Volume 6, Issue 6, June 2015 Edition

Publication for Volume 6, Issue 6, June 2015.


IJSER Research Group http://www.ijser.org/forum/index.php Register for IJSER Research Forum      IJSER Xplore IJSER Xplore Research Paper Database

Pages   [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [U]
 



Investigation of Variation of Cluster Size Distribution on Square Lattice for Various occupational Probabilities[ ]


This study investigated the variation in cluster sizes distribution on a square lattice using a Fortran program to populate square lattice haven specified the lattice size and corresponding occupational probability range. This program thereafter sorts the occupied lattice sites into good label using Hoshen and Kopelman algorithm. It then identifies all clusters present within the lattice, determine the cluster sizes distribution and group the cluster(s) according to size1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and above respectively, With the entire procedure repeated for probability range starting from the initial (0.001) to the final (1.000) at a step size of 0.001 increments, tables and graphs results were then drawn, These results shows that the probability corresponding to the peak size distribution for all lattice studied increased toward threshold. Interestingly, the peak probability for size 50 and above for all studied cases suffered little absolute deviation relative to standard threshold value of 0.593 also the horizontal range of size distribution curve was noticed to reduce as size distribution increases, similarly an exponential relationship was noticed from the graph of horizontal range and corresponding size distribution for all studied cases which speculates that as x (size distribution) → ∞ that y (horizontal range) → 0 and vice versa.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Studying the Effect of Masonry Infill Walls on The Natural Period and Lateral Behavior of RC Buildings in Comparison with the SBC[ ]


Although the reinforced concrete frame-infill systems are used throughout the world, they are rarely included in the calculations of the natural period or the numerical analysis of the structures. Masonry infill (MI) walls confined by reinforced concrete (RC) frames play a crucial role, either positive or negative, in altering the lateral capacity of buildings they are applied to. This research paper carries dual targets, the first is studying the effect of the infill walls on the natural period of RC buildings with MI walls. Several configurations of infill walls are studied (considering the wall openings). The interaction between the masonry infill walls and the R.C shear walls in buildings is invistigated. Also, this study is intended with investigating the parameters of the equations presented by the Saudi Building Code (SBC) versus other codes to calculate the natural period of shear wall buildings. The second target of this paper is carrying out a nonlinear numerical investigation on the lateral behavior of RC buildings with MI walls. Different configurations of MI walls, size of wall openings, absence of MI walls in the first storey are investigated. The application buildings are either moment resisting frames (MRF) or dual shear wall-moment resisting frames (SW-MRF) buildings. Equivalent strut methodology is used and modified to model the behavior of infill walls taking into consideration the effect of opening sizes. Nonlinear static push-over analysis is carried out for the applied case study buildings.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Raw Silk Processing to Textile Fibre and Comparative Analysis between Acid and Reactive Dyed Samples of Silk Fabric by Laboratory Experiment[ ]


Silk fibre is one of the important and demanded textile fibre in the sector of textile fabric and garments manufacturing. In the industrial sector the coloration of silk fabric is done by acid dyes. In this paper, laboratory experiments were done for coloration of silk fabric. For coloration two different dyes, acid dye (Nylosan Orange NRL) and reactive dye (Lanasol Orange RG) have been used with their Different recipe, separately applied on different samples but with same properties of silk fabrics. Different tests like wash fastness, rubbing fastness, perspiration test, tensile strength and elongation were conducted on the dyed samples and comparison was made among all the results from Acid dyed and Reactive dyed samples. Getting better wash fastness, better absorbency and other positive test results for reactive dyes leads to the conclusion, that dyeing of silk with reactive dye has a great prospect in textile coloration.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Enhacing the Power Quality and Performance of Induction Motor Drive[ ]


VVVF drives are widely used for speed control of induction motor in many Industries. Phase angle voltage controlled technique is mostly implied for soft start of induction motor however it suffers from drawbacks like retardation of the firing angle which causes lagging power factor at the input side especially at lower speed. In this paper, a new variable voltage control technique is proposed which uses only two high frequency PWM controllable switches for speed control of Induction motor .This method will be suitable for fan, pump and blower load coupled to a single phase induction motor which is used in almost all industries. The advantages of proposed method are its high power factor, high efficiency and less power consumption.The control technique used is easy and convenient. The technique used is economical and can be used in domestic and industrial Applications.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PLANNING RESPONSE TO WATER-RELATED DISASTERS IN NIGERIA: THE RIVERS STATE EXPERIENCE[ ]


The study evaluated the effects of the 2012 flooding in Rivers State in four (4) local government areas which includes:Abua/Odual, Ahoada East, Ahoada West and Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni and what are the Town planning response(s) to these flood menace in Rivers State. Visits were made to sites of flooding where photographs were taken and analyzed. Most devastating floods were seen to be of natural causes such as River over – flow, Dam burst, and compounded by torrential rains etc. Flooding induced by the effects of these natural causes have also been seen to cause serious damage to people, damage of buildings, destruction of properties, health challenges, reduction of the aesthetic beauty of the environment, increase in poverty level and death. However man-made causes of flood disasters are seen to occur in these towns and villages being the centre of activity in many countries. Floods have brought about the displacement of many people in many countries. In some countries all floods bring about the loss of human life as well as properties. These have degenerated to uncontrolled erosion in some of the affected communities. Many flooded homes are not habitable until they are fumigated and cleared debris properly disposed. It is considered that good remedial measures could be brought in place to reduce the devastating effect of floods. However Town Planning has some respite as it emphasizes on proper settlement planning, effective spatial planning and the like to further reduce the effect of these flood hazard. The study thus recommends that the building of multifunctional safety camps/settlement would be of far reaching affect, particularly those built on high non-flood sites. Willingness and readiness to investigate and predict future flooding as well as fund the remedial proposals are important components to the management of flooding. The masses should be properly informed about the harmful effects of flooding in their areas and their role in fighting flooding through collaboration with the government and non-governmental organizations from local, state and federal governments alike.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Toxic heavy metal contamination in locally made plastic food container[ ]


The exposure of human to toxic heavy metal release from plastic container creates a major health hazards. The main objectives of this study was to examine the concentration of toxic heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cr and Cd) in local made food containers purchased from various districts of U.P,(India), at 252C for 24hrs in different simulating solvents as per BIS, IP, USP and other guidelines by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer(AAS). The results found that leaching of heavy metals occur in all samples and showed the order: Pb(1.9-1.01ppm) in S1, S5, S4 > Cu(1.61-1.01ppm) in S4, S3, S5 > Ni(1.31-1.01ppm) in S3, S5, S2, S4 > Mn(1.01-1.001ppm) in S2, S4, S5 > Zn(1.002ppm) in S2.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Water Resources Management: Case Study of El Minia Governorate, Egypt[ ]


Ministry of water resources and irrigation in Egypt is currently implementing projects that expand new cultivated area, as a consequence the supplies of Nile River to the existing lands will be affected. Because Egypt is an arid country with hardly any rainfall, water shortage is a major problem facing any development in Egypt, so water management is of paramount importance. The present paper aims to investigate the various options for the water resources management in El Minia governorate, one of the major provinces in Egypt. A complete map of the water resources has been prepared including irrigation and drainage processes. In addition, the political needs for distribution, management and control of the water resources have been taken into consideration. The main features of one of the famous commercially available unsteady simulation software package, the Operational Planning Distribution Model (OPDM), has been described and used to simulate water distribution system and crop yield. It has been also implemented to the selected case study to develop appropriate water plan. As the weather condition is an important factor that affects crops consumptive use of water, the monthly rate of sunlight hours, rainfall, wind speed, evaporation and relative humidity have been considered during the study period. Furthermore, the impact for allocation of the irrigation water has been investigated. Moreover, the different options have been compared from technical and economical points of view. Finally, effect of variation in both surface and groundwater quantities and qualities on the gross revenue has been presented.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
A Study on the Effect of an Attractive and a Repulsive Forces with Feedback Control on a Magnetic Levitation System[ ]


This research was conducted to observe the effect of an attractive force and a repulsive force on a magnetic levitation (maglev) with the addition of a feedback control system. Initially, the study was conducted by observing the displacement gap from both type of maglev without an application of a control system. Closed loop control experiments were performed by implementing a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller in order to maintain the displacement gap. Stable responses from both simulation control and experiments indicated that the PID controller can be employed to control the gap between the magnet and the levitated object. However, the results of the repulsive maglev control show faster response and smaller steady state error in comparison with the attractive maglev control.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Settlement Analysis of Single Granular Pile with Stiffened Top[ ]


As per the various theoretical and experimental investigations, an axial load applied at the top of long granular pile is limited by bulging within a depth of 2 to 3 diameters from the top. The radial displacements of granular pile (GP) are prevented by the confining stresses generated by the surrounding soil. The capacity and thus the overall response of GP can be enhanced by restraining or strengthening the top 2 to 3 diameter length of the granular material where the lateral confining stresses are the least. The response of single GP with consideration of radial and vertical displacements compatibility along its interface is obtained with the provision of stiffer upper part of GP vulnerable to bulging based on elastic continuum approach. The overall responses of a single GP with stiffened top in terms of settlement influence factors namely for top and tip settlement influence factors and radial displacement influence factor are evaluated in the present paper.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT WATER DEPTHS ON PLANT POPULATION AND RICE (Oryza sativa) YIELD AT TIME OF TRASPLANTING USING MECHANIZED TRANSPLANTER[ ]


Studies were conducted at experimental fields of Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku for two years (2010 to 2011) in order to ascertain the effects of different surface water levels at the time of mechanical rice transplanting on plant population in terms of number of missing hills and rice productivity. A six row self propelled paddy transplanter was used for the purpose. As control treatment, rice transplanting was also carried out on muddy soil condition. Three water depths of 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 cm were taken in account; each water depth was replicated four times. Nursery for transplanting was raised on mate type plastic trays. The results indicated that maximum paddy yield (5.20 t/ha) was obtained where water depth at transplanting time was maintained at 2.5 cm followed by transplanting in 5.0 cm water depth where the paddy yield was 4.76 t/ha. The minimum paddy yield (4.12 t/ha) was obtained where 7.5 cm water depth at transplanting time was maintained. Surplus or more than required water at transplanting time resulted in reduced growth and significantly decreased the number of missing hills m-2 which ultimately reduced the required number of plant population per acre. It was estimated that increased water depth (7.5 cm) at transplanting time decreased paddy yield by 26.2 %. However, in case of transplanting at 2.5 cm water level, maximum yield was obtained primarily due to highest number of hills per meter square, followed by increased number of productive tillers per plant and number of fertile grains per panicle.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Advanced High Speed Low Power Topologically-Compressed Flip-Flop[ ]


A modified high speed Flip-Flop (FF) is edge-crafted footnote out of Topologically-Compressed Flip-Flop (TCFF). TCFF reduces power dissipation remarkably and outperforms any other techniques used in conventional FFs. This paper presents a modified TCFF, with techniques which increases the speed and hence maintaining the low power dissipation and less area of TCFF design.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
A comparative study of mood and modality in academic writing : male vs. female authors of research articles in applied linguistics[ ]


Academic writing has always been the focus of many linguistic researchers, especially those who have been involved with English for Academic Purposes (EAP). Like conversation and other modes of communication, writing is a rich medium for gender performance. In fact, writing functions to construct the disciplines as well as the gender of its practitioners. Despite the significance of author’s gender as one constitutive dimension of any writing, it has relatively been under-researched. One way by means of which author’s gender is practiced and revealed in written discourse, is the incorporation and use of modal auxiliaries. Examining 40 Applied linguistics research articles (20 written by non-native Iranian male and 20 written by non-native Iranian female writers), the present study sought to examine whether male and female non-native Iranian writers differed in their use of such elements. To do this, Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik (1985) model of mood and modality was employed as an analytical framework to identify the type of these elements. The significance of difference in their distribution in academic research articles written by non-native Iranian male and female authors was checked using the statistical analysis technique of chi-square. The results of the study did not show any significant difference in the categorical distribution of mood and modality, however, significant results were observed in the overall distributions of modal elements. The finding of the present study can provide a sound basis for the development of pedagogic materials.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
REPRESENTATION OF SAMPLING OPERATORS ON BANACH SPACES[ ]


In the present paper we prove two theorems on the representation of the space of sampling operators and the spaces of their adjoint operators respectively. Our theorems include the corresponding results of Zimmermann [Z 94,theorems 6.2.1 and 6.2.5] for the particular value of the moderate weight function.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Miniature Guided Wave Radar for Precise level Measurement using Time Domain Reflectrometry (TDR) Principle[ ]


The aim of paper is to achieve a precise level measurement in the field of industrial tank. The principle of measurement is based on Time Domain Reflectrometry (TDR), which is well known measurement technique in telecommunication industries for evaluating electric and dielectric property of various material. Despite all advancement made within last few years, there is still lack of low cost, small TDR meter equipment in market. This paper proposes a design leads to development of low cost TDR meter with high resolution. In order to achieve high resolution, an extremely small time of incident and reflection pulse is thus required to be precisely measured. The key techniques of pulse generation and time measurement are introduce with the selection of Guided Radar Probe (GWR) for accuracy even when the measurement within a highly unstable environment. The measurement is accomplished with the Charge Time Measurement Unit (CTMU), which is responsible to measure time with 3.5 ps resolution. Hardware design were discuss with the various parameter. Due to low cost and get rid of complex laboratory setup, the TDR meter can be used in field of chemical, petroleum, shipbuilding and geoscience industries.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alternating-Direction Implicit Finite-Difference Method for Transient 2D Heat Transfer in a Metal Bar using Finite Difference Method[ ]


Different analytical and numerical methods are commonly used to solve transient heat conduction problems. In this problem, the use of Alternating Direct Implicit scheme (ADI) was adopted to solve temperature variation within an infinitesimal long bar of a square cross-section. The bottom right quadrant of the square cross-section of the bar was selected. The surface of the bar was maintained at constant temperature and temperature variation within the bar was evaluated within a time frame. The Laplace equation governing the 2-dimesional heat conduction was solved by iterative schemes as a result of the time variation. The modelled problem using COMSOL-MULTIPHYSICS software validated the result of the ADI analysis. On comparing the Modelled results from COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS and the results from ADI iterative scheme graphically, there was an high level of agreement between both results.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
To propose a technique for Re-allocation of task based upon weights during Fault occurrence[ ]


Distributed systems play an important role on achieving good performance and high system utilization. The goal of a job scheduling system is to efficiently manage the distributed computing power of workstations, servers, and supercomputers in order to maximize job throughput and system utilization. There are many issues of distributed computing system which are discussed in this paper in brief. The main aim is to focus on fault tolerance and recover fault with less processing time. The proposed algorithm is assign tasks to other nodes only when candidate node moves from its original position. The major problem in this architecture is task scheduling, if one slave node get failed the task allocated by master node will not get completed and fault occurred. In this work, we have worked on technique which helps to reduce fault tolerance of the system and increase performance of the system.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Strategy for the exploration of new phosphors by Mineral Inspired Methodology coupled with Compositional Tuning[ ]


White LEDs are labelled as solid state semiconductor lighting, which will act as future generation lighting to replace conventional lamp and backlight due to the advantages of low power consumption, free of mercury, high response, no thermal radiation, long life time, high stability and so on. Currently available phosphor in the market mainly they are high correlated colour temperature, low Colour Rendering Index, synthesis process is difficult. Phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes for indoor illumination need to be warm white (i.e., correlated colour temperature, 4000 K) with good colour rendition (i.e., colour rendering index 80). For the synthesis of new phosphor, the concept, as well as the methodology of using a mineral-inspired approach in combination with solution parallel synthesis (SPS) for exploration of new phosphors among Na/K, Sr (Ba)/Sc-silicate along with the artificial library, is reported. Moreover, the compositional tuning of the properties of extended solids through solid solution; sometimes referred to as the game of x and y, as, for example, in K1-xNaxSr1-yBayScSi2O7 is also demonstrated. Our expected out come to develop new phosphor using mineral inspired methodology for develop high luminous efficiency and CRI of the phosphor.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Topologies of Voltage Source Inverter for Domestic Induction Heating[ ]


Nowadays Induction heating applications are quickly gaining popularity. Induction Heating technology not only offers the advantage of having a better efficiency conversion compared to the other standard technologies like resistive heating, Electric heating, Gas heating but also offers Induction heating offers the advantages of rapid heating, local pot heating, direct heating, high power density, high reliability, low running cost and non-acoustic noise. This Paper summarizes the different Voltage Source Inverters for Induction Heating technology with its development in Domestic IH applications and contains Voltage Source Inverter topologies like Basic voltage source inverter, Single switch VSI, Multi-output VSI for Domestic IH.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Molecular and Electron Microscope Evidence for an Association of Phytoplasma with Citrus Witches Broom Disease[ ]


During April and May 2013 , citrus included sweet orange (C. sinensis) and mandarin (C.reticulate Planco) showing typical symptoms of witches broom disease were detected from different fields located at AL-Sharqia, AL-Qalyubia and Ismalia, governorates in Egypt. The detected phytoplasma from diseased samples was transmitted by grafting to healthy citrus plants and by dodder to healthy periwinkle plants. DNA extracted from symptomatic samples was used as template for amplification of products of 1.8 kb using universal primer pair P1/P7 and 1.2 kb using primer R16F2n/ R16R2 by direct and nested PCR. Pleomorphic bodies typical to phytoplasma structures were observed in phloem sieve elements in ultrathin sections of infected plants using transmission electron microscope (TEM). Phytoplasma infection resulted in ultrastructure changes especially in sieve elements, as obliteration and necrosis were observed. The ultrastructure changes were expanded to the cell wall, cell membrane and callose deposition on the cell wall was also observed.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Removal of lead (Pb) by Hybrid Constructed Wetland with enhanced treatment by Bio coagulant (Moringa oleifera) and Low Cost Adsorbent (Charcoal)[ ]


In this study, Hybrid constructed wetlands were used to remove lead (Pb) with pre-treatment by Bio coagulation with Moringa oleifera (MO) seed extract. Performance of vegetated Horizontal Surface-Flow (Eichhornia crassipes) and Vertical Flow Wetlands (Canna indica) were evaluated. Finally the effluent from the wetland system was subjected to Adsorption by Charcoal Gravity Filter. Hourly analysis of lead concentration in cultivation sample for both Horizontal flow system and vertical flow system were done by Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometer. The Optimum dosage of Bio coagulant extract of Moringa oleifera was found to be 20 mg/litre, with removal efficiency of 79.3 %. The Optimum Removal efficiency was found to be 16.5% by Eichhornia crassipes and 96.5% by Canna indica, with a detention period of 1 hour. The removal efficiency of lead with Activated charcoal column filter was 99.99%. The overall performance of the Advanced Hybrid Wetland system was found to be 99.99% in removal of lead (Pb). The concentration of Lead was determined by Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometer (AAS-201).

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Wet chemical method for preparing high purity β and α- tricalcium phosphate crystalline powders[ ]


The object in the present study is to provide a simple route for synthesizing highly pure nano-sized β-tricalcium phosphate (β –TCP) and α-tricalcium phosphate (α –TCP) powders. Apatitic -tricalcium phosphate (ap-TCP) powders were synthesized through wet chemical precipitation method using a diammonium phosphate solution (NH4)2HPO4 and a calcium nitrate tetrahydrate solution Ca(NO3)2,4H2O as precursor materials, with a Ca/P molar ratio 1.50 from the initial reagents, calcining the powders at 800 and 1200°C to obtain single phase β –TCP and α –TCP respectively. The synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results showed that high purity and well-crystallized β –TCP and α –TCP powders could be obtained.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Performance Evaluation of Proactive and Reactive routing Protocol in MANET at Distinct Hardware Platform using NS2[ ]


With the evolution of modern technology, wireless network has change the style of communication. It has become the most convenient way for common people to communicate. Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is considered as a subset of wireless network that does not contain the centralized administration. Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of randomly distributed node and communicates with each other using radio waves without any defined infrastructure. Many researchers have proposed several efficient routing protocols for MANET with defined software specification. This paper analyses the performance of Proactive (DSDV) routing protocol and Reactive (AODV) routing protocol on different hardware specification. We evaluate the performance of AODV and DSDV routing protocol with different processor, i.e. core 2duo and core i3 by using random way point mobility model on NS-2. We examine the performance of these protocols on different processors in terms of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) and end-to-end delay.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NONCLINICAL SAFETY EVALUATION OF A NOVEL HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENT PPAR-4; PARTIAL PPAR-γ AGONIST[ ]


The toxicity of PPAR-4; partial peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) agonist, was evaluated in a comprehensive nonclinical toxicology program that included single-dose oral toxicity studies in mice and rats; repeat-dose toxicity studies in rats; a battery of in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicity studies; carcinogenicity studies in mice and rats; reproductive and developmental toxicity studies in rats. Pharmacologically mediated changes, similar to those observed with other PPARγ agonists, were observed following chronic administration and included subcutaneous edema, hematologic/hematopoietic and serum chemistry alterations, and morphologic findings in the heart and adipose tissue in rats. PPAR-4 was nongenotoxic in the standard battery of genotoxicity studies. Gallbladder adenomas in male mice and adipocyte neoplasms in male and female rats were seen at suprapharmacologic exposures, whereas urinary bladder tumors occurred in male rats at lower exposures. PPAR-4 had no effects on reproductive function in male and female rats at high systemic exposures, was not teratogenic in rats and demonstrated no selective developmental toxicity. Overall, there were no nonclinical findings that precluded the safe administration of PPAR-4 to humans.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography Method for Simulating of Polygonal Soil Cracks[ ]


Continuous wetting and drying of soils cause a cyclic process of swelling, shrinkage and cracking that adversely impacts the geotechnical properties and behaviour of these soils. In particular, continuous drying and shrinkage of soil might lead to the development of interconnected cracks to form polygonal blocks that significantly reduce the soil strength and stability. In this paper, 3D numerical modelling using Electrical Resistivity Tomography method is adopted for simulating polygonal cracks, commonly found in soils. The cracks are simuated in dry and wet soils at different scenarios. The results showed that the method is sensitive to soil cracking due to the high resistivity contrast between the cracked soil and the intact surrounding soil. As the air-filled cracks are infinitely resistive, soil cracks are reflected in the models as anomalous high resistivity spots that can be distinguished from the background. The geometry and cracking depth can be identified particularly in cases where the crack intersects the soil at the surface due to the departure of the electrical current.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Numerical Simulations of Transient Groundwater Flow to Ditch Drains in Homogeneous Anisotropic Soil using MODFLOW[ ]


A Numerical simulation was carried out to study transient groundwater seepage into equally ditch drains receiving water from a ponded field of homogeneous anisotropic soil

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
THE EFFECTS OF URBANIZATION ON LANDUSE PATTERN IN BORI, RIVERS STATE NIGERIA[ ]


This study has addressed the effects of urbanization on the land use pattern of Bori. The study objectives were to examine the land use pattern in Bori as at 1972 when the Master Plan for the settlement was prepared; examine the land use changes that have since then; describe the characteristics of the migrants into Bori and their reasons for moving into the place; and recommend ways to deal with the effects of urbanization, especially on land use. The study used both primary and secondary data. The main instrument used to collect primary data was a pre-coded household questionnaire administered face-to-face to a carefully selected sample of 150 heads of households. Primary data were also collected through personal observation, interview of key informants and photography. Secondary information was obtained from published and unpublished sources, including the internet. The Master Plan for Bori, prepared in 1972 was found particularly useful. Analysis of questionnaire data was carried out with the aid of the computer, using the Statistical Package of the Social Sciences (SPSS). Results were summarized using simple summary statistics, especially percentages, sometimes presented as charts and tables. Hypotheses were tested using the Chi Square test of independence between two cross-tabulated variables. The study found among others that the population of Bori had grown from 6,000 persons in 1972 to 23,741 in 2013, with in-migrants constituting 26.7% of the population. The latter were mainly people in the active age groups, with low education and mainly traders.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
LEACH and its Improved Versions-A Survey[ ]


The biggest reason for reduction of energy in the wireless sensor network is the communication. Nearly 70% of sensor node energy is used in the transmission of data. Efficient usage of energy in sensor node is a desirable method to improve the life time of WSN. In order to improve the lifetime of the network energy efficient routing protocols should be designed. This paper will study the LEACH and enhancements in the LEACH. The improvements are made by changing the selection mechanism of cluster head node. The selection of the cluster head (CH) is based on the parameters such as 1) Energy 2) position of nodes 3) Distance of nodes from base station. Many improved version of LEACH are also studied in this paper.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Comparitive Analysis of 8-DPSK and 16-QAM Digital Modulation, using RoF for Hybrid WDM-TDM PON[ ]


Hybrid WDM-TDM Passive optical networks (PON) combine both wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and time division multiplexing (TDM) into a single PON, offering reduced cost, high scalability and increased data rates, hence hybrid PONs are currently effective solutions. The objective of this paper is to investigate and analyse various digital modulation schemes in conjuction with the hybrid WDM-TDM architecture, and implement a PON with efficient performance at 2.5 Gbps data rate, while trying to reduce costs. Radio-over-fiber technlogy (RoF) is used as it allows direct transmission of radio frequency (RF) through the fiber without the need of frequency conversion at the reciever. Digital modulation techniques like QPSK, M-PSK, M-QAM provide high spectral efficiency and better utilization of bandwidth. In this paper, 8-DPSK and 16-QAM are investigated for 2.5 Gbps, 4 Gbps and 5 Gbps, for a standard single mode fiber length of 25 km, and the performance is compared for hybrid PON architecture. It is shown that 16-QAM offers better performance at higher data rates. The performance analysis is based on eye diagrams, constellation diagrams, OSNR, and received optical power. OptiSystem simulation software package is used for simulation.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
JAYAM (J-AUM)!...RAMANUJAM MANDIR[ ]


It is focused that ‘Darwin’ theory already established that “Human Ancestor” shares common ancestry with “Ape”. “Man” differs from “Manthi”?... This scientific research focus that Human shall be considered created by “RAMANUJAM MANTHIRAM” and lived in MARS PLANET in the early universe and descended to EARTH PLANET during “Dark age” in the expanding universe.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The Study of ESD Robustness of Integrated Circuits with Standard TLP[ ]


In this work the ESD performance of BCD technology will be investigated at circuit level. Different types of structures and the layout effect on ESD robustness will be addressed. The correlation between ESD robustness obtained with different test methods (HBM and TLP) will be also presented.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
How power and politics impacts an organizational unit in terms of achieving the firm’s goals?[ ]


The principle point of this research study is to explore the effects of organizational culture on job performance and productivity in the setting of United States which is the center of multinational organizations. This study would focus on technology industry with key objectives

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
EFFECT OF CONVENTIONAL NOTE-TAKING AND KNOWLEDGE MAPPING NOTE-TAKING PATTERNS ON STUDENTS’ INTEREST IN GEOGRAPHY[ ]


In the recent time, it was observed that interest in geography was diminishing as indicated in the low enrolment by students in the senior secondary certificate examination (SSCE). The poor image of geography among students was attributed partly to the wide content and partly to the old fashioned approach to the teaching of the subject. Hence, this study sought to find the effect of note-taking patterns on students in interest in geography. A non equivalent quasi-experimental design was adopted by the research. Two hundred and twenty five students in three intact classes from each three secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government of Enugu State form the sample. The experiment was conducted during the students’ normal class periods and their regular teachers trained by the research taught the students under the supervision of the researcher. One intact class was randomly assigned experimental group one, another experimental group two and the third the control group. A research question and a hypothesis guided the study. Experimental group one was taught using knowledge mapping note-taking pattern the experimental group two was taught using conventional method note-taking pattern while the control group was taught without any defined pattern of taking note. Interest scale` on geography (ISOG) was used for data collection. Means and standard deviation were used for answering the research question while the hypothesis was tested using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The results of the study revealed that students taught using knowledge mapping note-taking pattern showed more interest in studying geography more than the other two groups of the study. Some recommendations were therefore made on how to get both teachers in training and the serving teachers to get acquainted with this method of note-taking patter in teaching and learning geography in schools.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Measures of Equivalence as a Predictor of Students Reliability in Biology Objective Tests[ ]


The purpose of the study was to investigate into the measures of equivalence as a predictor of student’s reliability in biology objective test scores in secondary schools. The design of the study was correlation and the population was all the 1756 biology students of the senior secondary school two (SS 2) in the 2013/2014 academic session. Simple random sampling (battling without replacement) was used to sample 450 students from 14 secondary schools in Ezeagu Local Government area of Enugu Slate. The instrument for data collection was biology objective test (BOT). Pearson ‘r’ and t-test were used to correlate and test the hypothesis at 5% level of confidence. Based on the analyzed data, it was found out that out of the 10 schools studied, the measure of equivalence of objective test scores had significant reliability in seven schools. The reliability was significant in the co-educational and boys schools. In the girls' schools, the reliability was not significant

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Pages   [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [U]