Volume 5, Issue 10, October 2014 Edition

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Seismic Evaluation of Ten Storeyed RC Buildings with Openings in Infill walls[ ]


Infill walls are commonly used in the RC frame structure buildings in India. Openings in infill walls are unavoidable part. Openings in infill walls are considerably decrease the lateral strength and stiffness of RC frames. In the paper two-dimensional ten storeyed reinforced concrete (RC) building models are considered with different sizes of openings (15%, 25%, and 35%). Bare frame and soft storey buildings are modeled considering special moment resisting frame (SMRF) for medium soil profile under zone III. Brick masonry infill walls are modelled as pin-jointed single equivalent diagonal strut. Pushover analysis is carried out for both default and user defined hinge properties as per FEMA 440 guidelines using SAP2000 software. Results of default and user defined hinge properties are studied by nonlinear static analysis. The results of ductility ratio, safety ratio, global stiffness, and hinge status at performance point are compared with the models. Authors conclude that user-defined hinge model is better than the default-hinge model in reflecting nonlinear behavior compatible with the element properties the user needs to be careful. The misuse of default-hinge properties may lead to unreasonable displacement capacities for existing structures. However, if the default-hinge model is preferred due to easy way, the user should be aware of what is provided in the program and should ignore the misuse of default-hinge properties.

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Residue Reduction and Reuse in Wooden Furniture Manufacturing Industry[ ]


A small amount of something that remains after the main part has gone or been taken or used is residue. Wooden residue means the small remainder parts left after any operation done on a wooden piece in any wooden company such as saw-mills, wooden furniture industries, pallet-mills etc. There are certain reasons for residue formation. Residue formation affects the unit price of a wooden product as well as the break-even point as well as the economic situation of a wooden furniture industry. In this project, types of wooden residues, effect of residue formation on a wooden furniture industry, the reasons behind residue formation, processes to remove the reasons are broadly discussed. The effects on the economic situation of the unit price of a wooden product before applying the processes and after applying the processes are also shown. Properly applying the discussed process will lead to lower unit cost, lower break-even point and higher profit. In this project the various ways of reusing the unavoidable residues which remain after the application of the various residue reducing processes are also discussed.

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Integration of Geophysical and Geochemical Methods in the Study of ‘Laka’ Dumpsite Ogbomoso, Oyo State[ ]


Recently, the shock hazards that always come along contaminated groundwater in Laka area of Ogbomoso, south western Nigeria which contain some elements in excess quantity more than the Nigeria standard for drinking water quality 556 (207) recommendation for groundwater potability has become a major concern. With the aim of providing valuable information on hydrogeologic system of the aquifers, subsurface lithology, and delineating groundwater contamination, Thirty three (33) vertical electrical sounding (VES) was carried out utilizing surface Schlumberger electrode arrays and electrode spacing of 50m coupled with hydrogeochemical analysis of the surrounding hand dug wells for Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe3+, No3-, calcium, hardness, total hardness e.t.c. The DC resistivity survey revealed significant variation in the subsurface resistivity. Also, VES resistivity curves showed a dominant trend of low resistivity (high conductivity) at shallow depth of =15m and later increases with depth. In general the presences of three-four layers were delineated viz.: sandy, sand/gravel topsoil, clay, weathered layer and the fresh bedrock. The thickness and resistivity values range respectively from 0.42 to 2.5m and 13.51 to 150.9?m for the top soil, 1.1 to 12.5m and 11.7 to 300.1?m for the weathered/clay layer. These anomalous low resistivities indicate area with contaminated groundwater. The result of the hydrochemical analysis also agreed with the presence of contamination.

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Methods for Improving Communication Skills of Rural Students in Pharmaceutical Education[ ]


India is one of the developing countries having a lot of rural students but they are not properly utilized. Many of the students from urban areas having enough qualification are getting good job opportunities. But the category which is the rural students is just having the dream of getting an employment. Employers prefer to hire and promote those persons who are resourceful, ethical and self directed with good communication skills. Hard skills and experience are not at all enough for the competitive and escalation in the global world. The rural students also should get employment otherwise it will become very serious and critical. Rural students who are studying Pharmaceutical Education should be given opportunities to learn and practice interpersonal communication skills during their educational curriculum. In this paper the role communication skill for the rural student in order to get better employment has been discussed and presented in the technical format. The communication skill Faculty has the responsibility of setting the stage for the pharmacy students to get good communication skill when they are studying in the college itself. Once theory lectures is completed, faculty can develop strategies for incorporating the students into the practice's patient care activities. Students should participate in model patient counselling, interviewing, and educational sessions. Also, students should participate in collaborative work with other health care providers. To ensure the development of communication skills in pharmacy students, all the faculty who are teaching technical papers also incorporate the communication skill process into their teaching activities. By following these strategies, an institute can effectively and positively impact the communication skills of their rural students thereby they can get good job opportunities in the global world.

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Assessment of Poverty with reference to Accessibility to Safe Drinking Water Resources using Fuzzy Variables[ ]


The basic needs of a household are food, dress and house. By observing down one’s housing conditions, dressing styles and food habits, we get an impression on their financial status. In rural villages, the housing patterns and dress styles are same and it is difficult to get correct details on the quantity and quality of their food consumption. Also among the poor, very often the food consumption level of quantity and quality varies. Drinking water, as a natural resource in villages plays a vital role, not only as a component in food but also on the health conditions and social status. Access to safe drinking water is a visible criterion of one’s economic status in rural villages. As there are many factors which are not quantifiable with regard to accessibility of drinking water, we have to use fuzzy concepts to estimate one’s financial status. In this paper we use fuzzy sets and criterions to analyze the accessibility of drinking water with special reference to villages in Nalanda District, Bihar, India.

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Image Reconstruction from Finite Projections with Geometry Transfer[ ]


This paper proposes a method of image reconstruction using the concept of geometry transfer of the image with discrete paired transform combined with radon transform. It is based on the fact that the integral geometry of the image can be transferred from the image plane to Cartesian lattice. This is achieved by converting the line integrals obtained from the image and converting them to line sums of the corresponding discrete image. Radon transform is combined with paired transform to obtain exact reconstruction with finite number of images. This is an effective and improved method. The number of calculations required is reduced as the number of projections is limited and the reconstruction is exact. This method provides exact reconstruction even when the projections are noisy.

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Auto-Equalizer For Music Applications[ ]


When a song is recorded, it undergoes a lot of processing before it is produced. One of the most important and difficult parts of the mixing process is equalizing the tracks. Equalization is nothing but changing the gains at the various frequency components present in the song. An auto-equalizer is an easy-to-use tool which will help any lay man to apply basic equalization to his music track and produce a good quality song.

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Medical Application of Output Intensity Characterization of Red He-Ne Laser[ ]


The object of this paper is to obtain the output intensity of He-Ne laser by investigating the specific novel characteristics of calculated parameters of the laser for medical application. Low-level He-Ne laser is commonly used in therapy and has advantages of having beneficial effects on tissue healing and pain relief. However, present studies show that the effectiveness of this modality varies. Hence, this research focuses on computing the characterization of the output intensity at variant ratios of Helium and Neon mixture of laser with different wavelengths and pressures for standard effective medical therapy. Using mirror coatings with their peak reflectance at these wavelengths and pressures, the intensity measurements of He-Ne laser were carried out. It concludes that based on certain standardized wavelengths and associated pressures, the intensity of variant ratio of He-Ne lasers output are achievable

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Selection of Wheels in Robotics[ ]


Robotics is an emerging field in coming years. Today robots are used in wide applications, like material handling, mechanical controls, welding etc. For locomotive purpose robots are made with integrated driving system wherein wheels and driving motors are coupled to drive robots. This paper explains and gives details about the wheels and the significance of selecting the optimum one for the respective Robots which are required to compete in the challenge. The Wheels were selected on the factors and methods based on the degrees of freedom, weight distribution, wheel geometry, field material and wheel material. The system defined in this paper, is cost effective and rugged. This system can be implemented for various types of Robots and provides the perfect fit in terms of mobility, locomotion and ideal stability.

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Introducing the Photosynthesis-Stomatal Conductance Coupled Model into Greenhouse Microclimate Studies[ ]


This paper introduces the photosynthesis-stomatal conductance coupled model, well known and frequently used in the studies of vegetation-atmosphere interaction, to be incorporated into the studies of modeling greenhouses’ microclimate. The use of this model, unlike many of other models in the literature, allows accurate modeling of stomatal conductance for many plant types and under several environmental conditions. It also guarantees the modeling of the photosynthesis process ,which is important for microclimate and CO2 enrichment purposes, due to the direct coupling between photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in this model. Although the many advantages of this model, the many details associated with it may be the reason behind not being used in greenhouse microclimate modeling studies. Thus, this paper comes with an aim of facilitating the use of this model and encouraging modelers of greenhouses’ microclimate to use this powerful model by providing them the necessary background for the treatment of the model in a well organized form that contains all the necessary and required information they may need in their use of the model. In this paper, the photosynthesis-stomatal conductance coupled model is introduced by first illustrating briefly the biochemical background of the photosynthesis process and then introducing the accurate biochemical model that represents it. Then the photosynthesis-stomatal conductance coupled model is presented with its analytical solution methodology that gives accurate estimation of the photosynthesis rate and the stomatal conductance. Finally, validation of the model results with available experimental data is performed for a representative crop type under different environmental conditions. This validation proves the accuracy of the model in predicting the photosynthesis rate and in turn the stomatal conductance.

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CELL’S FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION IN A BIOLOGICAL NETWORK[ ]


Aim of this paper is to catalogue all molecules and interactions in living cell.We show that the tools of network theory offer unseen possibilities to understand the cell’s internal organization and evolution, altering our view of cell biology. The generic principles of cellular networks is fundamental to our understanding of the cell as a system, it also needs to develop relevant system for the experimental biologist, helping to explain the role of individual molecules in various cellular processes.

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A NOVEL DESIGN OF 9-BIT PIPELINE ADC[ ]


In this paper, design of low power, 9-bit pipeline ADC architecture is introduced .A pipeline ADC architecture has a 3-stage pipeline ADC with 3-bit flash ADC followed by a 3-bit DAC at each stage. A novel approach to design a 3-bit ADC is implemented; this design offers less number of comparator and low power consumption with less circuit complexity based on this idea a 9-bit ADC is simulated in cadence virtuoso in 90 nm technology the maximum sampling speed is achieved by 670 MS/s. The power consumption of pipeline ADC is 39mW.

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Epidemiological Estimation of Foliar Rust Diseases of Wheat and Pathological Assessment of Different Rust Pathogens Isolated from Rainfed Areas of Punjab, Pakistan[ ]


Foliar rust diseases of wheat are major constraints to agriculture system of Pakistan. Wheat is consumed by 99% people of this country and also a source of economic growth. But due to epidemic of foliar rust diseases in various regions of the state quality as well as quantity of wheat varieties cannot be meet up to international standards. A couple of surveys were conducted to assess foliar rust disease severity in rainfed areas of upper, middle and lower pothohar region of Punjab, Pakistan. From four districts 21 locations were selected and wheat growing fields were surveyed. Questionnaires were filled by farmers to gather information about their crop management practices. During second survey infected leaves were collected to get inoculums of yellow, brown rust and powdery mildew. These inoculums were multiplied on universal susceptible wheat variety Morocco. Increased inoculum was collected and preserved for race identification and virulence behavior. The survey study concluded that powdery mildew was present only in one location of district Attock while stem rust was absent in all locations of four districts. Prevalence, incidence and severity of yellow and brown rust varied from one location to another. Yield attributes data of each wheat growing field covered number of tillers m-1 length, number of grains spike-1, harvest index and grain and straw yields. Information extracted from surveys of wheat growing fields during 2013-2014 will help to formulate policies according to changing environmental conditions and crop management systems will be modified to meet international standards.

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TOR Security: Prohibit DNS Leakage through Torsocks[ ]


The Tor project provides individuals with a mechanism of communicating anonymously on the Internet. Moreover, Tor is able of providing anonymity to servers, which are configured to get inbound connections only via Tor—more commonly called hidden services. In order to route demand to these hidden services, a namespace is used to verify the resolution requests to such services. A namespace under a non-delegated (pseudo) top-level-domain (TLD) of .onion was elected. Although the Tor system was designed to prevent .onion requests from leaking into the global DNS resolution process, numerous requests are still recognized in the global DNS. Many Tor users don't realize that when they use Tor, there is a many hazard that although connections across Tor network are torrified and encrypted, DNS requests made within the torrified application will not be routed via the Tor network. Therefore, the DNS requests will be made via our own machine. This is a security hazard because anyone watching our computer or our DNS server can tell what names we are looking up, and guess that those are the domains we are visiting via Tor. So, DNS requests not sent through Tor network by default and Attacker could see what websites are being visited. In last paper, the Traffics going over Tor do not encrypted, it’s just anonymous and also used malicious exit node and port or router can observe traffic and identified attacker/hacker. So, in this case, number of ports/routers is injected by attacker. This process takes more time to identify attacker. we overcome these entire problems and provide best solution through Torsocks. Torsocks can prohibit DNS leakage due to things like DNS prefetching or binary plugging that generate their own network traffic, whereas HTTP or SOCKS proxies cannot prohibit these kinds of leaks.

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Parametric Analysis of Environmental and Physiological Parameters on Comfort Air-Conditioning[ ]


Human thermal comfort is governed by six basic environmental and physiological parameters viz. air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air velocity, air humidity, thermal insulation of clothing and activity level of occupants. Thermal comfort can be achieved by many different combinations of these basic variables. The relative effect of these variables on thermal comfort is of great importance. It is impossible to consider the effect of any of these factors independently on thermal comfort as the effect of each of them and the necessary requirement depends on the level and condition of other factors. In order to investigate the relative effect of environmental and physiological parameters a human thermoregulatory model proposed by Fanger was employed as a tool. A detailed analysis was done by considering four different values of clothing insulation and two activity levels over varying environmental conditions. It was deduced that relative humidity made no insignificant effect on thermal comfort in the comfort zone. It was also found that under extreme hot and cold discomfort conditions, a small change in the climatic conditions made large effect on the thermal sensation.

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Intelligent Road Traffic Control: Performance analysis of Support Vector Machines against Feedforward & Competitive Neural Networks[ ]


Road Traffic congestion solution is not yet a “won battle” and has received a relatively laudable attention especially in the last two decades in view of various engineering solutions that exists and commitments from management agencies in implementing emerging efficient and sophisticated control systems at traffic sections to alleviate ordeals of road users considering redundant waiting times, fuel economy and reduced environmental pollution due to emission from vehicles exhaust. Some responses to traffic congestion solutions include various implementations of technologies such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), inductive loop, magnetometer, infra-red based vehicle presence monitoring and the typical purely timer based controlled traffic lights. This research work builds on a more recent approach to road traffic control “Road Traffic Control using Artificial Neural Networks” in which a feedforward neural network was designed to classify congestion (road with denser traffic) levels using processed scene images captured at a traffic control section. The output of network was then used to drive traffic lights installed at the section and a recognition rate of 93% was achieved in the above mentioned work. This paper reviews the earlier mentioned research using vector support machines and competitive neural networks to realize the same task; and hence a comparative performance analysis made in consideration of achieved recognition rate, computational ease and manual input required (labelled data).

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Toxic Effect of Heavy Metals on Filamentous Fungi Isolated From Contaminated Soil of Kasur[ ]


It is well-known that certain varieties of metals are necessary for plant growth and for varieties of biological actions. However, whether the metals are essential or non-essential, they are noxious or toxic to certain levels. The metals become toxic or hazardous when their limit exceeds from permissible limits or standards set by EPA. Sixteen fungi were isolated from heavy metal polluted sites of peri-urban areas of Kasur. Filamentous fungi isolated belonged to the genera Aspergillus spp., Aspergillusnidulans, Aspergillusochraceus, Geotrichum sp., Rhizopus sp., Curvularia spp., Fusarium sp., Aspergillusniger, Penicillium sp., Acremonium sp. and Aspergillusfumigatus. The heavy metal resistance development of Aspergillus sp., Aspergillusnidulans, Geotrichum sp., Rhizopus sp., Curvularia sp., Fusarium spp., Aspergillusniger, Penicillium sp., Acremonium sp. and Aspergillusfumigatusstrains in the presence of Pb(NO3)2, Cd (NO3)2, Cr (NO3)2 and CuSO4.6H2O was studied up to concentration of 100ppm. The adaptive performance was measured from the development frequency of the strains with time. The effect of metal type, the metal concentration and the type of strains on this adaptive performance was examined. The results discovered that the Penicillium sp., Acremonium sp., Curvularia sp. and Aspergillusfumigatuswere highly tolerant/resistant towards the metal (Pb(NO3)2, Cd (NO3)2, Cr (NO3)2 and CuSO4 .6H2O) concentrations. In future, the same fungal species will be verified with other metals for the clear understanding of tolerance.

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Isolation And Characterization Of Post Harvest Fungal Pathogens Of Citrus Varieties From The Domestic Markets of Rawalpindi And Islamabad[ ]


Citrus fruit health is equally important at national and international markets for attracting customers as well as receiving better prices. Post-harvest diseases of citrus minimize the fruit quality and quantity and cause heavy losses, thus it does not meet the required standard and it causes economic loss in international markets due to the considerable differences between export and local prices. Post-harvest diseases caused by bacteria, yeast and fungi develop on fruits and other plant products between harvesting and consumption. Citrus markets of Rawalpindi and Islamabad were assessed for Post-harvest fungal diseases. The studies were accomplished for the isolation and identification of fungal pathogens from the three varieties of citrus viz. Kinnow, Malta and Musami. A survey was conducted during February 2013 to evaluate the status of major post harvest diseases like stem end rot, mold, citrus canker and alternaria brown spot on citrus fruit. The study illustrated that the citrus variety Kinnow was more prone to fungal diseases than Malta and Musami. The results of the study also revealed that fruit samples were almost 3-5 days old and proper storage facilities were not available at the market. As an initial step to improve the quality of citrus and to meet its enhancing demand in the foreign and domestic markets, there is a dire need to understand the Post harvest fnugal diseases and their pathogens prevailing in the country for later management strategies. Improper packing, transport and market storage facilities can contribute towards food spoilage. The present study found that the Geotrichumcandidum, Diplodianatalensis, Penicilliumsp, Trichodermaviride, Fusarium sp., Alternariaalternata, Aspergillusniger, Aspergilllusfumigatus, and Aspergillusochraceous were the fungal pathogens involved in sour rot, stem end rot, green mold, Trichoderma rot, Fusarium rot, black rot, and black mold rot diseases and these were major post-harvest diseases that damage the citrus fruit. As far as, it was also observed that MEA was the best media for the growth of Diplodianatalensis, and Aspergillusochraceous.

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A New Approach to the Digital Implementation of Analog Controllers for a Power System Control[ ]


In this paper a comparison of discrete time PID, PSS controllers is presented through small signal stability of power system comprising of one machine connected to infinite bus system. This comparison achieved by using a new approach of discretization which converts the S-domain model of analog controllers to a Z-domain model to enhance the damping of a single machine power system. The new method utilizes the Plant Input Mapping (PIM) algorithm. The proposed algorithm is stable for any sampling rate, as well as it takes the closed loop characteristic into consideration. On the other hand the traditional discretization methods such as Tustin’s method is produce satisfactory results only; when the sampling period is sufficiently low.

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Video Watermarking using Transforms[ ]


Recent years have witnessed rapid growth in Digital video watermarking. Security and copyright protection are becoming important issues in multimedia applications and services. Watermarking techniques have been proposed for these purposes in which the copyright information is embedded into multimedia data in order to protect the ownership. Although Watermarking provides a feasible solution for security, it still faces many challenges, as dealing with real time data is quite a demanding task. The proposed architecture uses DCT algorithm for embedding an image in a video. Invisible watermarks give fruitful results by securing the video and provide copyright protection. IDCT is then applied for extracting an image from video. The comparison between the images gives the end user relief from video tampering problem.

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Continuous Query Processing in Location Based Services[ ]


The increasing development of mobile devices and wireless technology has motivated interet in mobile services in the new era of mobile computing.

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Biofuel Production from Balanite Aegyptiaca and Azadirachta Indica Seeds[ ]


The current study highlights biodiesel and ethanol production from Balanite aegyptiaca and Azadirachta indica plants. Both plants are capable of producing the parent oil as long-chain fatty acid triglycerides showing thirty per cent yield, followed by biodiesel synthesis with high yield. Balanite aegyptiaca showed a higher biodiesel yield (75%) compared to Azadirachta indica (49%). In addition, Balanite aegyptiaca is lighter, showing specific gravity of 0.83 and lower viscosity (4.98 mm2/s) relative to that of Azadirachta indica seed, which has viscosity and specific gravity values of 5.25 mm2/s and 0.85, respectively. The biomass from the seeds is further used to generate bioethanol to optimize the utility of the seeds in biofuel production to maximize carbon recycling.

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Factor influencing customer purchase intention in travel websites: with special reference to Yatra.com[ ]


Tourism industry is making tremendous contribution to global economy. Tourism has a strong connection with socio-economic progress of the country and has a multiplier effect on the economy. There are large numbers of people who decide on their travel plans by searching online. Internet can provide direct contact making it easier to create customized packages by linking with several companies’ websites.

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Android based security system Using Arduino[ ]


Security locks play a crucial role in the protection of materials valuable to a person or a group of people. These locks vary from being simple in design to complex. Locks that are simple in design and easy to use often are easy to breach into and locks that are complex in design are tough to breach but tedious to use. High end lock systems are expensive and difficult to install. This project aims to add simplicity to the present complex lock system by incorporating an android phone’s Bluetooth connection, which nowadays are commonly available. Without the keypad available or lock visible makes this lock system even more secure than traditional locks.

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The Quantization of General Relativity: Photon Mediates Gravitation[ ]


In this paper I propose a quantization of general relativity of Einstein which leads to photon mediates gravitation. My quantization of GR depends on the modified special relativity MSRT which introduces a new interpretation to the Lorentz transformation equations depending on quantum theory (Copenhagen school) [25, 26, 27, 43]. My new interpretation to the Lorentz transformation leads to the Lorentz transformation is vacuum energy dependent instead of the relative velocity in Einstein’s interpretation to the Lorentz transformation equations in the SRT. Furthermore the Lorentz factor is equivalent to the refractive index in optics. In my interpretation to the Lorentz transformation I refuse the reciprocity principle which was adopted by Einstein in the SRT. Refusing the reciprocity principle in my theory leads to disappearing all the paradoxes in the SRT; the Twin paradox, Ehrenfest paradox, Ladder paradox and Bell's spaceship paradox [25, 26, 2,7, 43]. Furthermore, according to my interpretation I could reconcile and interpret the experimental results of quantum tunneling and entanglement (spooky action), —Casimir effect, Hartman effect— with the SRT in this paper [25, 26, 27, 43]. My new interpretation to the Lorentz transformation equations leads also to the wave-particle duality as in quantum theory, and thus agrees with Heisenberg uncertainty principle. The generalization of my transformation leads also the concept of acceleration or deceleration is vacuum fluctuations as in quantum field theory. In my proposed quantized force, the force is given as a function of frequency [1]. Where, in this paper I defined the relativistic momentum as a function of frequency equivalent to the relativistic kinetic energy held by a body and time, and then the quantized force is given as the first derivative of the momentum with respect to time. Subsequently I introduce Newton’s second law as it is relativistic quantized force, and then I introduce the relativistic quantized inertial force, and then by my equivalence principle which agreed completely with the experimental results of QFT, I introduce the relativistic quantized gravitational force, and the quantized gravitational time dilation.

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Combining PSO and SSGA to support multiobjective decision making[ ]


Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a computational method that optimizes a problem by iteratively trying to improve a candidate solution with regard to a given measure of quality. In this paper, we present a hybrid algorithm combining particle swarm optimization (PSO) with steady state genetic algorithm (SSGA) for solving multiobjectuve decision making (MODM) problems. The methodology combines and extends the attractive features of both PSO and SSGA, where it is based on PSO to get approximate nondominated set of the problem followed by SSGA to improve the solution quality, where Steady State GA is an alternative to the engine in order to improve the spread of the solutions found so far. The results, provided by the proposed algorithm for engineering problems, are promising when compared with exiting traditional GA approach that is based on the partial replacement of the parent population, instead of the whole population. Then, in the second stage, rough set theory is adopted as local search well-known algorithms. Also, our results suggest that our algorithm is better applicable for solving real-world application problems.

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Numerical investigation on flow past square cylinders with different corner shapes[ ]


Flow past square cylinders with and without corner modi?cation for Reynolds number 100 and 200 is carried out numerically in a tandem arrangement has been simulated by using commercial CFD code fluent. The flow is assumed to be two dimensional unsteady and incompressible. Results indicate, in case of chamfered and rounded corners in square cylinder, there is decrease in the wake width and thereby the lift and Drag coefficient values. The large velocity behind the cylinder decreases the lift and Drag coefficient. The lift coefficients of Square cylinder with corner modification decreases but strouhal number increases when compared with a square cylinder without corner modification. Strouhal number remains same even if magnitude of oscillations is increased while monitoring the velocity behind the cylinder. For the square cylinders of same perimeters with and without corner modification, the size of the eddy and the monitored velocity in between the square cylinders increases with increase in PPR. Frequency of vortex shedding decreases with the introduction of second cylinder either in the upstream or downstream of the first cylinder. The lift coefficient of square cylinder with corner modification decreases but Strouhal number increases when compared with a square cylinder without corner modification. The results are presented in the form of Streamlines, Monitored velocity, Pressure distribution. Drag coefficient, Lift coefficient and Strouhal number.

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