BLDC motor is now used in various industrial and medical applications due to their simple construction, high efficiency, good dynamic response and reliability. The motor is operated using the photovoltaic (PV) array, which is having the input of constant solar irradiation. The maximum power through which the PV array is made to operate for highest efficiency is tracked using the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method. The MPPT method is developed using perturb and observe (P & O) algorithm. The dc-dc buck converter is employed for the stepping-up of the voltage as per the requirement. The signals in the pulse-width modulation (PWM) generator is developed using the PI controller, Phase-locked loop (PLL), Park’s and Clarke’s methods.

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Parametric Studies of Vacuum Assisted Laser Forming[ ]


Laser forming of sheet metal offers the advantages of requiring no hard tooling and thus reduced cost and increased flexibility. It also enables forming of some materials and shapes that are not possible now. In single-axis laser bending of sheet, the bending edge is found to be somewhat curved and the bending angle varies along the laser-scanning path. These phenomena are termed edge effects, which adversely affect the accuracy of the bending and result in stress. Numerical investigations are carried out to study the process transiency and the mechanism of the edge effects. Temperature dependency of material properties and strain-rate dependency of low stress are considered in the numerical simulation to improve prediction accuracy. Numerical results are validated in experiments. Patterns of edge effects and resultant stress distributions are examined under a wide range of conditions. Experiment set up for vacuum assisted laser forming has been also developed. FE analysis includes a static coupled thermal-structural analysis accounting for the temperature dependency of the thermal and mechanical properties of the material. The time dependent temperature and bending angle have been obtained from the simulation. (Material property of AISI 1010 and pure aluminum is used in FE model and experiments). Three dimensional FE-simulations model has been developed with the help of ANSYS software.

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Performance Evaluation of Alternative Evaporative Cooling Media[ ]


In this paper different cooling pads have been studied. Three types of cooling pad made of a cellulose, aspen fiber, and coconut coir were comparatively studied. This study is performed in summer and based on weather conditions of Bhopal, India; maximum dry bulb temperature of air 41.2 °C and 26.1 °C wet bulb temperature. The relative humidity of 31.1 % is carried out from online psychrometric calculator. The primary air velocity considered varies between 0.5 m/s to 3.0 m/s and the performance of the cooling pads are analyzed based on the saturation efficiency, leaving air temperature, specific humidity, relative humidity, cooling capacity and water consumption. Graphs are plotted for variation in Saturation efficiency and cooling capacity for different materials of pad with air mass flow rate. Saturation efficiency of the cooling pads made of cellulose was in the ranges of 64.55 to 55.29 %, for aspen it was 80.99 to 68.86%, and for coconut coir 68.15 % to 50.79 % was observed. It is seen that the saturation efficiency decreases with increase in velocity of air and the cooling capacity increases with air velocity. It is also observed that the Aspen fiber has higher efficiency while coconut coir has lower and the water consumption rate increases with air mass flow rate.

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A Review On Implementation of Ict-based Education In Nigeria: Limitations And Challenges[ ]


Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have become commonplace entities in all aspect of life. ICT has fundamentally changed the practices and procedures of nearly all forms of human endeavour and they are playing major roles in work places, business, education, and entertainment. Moreover, many people recognize ICTs as catalysts for change; change in working conditions, handling and exchanging information, teaching methods, learning approaches, scientific research and accessing information. The aim of this study is to explore the concept of ICT, the limitations and challenges of integrating ICTs to education systems. Though within the education system, ICT has begun to have a presence but the impact has not been as extensive as in other fields.

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Study of Refractive index on non linear optical material of Potasium dihydrogen phosphate, Potasium titanyl phosphate, potassium niobate[ ]


Refractive indices for the crystals potassium dihydgrogen phosphate, potassium titanyl phosphate and potassium niobate are measured. Samples of KDP from different crystal growers had slightly different refractive indices. The refractive indices of KDP for ordinary rays are studied as a function of temperature. The temperature coefficient of the refractive indices has little dependence on the wavelength. From the data obtained the refractive indices and their dependence temperature, wavelength and pressure are discussed.

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Optimization of biodiesel production process from low cost high FFA Polanga (Calophyllum Inophyllum L.) oil.[ ]


Polanga biodiesel is an alternative fuel consisting of alkyl monoesters made from a low cost non edible vegetable oil. As it contains large amount of free fatty acids (FFA), it cannot be converted into biodiesel using only alkaline catalyst. In this paper, a catalyzed pretreatment technique has been discussed to reduce the FFA before transesterifying the oil. Varying parameter such as time, molar-ratio, amount of catalyst, alcohol etc has been studied. On the basis of study best strategy has been determined to reduce FFA. With this strategy FFA of the Polanga oil was reduced to less than 2% which was ideal for transesterification to produce biodiesel with appropriate physico-chemical properties and maximum yield.

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Adoptive PID control Parameters Optimization using Trust-Region-Reflective Algorithm for pH Neutralization Process[ ]


The pH control process has been used in industry in a wide number of applications. Its dynamics are highly nonlinear. The pH control process is subjected to uncertainties of mathematical model describing the kinetics changes of chemical process and the external disturbances. The pH control process using the PID control technique will be investigated in this paper. The setting and adjustment of PID controller parameters define the behavior of PID control. Due to external disturbances and changes of the pH of an environment with time, the adjustment of the PID control parameters should respond to these changes. The simulation of the pH control process and its control are studied using pH kinetics model adopted by [1] and PID control model. PID control parameters are estimated and tuned using a trust-region-reflective optimization technique. The estimated and tuned PID parameters are fed to a pH process control. Simulation results have demonstrated, that the use of trust-region-reflective tuned PID controller, are in a good dynamic behavior of the pH process, a perfect set point tracking with little overshot, gives better performance and high robustness.

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