Volume 8, Issue 3, March 2017 Edition


Publication for Volume 8, Issue 3, March 2017.


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Classification of Benign and Malignant Tumors of Lung Using Bag of Features[ ]


This paper presents a novel approach for feature extraction and classification of lung cancer, i.e., Benign or malignant. Classification of lung cancer is based on a code book generated by using Bag of features algorithm. In this paper 300 regions of Interest (ROI’s) of lung cancer images from The Cancer Imaging Archive (TICA) sponsored by SPIE are used. In this approach Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) is used for feature extraction and this coefficients are quantized using a bag of features into a predefined code book. This code book is given as input to the KNN classifier. The overall performance of the system in classifying tumors of lung is evaluated by using Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve (ROC). Area under the curve (AUC) is Az=0.95.

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Hybrid Video Encryption System With Integrating W7 and A5 Framework[ ]


Images play a pivotal role in several applications like remote sensing, biomedical, videoconferencing. Interests in digital image processing methods stems from the following principal application areas: improvement of pictorials information for human interpretation; and processing of image data for storage and transmission for machine perception. Image Encryption means changing convert the image into unreadable format. This can be done by modifying the images pixels in terms of its (place, Value) in order to protect the information.

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A Survey on Privacy Preserving Association Rule Mining of Outsourced Databases[ ]


Data mining finds useful patterns from the large dataset. Data analysis techniques that are frequent itemset mining and association rule mining are two popular and broadly utilized for different applications. Personal or sensitive information of individuals, industries or organizations must be kept private before it is shared for the data mining. Hence privacy preserving data mining has become an important issue in the outsourcing databases. Nowadays, with the data storage and data processing technologies, privacy preservation has been one of the greater concern in the data mining. During last decade, lots of data mining techniques have been proposed. This paper aims to focus on comparative study of privacy preserving data mining techniques.

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Causes of Delays During Construction Phase of Road Projects due to The Failures of Contractor, Consultant, And Employer in Addis Ababa City Road Authority[ ]


Construction delay considered as one of the most recurring problems in the implementation of construction projects.It is widely known to have an adverse impact on project success in terms of time, quality and cost. The effect of construction delay is not only confined to the construction industry, but also its influence on the overall economy of a country like Ethiopia. This research was conducted to assess the causes of excessive delays in the completion of road project during the construction phase due to the failures of Employer, Consultant, and Contractor in Addis Ababa City Road Authority projects.

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Facial Expression Recognition System Using Extreme Learning Machine[ ]


Interest is growing in improving all aspect of the interaction between human and computer including human emotions. It is a crucial task for a computer to understand human emotions. A very meaningful way of expressing human emotions is facial expression. In this paper, a model facial expression recognition based on Extreme Learning Machine is proposed. Salient facial feature segments like eyebrows, eyes, mouth, and nose are detected from a face image and then these feature segments are extracted by using morphological image processing operation and edge detection technique to form feature vectors. Extreme Learning Machine, a feed-forward neural network classifier with a single layer of hidden nodes is used for recognizing expressions of the input faces into six basic categories like happy, sad, surprise, angry, disgust, and fear. The experiments of facial expression recognition system are carried out on JAFFE facial expression database and performances of experimental results are analysed.

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Bayesian Approach to the Decision of tasks of Insurance and Warranty Service[ ]


Insurance activities play an important role in the development of the country's economy. Practice shows that in the market of insurance services there are deviations of actual payments from their planned values determined in the sizes of tariff rates. As a result, insurance companies are forced to hold a significant amount of funds in liquid assets to compensate for unaccounted volatility, which reduces the effectiveness of insurance activities or increase the size of tariff rates, which affects the availability of insurance services. The possibility to take into account such deviations will allow insurance companies to approach the calculation of insurance tariffs more carefully and to conduct their activities more efficiently, which ultimately will positively affect the state of the insurance industry and the economy of the country as a whole. From this point of view, minimizing the risk of ruining an insurance company, evaluating and optimizing the parameters of warranty obligations are important tasks in decision theory.This paper investigates the problem of insurance and warranty services in a certain class of the probability distribution as a priori in this situation.

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LEVELS AND AIR QUALITY INDEX OF SO2 AND H2S IN AMBIENT AIR OF JEMITA/ YOLA METROPOLIS, ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA[ ]


The Air quality of hydrogen Sulphide and Sulphur dioxide in Jimeta/Yola Metropolis were determined at ten differentlocations, using a portable hand held gas monitor (crown instrument Ltd Oxon CE-89/336/EEC). The result showed that concentration of SO2 and H2S ranged between 0.03 to 0.135 and 0.030 to 0.057 ppm for both seasons. There high levels may be due to high traffic density, anthropogenic activity and seasonal variation. The difference in mean concentration between dry and rainy season were significant for both SO2 andH2S. The Concentration of SO2 and H2S exceeded the permissible limit of 0.1 and 0.01 ppm respectively. However, poses serious threat to the human, animals and plant.Therefore relevant agency should embark on enlightenment and sensitization campaign in order to reduce the air pollution of those locations.

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Coastal Habitats of Maldives: Status, Trends, Threats, and potential conservation Strategies[ ]


Coastal environments has been always considered as one of the significant source of natural resources for the mankind. However there is growing threats on these extremely fragile, yet richest ecosystems. Anthropogenic presence, pressures along with natural as well as climate change effects had adversely affected the wellbeing of marine ecosystems, impairing structures, functions of theses environments and compromising resource gain from marine and coastal environments. This paper would aim in describing a synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of coastal ecosystem of the Maldives and analyse the main anthropogenic pressures as well as the climate related issues to these ecosystems. Coastal ecosystems of the Maldives are at risk from numerous threats with a range of impact scales from local to global level. Some of the acute stressors are those from climate variability and climate change as well as due to some unregulated fishing practices. Also, chronic stressors like coastal modifications, pollution and economic activities are serious threats to the coastal habitats of the Maldives. There are plentiful of researches available for the coral reefs of Maldives, especially with regard to the bleaching events in late1990s. However, for the mangroves, seagrasses ecosystems only a handful of studies are available. The main threats to these ecosystems are related to human settlements, infrastructure development resulting from the increasing population. In this paper we highlight the current government strategies for conservation of the habitats and also recommend some applicable ecosystem based management and conservation strategies that are practiced in other parts of the world.

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CAREER CHOICE AND ENVIRONMENT, OPPORTUNITY AND PERSONALITY[ ]


This article examines the relationship Career choice between environment, opportunity and personality. Data was collected from 180 BBA students of Eastern University of Sri Lanka who studying in 2016. The correlation technique was used to test the hypothesis. The findings revel that opportunities and students personality factors highly influence on making career decision and it was showed strong positive relationship. But environment factors do not have huge important to choose their career decisions because the findings revel that environment had weak relationship with career choice. The conclusion of the study also noted, along with suggestions.

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Scaling Effectiveness of the Existing Research Techniques towards improving problems in Reversible Logic[ ]


Till date, majority of the hardwares of the computing devices are found to use irreversible logic that works on the principle of elimination of bits of data. Such technique increases exponential thermal dissipation causing degradation in the performance of the controller or the computing devices. The solution to this technique is usage of reversible logic that tremendously reduces the thermal dissipation and explores its usability in the low-powered computing devices. However, accomplishment of complete reversibility is still an open-end question but some amount of research initiative already started in recent times. Inspite of less availability of standard implementation works towards reversible logic, the prime contribution of this paper is to discuss the essentials of it followed by explicit discussion of advantages and pitfalls of existing research approaches towards enhancing reversible logic. The paper also discusses about the research gap that is extracted after reviewing the effectiveness in this perspective implementation.

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A Novel Design of Reversible Logic based 1-Bit and 4-Bit ALU[ ]


In last few years, the concept called Reversible logic (RL) has received more attention because of its several abilities like minimizing the power dissipation. Generally, the more power dissipation will take place in low powered digital designs. The applicability of RL has extended in several areas like design of low power CMOS, DNA computing, advanced computing, quantum computing, processing of optical information and in nanotechnology.

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Knowledge based Business Contract Monitoring facility on Software Engineering[ ]


Crowdsourcing has entered software engineering. In-house development, contracting, and outsourcing still dominate, but many development projects use crowd sourcing for example, to squash bugs, test software, or gather alternative UI designs. A Business Contract Monitoring is consisting of crowdsourcing. Their approach involves the Business Contract Monitoring (BCM) as a way to monitor contracts. Their focus is on the technical aspects of representing and viewing contracts. However, since BCM is includes the notions of events and temporal constraints, one can conceivably use an approach such as ours to help create a BCM specification based on a contract describing a service engagement. We develop a novel approach to work a hybrid of surface patterns, parsing, and classification to take the business events and their temporal constraints from contract text and then used, topic modeling for automatically organize the event terms into clusters.

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Groundwater monitoring of a hidric shortage crisis in Brazil based on LS-SVM forecasts for the city of São Paulo[ ]


We evaluate the groundwater (GW) storage under the state and the city of São Paulo using remote data provided by NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) in the context of the water shortage crisis in 2013-2014. The study provides a GW forecasts based on Least Square Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) for GRACE and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). The study emphasizes the strong correlation between GRACE data and the differential volumes of the city main water supply system further enhancing the reliability of the LS-SVM forecast. We provide an equivalent water thickness forecasts of ground water time series and show that GRACE generalization is better than that obtained with GLDAS data together with error estimates. A minimum around 22 months was found as the optimum amount of past information to be used in the regressor to minimize forecast error.

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Photocatalytically active molecular sites introduced by mechanochemical decomposition in saponite nanoparticles[ ]


Photocatalytically-active molecular sites introduced by mechanochemical decomposition and long-term rheological self-assembly were studied for saponite nanoparticles by means of positronium annihilation spectroscopy. Two kinds of open spaces with sizes of ~ 0.3 nm and ~ 0.9 nm were identified for as-receivedsaponitenanoparticles. Thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) conducted for mechanochemically-decomposed nanoparticles supported with TiO2 indicated the relative weight decrease of ~ 1 % at the ultraviolet rays (UV)-irradiated time of 300 h. The result suggest that the local molecular structures introduced by mechanochemical decomposition act as photocatalytically-active sites.

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Hand Gesture Detection Using Haar Classifier with Appropriate Skin Color, Kernal Sizing & Auto Thresholding[ ]


Hand gesture detection & recognition intends to detect & recognize some meaningful hand sign. It is an utmost challenge to design such intelligent human-computer interface. 3D hand gesture recognition, one of the most advanced technologies for building smart communication method with computers, has been developing an enormous research interest in computer vision, pattern recognition and human-computer interaction (HCI) system. The developing depth sensors enormously propelled different hand motion identification methodologies and applications, which were extremely restricted in the 2D area with conventional cameras. In this paper, we provided a productive method for image preprocessing and detection of certain gesture, advance classifier theory based on genetic algorithm, boosting algorithm & Fischer’s linear discriminant algorithm. Improvising the traditional preprocessing of image for gesture detection where skin color detection, kernel matrix evolution & auto-thresholding of image are the most challenging part of this thesis paper. This paper additionally displays a review of the state-of-the-art research for 3D hand motion recognition in four perspectives: 3D hand modeling, basic sensors capable for detecting hand gesture, static hand motion acknowledgment, hand direction motion acknowledgment, continuous hand gesture recognition and related applications of hand gesture.

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Objective Technology Selection Model: The Example of Complex Combat Systems[ ]


Basic objective of designers and manufacturers is a technical system with better features than others, especially their competitors. On the other side, customers demand a product that enables maximum gains and minimum costs. In such a way, key issue in decision making process is selection of different options, and finding out the best one. This paper presents the objective selection model as an unbiased approach in selecting the technology to be implemented in a long-term period of time. The basic prerequisites imply the fact that a specific technical system and its characteristics are not considered as a single unit, but as a part of specific technological solution during a predetermined period of time. Temporal dimension includes the comparison of specific parameters (realized effects and generated costs) between successive generations for the same technological type and between different types of technologies. Manufacturers should recognize customers’ demands and increase technical systems performances and decrease their costs. Presented model could be implemented in industry, economic, social, and other spheres in the development planning process.

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GC-MS AND IR ANALYSIS OF ETHYLACETATE ROOTS EXTRACTS OF Anogeissus leiocarpus[ ]


Anogeissus leiocarpus is locally known as ‘Marke’ among the Hausa’s of Northern Nigeria. Their roots and stem bark have been used in the treatment and prevention of human ailments such as Respiratory tracts infections, typhoid fever,Syphilis,Liver cirrhosis,Gonorrhea and diabetes. The phytochemical screening of the extracts also showed the presence of some secondary metabolites at various degrees. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were found to be against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escheria coli Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. Though at varied degrees with 20.0mm zone of inhibition by water stem of Anogeissus leiocarpus W(S)B 10g/cm3against Eschericia coli being the highest while Acetone roots of Anogeissus leiocarpus A(R)A showed 0.00 mm 10g/cm3 being the least.Infrared spectroscopy (IR) and Gas chromatography Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) of the extracts were also determined.

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Promoting the Use of Waste Glass Concrete in Developing Countries[ ]


Due to the numerous advantages in conjunction to sustainability as one of the key requirements for construction industry to lower environmental impacts and rapid depletion of natural resources, there has been an increasing interest in production and also investigation of properties of concrete containing waste materials. Glass is amongst the oldest materials that have been used for many years in various applications. Therefore, in recent years several studies have been conducted to evaluate and promote the potential use of waste glass (WG) in concrete production. For the present study, five concrete mixtures in total with varying WG content ratios of 0, 15, 30 and 60% as partial replacement of natural fine aggregate were prepared. The water/cement (W/C) ratio of 0.5 was kept constant for all concrete mixtures. The properties investigated were aggregates sieving analysis, and consistence, density, compressive strength and water absorption of concrete containing varying amounts of WG and in result, promoting the use of this new concrete in developing countries. The compressive strength results indicate that the mixtures containing WG, generally showed lower compressive strength than the control mixtures with the minimum 28 days agestrength occurring at 60% WG. However, with appropriate mix design utilisation of WG in concrete production is possible.

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Performance of Thermosyphon Rankine Engine as Low Temperature Heat Engine[ ]


Energy harvesting from the low-temperature heat source can be applied from thermosyphon rankine engine (TSR), this device depends on rankine cycle where evacuation the pressure from the device will decrease evaporation pressure according to applied pressure. This engine was developed in little experiments, so a new model was constructed depending on last models were investigated. Copper tube was the case of thermosyphon and impulse turbine was attached to harvest the steam then generate electrical power .the efficiency of this was little small but according to the cost of input power it considers to be the high efficiency of this system, especially there is no any emissions of this engine.

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Transaction Verification Model for Peer-to-Peer Service-Oriented Digital Currency Transactions Based on the Foundation of Blockchain Architecture[ ]


Digital payment systems are an evolving field in present day with the recent enhancements in seamless digital currencies. Thus, despite the benefits of cryptocurrency based digital payments systems, their adoption and diffusion within general payment platform domain are significantly hindered. Blockchain architecture is widely recognized as a promising mechanism to support the management of cryptocurrency related transactions. However, ensuring the security of digital payment transactions is a challenging task due to various security threats and existing prevention mechanisms that are either computationally expensive or domain dependent. Among many, the Man-in-the-Middle attack and Double Spending are identified as key security vulnerabilities.

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Risk Based Evaluation and the Exposure of Dissolved Trace Metals by Average Daily Dose in Drinking Water of District Jamshoro[ ]


Health risk exposure caused by the dissolved pollutants like dissolved trace and heavy metal and arsenic like carcinogenic factors which is being included in fresh water from different sources of pollution like Manchar lake. These effluents discharge is continued in Indus river that is highly contaminated water coming from Main Narra Valley Drain (MNVD) and MNVD carries a discharge of industrial wastes. The risk of metals on human health was evaluated in this study using Hazard Quotient (HQ) of As, Cd, Ni, Zn,Cu,Mn,Fe,Co three different sources in dry and wet phases. Order of contamination in Phase 1 HQ AS > Co > Cd > Cu > Ni > Zn > Mn and phase 2 HQ Cd > Co > Cu > Mn > Ni > Zn > Fe shows phase wise variation revealed contamination variation with adverse potential health effects. Carcinogenic Risk of As was observed higher than 10-6 in samples suggesting potential adverse health effect on local residents of District Jamshoro.

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Animasimulation[ ]


Visualization has been used to refer the creative process of using 2 and 3-Dimentional software in the production of products or service. This process of using 2 and 3-Dimentional software to create artworks gives a fair idea of what the final products service may look like and even allows changes to be made during testing process. This paper solicit to challenge words such as conceptualization and visualization with animasimulation which better describes the artistic process. A fundamental research approach is utilized and as a result; am empirical method is carefully used in selecting literature for this paper. The paper will discuss the intellectual grafting of animasimulation and other of such words as mechatronics and animatronics, as well as the linguistical guidelines in the formation of intellectual grafting.

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Pest outbreak, insecticidal resistance in agricultural pests[ ]


Pest outbreak means, any organism which is economically harmful to human being and increases its population more than the ETL value (economic threshold level). Or a sudden increase in the population of the harmful organism is called pest outbreak. On another hand, insecticidal resistance is an ability of an insect to survive against the continuous use of pesticides and agrochemical. This resistance may be temporary (environmental resistance) or may be permanent (develop by genes) both the term pest outbreak and resistance is directly proportional to each other, pest outbreak depends on the availability of many resources which are responsible for the growth and development of insect such as availability of food, favorable temperature, relative humidity etc. and for resistance it can be easily said that that is a habit developed by insects for their survival

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A Novel Design of Reversible Logic based 1-Bit and 4-Bit ALU[ ]


In last few years, the concept called Reversible logic (RL) has received more attention because of its several abilities like minimizing the power dissipation. Generally, the more power dissipation will take place in low powered digital designs. The applicability of RL has extended in several areas like design of low power CMOS, DNA computing, advanced computing, quantum computing, processing of optical information and in nanotechnology. In case of traditional digital circuits designs the major amount of power loss take place during the logic operation by which some information bits will be erased.

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Handwritten Amazigh Character Recognition System for Image Obtained by Camera Phone[ ]


In this paper; we introduce a system of automatic recognition of Amazigh characters based on the Random Forest Method in non-constrictive pictures that are stemmed from the terminals Mobile phone. After doing some pretreatments on the picture, the text is segmented into lines and then into characters. In the stage of characteristics extraction, we are representing the input data into the vector of primitives of the zoning types, of diagonal, horizontal, Gabor filters and of the Zernike moment. These characteristics are linked to pixels’ densities and they are extracted on binary pictures. In the classification stage, we examine four classification methods with two different classifiers types namely the Support vector machines (SVM) and the Random Forest method. After some checking tests, the system of learning and recognition which is based on the Random Forest has shown a good performance on a basis of 100 models of pictures.

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IMPACT OF MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS IN BANKING SECTOR [ ]


With increasing competition ,globalization and liberalization in the market ,organizations are trying to collaborate with other partners to expand their total market reach .There are different strategies that organizations adopt to do so ,mergers and acquisition is one such tool for internationalization .Financial sector plays Significant role in economic development of a country ;it ‘s like the backbone of the system that needs to be controlled Judiciously .Commercial banks holds due importance as it impacts business transactions significantly .Apart from this Mergers and acquisitions are an important factor in building up market capitalization .Based on the three Banks of Saudi Arabia by comparing their market shares total assests and commissions .It was found that only one Bank’s mergers and acquisition met with success

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FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF THE ROOTS AND STEM BARKS OF Ceiba pentandra and Anogeissus Leiocarpus[ ]


The antioxidant activities of the plants extracts were determined using modified 2, 2, diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) Scavenging method 0.1ml of the (DPPH) Solution was prepared in 95% methanol and each extract solution (100 g/cm3) was also prepared in 95% methanol. 3 cm3of each extract was added to 1 cm3of the (DPPH) solution and the absorbance measured at 517 nm after 30 minutes using the Jenway 6305 spectrophotometre. The absobance of the blank 3cm3 95% methanol added to 1 cm3DPPH solution was also measured the free radical Scavenging activity of each of the extracts was expressed in percentage ratio of lowering of the absorption of (DPPH)by the extracts solution relative to the absorption of the (DPPH). Ascorbic acid was used as the standard.

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Grain-Boundary Structure Influenced by Li-addition in Gd-Doped Ceria[ ]


High resistive ionic transport at the grain boundary is one of the most decisive factors for designing sophisticated nanostructured electrolytes as oxide ceramics. Here, the grain boundary structures are specifically investigated for nanostructured electrolytes: ceria (CeO2), Gd-doped ceria (GDC), and GDC with 3 mol % and 9 mol % Li doping (Li-GDC), by means of positron lifetime spectroscopy. The influence of Li addition on the grain boundary structures is discussed on the basis of our recent model with the space charge layer.

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Masses and Repelling Forces[ ]


There is possible, in the stellar space to exist areas with very big electric potentials but with zero electric tension E. the bodies which exist inside these potentials act also as homonyms electric charges and repelled each other. Maybe they could acquire equivalent electric charges which will be able to give repelling forces larger than the attracting of masses

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THE ACTIVE COMPOUND OF ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS OF Ceiba Pentandra[ ]


The active compound of ethylacetate extracts of Ceiba pentandra was purified using the thin layer chromatography (TLC) and the column chromatography using a silica gel of 60-120mm mesh size. The results was subjected to the infra red spectroscopy and the following spectras were obtained 1200cm-1, 1450 cm-1, 1600 cm-1,1710 cm-1and 2830 cm-1respectively. The gas chromatography (GC-MS) revealed the presence of phenol-2-methoxy acetate and phenol 2, 5 dimethyl acetate.

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Experimental investigation on diesel engine using smart biodiesel[ ]


Fuels derived from the renewable biological resources for the use in diesel engine are known as biodiesel. Biodiesel produced from non-edible and edible feed stocks such as Mahua, Palm, Jatropha, Soya etc. are reported to be feasible choices for developing countries like India. In this investigation the blends of varying proportions of smart biodiesel are prepared, analyzed and compared with the performance of diesel fuel and studied using single cylinder diesel engine at varying loads. Raw oils of two or more biodiesel are esterified (butyl esters) before blending with each other. The esterified oils of biodiesel blends satisfies the important fuel properties and it lead to an improvement in engine performance and emission characteristics without any design modifications in the engine. The brake thermal efficiency, SFC, Exhaust gas temperature, Smoke density, CO, CO2 and HC were analyzed.

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Ball-on-three-ball Flexural Test: Crack Propagation on Disc Sample with a Notch along the Axis[ ]


Ball-on-three-ball (B3B) test is a multiaxial method providing flexural strength for disc-shaped samples. Due to its advantages over traditional uniaxial bending tests, it has been commonly used for a variety of materials, such as ceramics and cement composites in the last two decades. To date a number of reports have performed thorough investigations in this test with analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. The studies however, only focus on the stress distribution and peak strength for intact samples. This paper, for the first time, studies the crack propagation of notched samples under B3B tests. An analytical solution is provided based on classical double cantilever beam theory. Experimental data on two different ceramic materials show consistency with the theoretical solution.

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Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Powered by Ambient Energy Harvesting[ ]


Energy and Clustering are the most important effective Elements in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) that must be used as efficiently as possible. The sensor node aggregate data from environment and send to base station. Lifetime; stability period; saving energy; deployment of nodes; fault tolerance and latency become the main challenges in WSNs result of its wide range of applications. This paper proposed routing algorithm using solar powered nodes in heterogeneous wireless sensor networks to reach energy efficient clustering concept. It is shown via simulations that the proposed protocol has better network stability period, network lifetime, total remaining energy, and throughput compared to other well-known protocols including LEACH, Teen, DEEC, and SEP with more effective and stability data packet messages.

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QuantitativeWell-log Analysis and PetrophysicalEvaluation at Port Fouad Field, Offshore, Nile Delta, Egypt[ ]


The Nile Delta basin is one of the most important gas producing provinces in Egypt and contains a thick sequence of potential hydrocarbon source rocks that generate essentially gas and condensate.

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Effect of Coarse Aggregate Type on Shear Transfer Strength[ ]


The work described in this paper is presented experimentally and analytically (by using finite element method) investigation of the behavior of connections subjected to direct shear stress. 16 push-off specimens were constructed [using four types of coarse aggregate] and tested. The effect of lightweight coarse aggregate type on single direction shear transfer strength, the contribution of the aggregate interlock to resist the shear stress along shear plane, the effect of the reinforcement parameter, the strain in the concrete, slip and lateral separation measurements were studied. To verify the accuracy and applicability of the nonlinear two-dimensional finite element method, comparison between the results of finite element method and those obtained experimentally in this study with results obtained by ACI and PCI equations were carried out. The comparison shows that the finite element method was in total agreement with the experimental.

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Potential Threat Analysis Hypertext Transfer Protocol and Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol of Public WiFi Users (Batam Case)[ ]


Computer network security has became an international issue in the last decade. We can not deny the ability of a network administrator is increasingly needed to secure the system. One of the important skills that must be possessed is able to read the data packets in computer network traffic. Protocol analysis needed to monitor and analyze information from any data packets that are sent or received on the network. From the user side, are required to have knowledge of information security, especially if accessing via free public wifi. The purpose of this study is to provide and analizethe captured HTTP and HTTPS packets using a network packet analyzer tool. The Object of this research is user of public wifi in the city of Batam, Indonesia. The study resulted a comprehensive analysis of data packets, we obtained user behavior when accessing information via public wifi. Despite many sites have been using secure protocols such as HTTPS but there are still using standard protocols resulting information open to hackers.

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