Volume 5, Issue 10, October 2014 Edition

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Application of Different Concepts to Estimate Dominant Discharge in the Gumti River of Bangladesh[ ]


Various methods have been proposed by different investigators for the choice of representative discharge which is very important in studying the river characteristics. This representative discharge is also referred to as dominant discharge in the literature and may be defined as that hypothetical discharge which would produce the same result in terms of average channel dimensions as the actual varying discharge. Moreover, dominant discharge produces maximum morphological activities for a regime channel. Estimation of the frequency of dominant discharge in the rivers is necessary for flood plain management. The determination of the dominant discharge is also very important for flood mitigation and estimation of flood damage. As a case study, different concepts (flow duration concept, bankfull discharge concept, bed generative discharge concept, meander wavelength concept) are adopted here for the computation of dominant discharge of the Gumti river of Bangladesh. In this study the frequency of dominant discharge of the Gumti River at Comilla was investigated and the dominant discharge was also determined. The flood discharge at particular station (Station ID-110) for 30 years had been analysed by collecting the data from BWDB (Bangladesh Water Development Board). The flood frequency analysis was used to find the return period of the dominant discharge in the Gumti River. It was found that the dominant discharge in the Gumti River at the above station has return period of around 1.005 years on partial series analysis. Finally, the dominant discharge for the Gumti River was found around 7000 cusec.

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Electronic Voice Controlled Wheelchair[ ]


This paper discusses a prototype of an electronic voice command controlled wheelchair. It is developed to make an amputee as independent as possible considering safety . It has two main parts – one is the electronic control given with the help of switch which are linked to the wheels in order to make the wheelchair move. Second is the voice control by which the patient can direct the wheelchair by giving command. These commands are read by the micro-controller to move the wheels in the desired direction. The commands are FORWARD, BACK, LEFT, RIGHT and STOP. It is a battery driven wheel chair, making it an independent system. The battery used is rechargeable. Moreover, speed control mechanism can be incorporated in order to vary the speed, as per the patient’s requirement. We have tried to make it as user friendly as possibly.Safety mechanisms like horn, hand brake, Infrared obstacle detector and an emergency stop button is also provided. It is an attempt keeping in mind the various categories of people using it. It is designed to be used as a partner rather than a tool.

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A Literature Review of E-Learning Model Based on Semantic Web Technology[ ]


Research works in the field of E-Learning are represented by a broad spectrum of applications, ranged from virtual classrooms to remote courses or distance learning. Web-based courses offer obvious advantages for learners by making access to educational resource very fast, just-in-time and relevance, at any time or place. In this paper, based on our previous work, we present the Semantic Web-Based model for our e-learning system. In addition we present an approach for developing a Semantic Web-based e-learning system, which focus on the RDF data model and OWL ontology language.

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Establishing an Effective Multi-Function System for Sugarcane Bagasse Bio-degradation[ ]


Sugar cane processing generates large amount of bagasse. Disposal of bagasse is critical for both agricultural profitability and environmental protection. Sugar-cane bagasse (SCB), being renewable and cheap substrates, has the potential to displace fossil fuels for the production of fuels and value-added chemicals. In this study, a complete degradation for SCB using chemical and biological methods was done to maximize its utilization. Chemical treatment degraded SCB into wax, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Further hydrolysis was carried out by biological treatments using different microbial isolates obtained from different localities in Egypt. Out of one-hundred and twelve bacterial isolates, 40 isolates showed better performance for SCB biodegradation, based on the recoverd reducing sugars. Data analysis was carried out with PRIMER 6 (Plymouth Routines In Multivariate Ecological Research) to analyze species diversity against substrate degradation rate. Isolate CS5 was selected as the most promising strains for SCB biodegradation. Finally, various nutritional and environmental parameters affected SCB biodegradation using isolate CS5 were investigated. The results obtained in this study indicate that strain CS5 has potential value for the degradation of SCB to produce high concentration of reducing sugars that would be easily available for various biotechnological applications especially for the bio-production of green chemicals.

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Literature Paper for Digital Signature based secure XML emails[ ]


XML has become the prime standards for data exchange on web and uniform data model for data integration. In the case of XML data, digital signature operation is applied to it, which is nothing but XML Digital Signature. It is a standard that is defined for signing an XML document and for representing a digital signature in an XML format. The use of XML format in the email system ensures security and privacy in its transaction. A higher level of security can be provided to the Digital Signature of our XML data by using XML Encryption. It is a flexible methodology for representing encrypted data in XML format. XML encryption supports the signing of the whole document or the partial document.

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Fluid Dynamics Characteristics of Nanofluids in a Rectangular Duct[ ]


This paper is a numerical investigation of fluid dynamics characteristics of nanofluids in a rectangular duct. Al2O3 and CuO are used as nanoparticles while water has been used as base fluid. The analysis is being carried out with three different diameters – 10nm, 50nm and 100 nm, particle volume concentrations of 0% to 5% and Reynolds number Re = 500. The variation of physical properties of base fluid is taken as temperature dependent. The velocity of nanofluids increases as the diameter is increased. The effect of nanoparticle volume concentration and size on wall shear stress is also analysed. This shows that wall shear stress increases with increase in particle volume concentration as well as particle size.

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Effect of local mass distribution on modal behavior of Aluminum foam[ ]


Free vibration analysis of aluminum foam sample is performed in the present paper. Mechanical properties of metallic foams depend on their relative densities. The discrete mass distribution of metallic foam causes discontinuities in their local properties. X-ray computer tomography (XCT) revealed the 3-D inhomogeneous mass distribution in metallic foams. The density mapping method is used to approximate the aluminum foam trade name ALPORAS by a continuous, 3-D density distribution at the mesolevel. The density recorded by XCT is homogenized over an averaging volume. A continuum model is implemented using the finite element (FE) method to simulate the effect of local mass distribution on the modal behavior of metallic foam sample. The effect of measured density distributed model (MDDM) Coarse sub-domain density model (CSDM), uniform average density model (UADM), and three random distributed density model (RDDM) on eigen frequencies of the aluminum foam sample is studied. Density distribution of aluminum foam measured by X-ray computer tomography was used as input to the corresponding FE model of investigated specimen. All numerical investigations were carried out by means of the FE package ANSYS.

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An Overview of DC to DC Converters In PV Applications[ ]


Photovoltaic energy conversion system is gaining importance day by day as it is clean, quiet and cheap. One of the main challenges is its low value of voltage produced. So, we go for dc to dc conversion where we can step up or step down the dc voltage produced. In this paper, buck-boost converter and partial power converters are discussed. Buck-boost converters can be used to step up and step down the output voltage in order to obtain a regulated output. Partial power converters are becoming popular these days due to its higher conversion efficiency.

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Detail Comparison of Network Simulators[ ]


Simulation software is an important platform of finding results to be expected from a practical hardware setup which is costly and tedious to modify frequently. There are a lot of Network Simulators in the communication world. Some of them are dedicated to wireless network, some of them are dedicated to wired network or both type of networks. Because of wide variations in operating systems, hardware requirements, programming software requirements, output features and scalability, it is very difficult to choose a suitable simulator for a specific job. Our aim is to subjugate the barrier. We have studied and compared the detail features of the Network Simulators for the sake of choosing the absolutely necessary one from the pool of simulators.

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Effect of different soil conservation measures on infiltration capacity of soil at FazaGat Swat[ ]


For management of watershed area land use optimization is the best management tool for the managers. Knowledge about the effect of different soil conservation measures on the water budget is very important. In mountainous area loss of water from the watershed is one of the major problems in Pakistan due to low infiltration capacity. Pakistan Forest Institute Peshawar initiated a study to determine the effect of different land uses/bio-technical treatments on runoff and sediment yield in the sub tropical Chir pine zone in the head water catchment. For this purpose five contiguous sub-watersheds (having almost similar slopes and soil characteristics) were selected which have been instrumented in to measure stream flow, sediment yield, precipitation and other atmospheric and soil parameter at FazaGat, near Saidu Sharif, Swat, KPK. Different treatments namely; mix plantation with engineering techniques, mix plantation, pure chirpine plantation with engineering techniques and pure chirpine plantation with range land improvement practices and closed to grazing were randomly applied to four sub-watershed, while the 5th one was kept untreated and open for grazing. The objective of present study was to assess the effect of different soil conservation measures on infiltration capacity of soil at experimental watershed, FazaGat, Swat District, KPK. Soil infiltration capacity was studied in the field using double ring infiltrometer with a constant head of 2.5 cm. At each point total ten readings were recorded The statistical analysis of the data was carried out, using F-test. A probability level of 5 % was used. The average maximum (9.16 cm/hr) infiltration rate was recorded from sub-watershed (SWl) treated with (mixture of tree species + check dams + on grazing) followed by (6.40 cm/hr) infiltration rate from sub-watershed (SW2) treated with (Chirpine + check dams + on grazing). While the lowest (2.5 cm/hr) infiltration rate was recorded from sub-watershed (SW5) have no treatment. It was observed from the analysis of data that planting mixture of tree species (conifers and broad-leaved) with check dams and control to grazing has been found the best treatment for watershed management and soil conservation purposes as compare to other treatment tested in the area.

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Enhancing Social Network Privacy Using RSA Algorithm by Data Anonymization Methodology[ ]


In the social network site large amount of data can be published and shared between the users. So the major concern when publishing and sharing the data in the site is to preserve the data with privacy. The goal of preserving privacy is to prevent an attacker from re-identifying a user and finding the fact that a certain user has a specific sensitive value. So define a RSA algorithm for safely publishing a social network labeled graph, and then develop corresponding graph anonymization algorithms in the original graph. Then further propose a novel anonymization algorithm of introducing noise nodes in the original graph with the least distortion to key graph properties. The user of RSA creates and secures the graph by means of two large prime numbers.

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An Edge Detection Algorithm to Identify Multi-Size Lesions[ ]


Lesions in images can be detected using several edge detection methods such as Canny, Sobel, Roberts and Prewitt. However, all of these methods are time consuming in detecting lesions. The reason being each of the pixels is serially searched from top to bottom and from left to right in the image. In addition, a lesion can only be detected when all pixels have been completely searched. The methods are inefficient as some of pixels, usually at the edge of a lesion fail to be detected. This paper presents experimental results on an algorithm that was developed based on Artificial Bee Colony (ABC). Results showed that ABC produced a better percentage of correctness and the detection time than others edge detection methods such as Canny, Sobel, Roberts and Prewitt. The study has the potential to make a substararitial contribution to the body of knowledge in the image processing agriculture intelligence areas.

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Identification of Benign and Malignant Tumor from Chest CT Scans By Using Support Vector Machine[ ]


Lung cancer is the number one cause of death every year and is the second most diagnosed after the breast and prostate cancer in women and men respectively. Nowadays, the lung lobe segmentation is the most basic step in early diagnosis of lung diseases and the analysis of pulmonary functions. Segmentation of the lobes is relevant in clinical practice. This paper aims at developing an efficient and cost effective system for lung segmentation and tumor identification from CT scan images. In pre-processing, first input image is converted into gray scale image and then wiener filter of mask 3*3 is used for removing noise present in the image. In post-processing, lungs and lobes segmentation and tumor classification is done. At last, the tumor present in the image is segmented. Lung segmentation is done by using adaptive thresholding. Marker based watershed transformation is used for lobe segmentation. Then, some important textural features of each image are extracted using GLCM. After this step, a supervised learning model i. e. SVM is used for the identification of benign and malignant tumor. After classification, the tumor presented in the input image is segmented using FCM algorithm. The required database contains 51 lung CT scans and is taken from LOLA 11 segmentation challenge. The proposed system is implemented in Matlab/R2012a software and has achieved an average accuracy of 95.56%.

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ANALYSIS OF 16QAM MODULATION WITH INTER-LEAVER AND CHANNEL[ ]


In this paper 16QAM Communication system performance is observed with AWGN channel, Doppler spreading effect, and then we introduced the concept of interleaver in order to raise the performance of overall system. In this project, hamming code (15,11) is used to improve the system performance. In next part of the project we take mobile movement of receiver into consideration and applied the concept of Doppler Spreading to Uncoded 16QAM and observed its effect on system performance. Then Hamming code is applied to Doppler spreaded 16QAM and system is simulated to observe coding effects on system performance. Then we introduced interleaver concept and system is simulated to observe the progress in system performance.

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Effect of superheated steam on lipid oxidation of reconstructed whole milk powder[ ]


Milk powders are ingredients that are widely used in food manufacturing. Milk powders are exposed to high temperatures during pro-cessing, which alters the physical and chemical properties of milk. In this study, the changes in acid, peroxide, thiobarbutric acid reac-tive substances (TBARS), and p-anisidine values were measured to reconstitute whole milk powder (WMP) in relation to thermal treatment by using a superheated steam oven with different temperatures and time periods. The temperature and time period ranged from 120 °C to 180 °C and from 5 min to 15 min. No significant differences were observed between the acid value and peroxide oxi-dation values of the samples and the control, which indicates that no oxidation reaction occurred between the fatty acids and oxygen in the superheated steam. TBARS and p-anisidine values did not show significant differences between samples but showed significant differences compared with the control. This study showed the ability of milk fat to reconstitute WMP and to maintain the nutritional value of milk during processing.

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Improvement in Hot Spot Technology in Cricket[ ]


Hot spot technology is an infra-red imaging system which is most popularly used in sports especially in cricket to determine whether the ball has actually struck the player or his equipments or even the ground. Hot spot was actually a technology developed in the military for tank and jet fighter detection. It was widely used in war prone areas for tracking of various military equipments. The device, known as‘hotspot’, could show whether a batsman was out or not with 85% accuracy. To Increase the Capacity of Hotspot Technique Upto 99.5% We decease in this Paper. It is a scientifically proven piece of technology that will end all speculation surrounding a dismissal. Hotspot technology uses two infra-red cameras which are positioned at either end of ground above the field of play that are continuously recording an image that show the miniscule amount of heat generated from friction when two objects collide. On any snick or bat pad event occurring the infra-red camera sends images to the computer which then turns it into a negative image showing us the outcome of the recent incident. This negative image is produced a technique known as subtraction technique. The image shows a hot spot on the area where there is collision giving us an accurate conclusion on the decision. Hotspot technology is also used in games like snooker and tennis. The main drawbacks in using this technique are the cost of implementing this technique in high. Also it affects the game speed. This technology is now being used on trial basis in cricket and it is proving to be successful. It is already of tennis and snooker. Also it is having a number of uses in military as well.

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A dynamic adaptive PSO based on chaotic search for constrained multiobjectuve optimization Problems`[ ]


In this paper, a new enhanced particle swarm optimization method with dynamic adaptation is presented. To enrich the searching behaviour and to avoid being trapped into local optimum, dynamic adaptive of PSO parameters are incorporated into PSO. In this algorithm, inertia weight of each particle is dynamically updated, also personal influence and social influence parameters are dynamically adapted during the process. Moreover, a modified velocity updating formula of the particle is presented, where, a new constriction factor which control the feasibility of the particles is presented. The proposed approach can be viewed as the global optimization algorithm while the chaotic search CS is employed for the local search. Thus, the possibility of exploring a global minimum in problems with many local optima is increased. The proposed method can obtain the global optimal results quickly, due to fast globally converging characteristics of PSO and the effective local search ability of CS. The results, provided by the proposed algorithm for benchmark engineering problems, are promising when compared with exiting well-known algorithms. Also, our results suggest that our algorithm is better applicable for solving real-world application problems.

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Experimental Investigations on influence of Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Supplementation in In-direct Injection (IDI) Compression Ignition Engine fuelled with Pre-Heated Straight Vegetable Oil (PHSVO)[ ]


Depletion of fossil fuels and increased emissions alarmed the researchers and scientists to rethink on alternative fuels to work with IC Engines. Being the same power contain in the vegetable oils can be used as alternative fuels have good heating value nearer to conventional diesel. Jatropa’s Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) was used in unmodified, 4 stroke, constant speed, single cylinder, 7.4 kW, water cooled, vertical, stationary engine was selected for experimentation. Gaseous hydrogen ( GH2) in the range of 0.3 gm/min to 1.0 gm/min was supplemented with pre-heated straight vegetable oil at 900 C (PHSVO 90) was tested under constant speed and variable loading conditions.

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