Volume 6, Issue 12, December 2015 Edition


Publication for Volume 6, Issue 12, December 2015 is in-process.


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Toxicity leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Orium oleonder on Gambusia affinis in water's Ain Chkef river of Morocco[ ]


This article deals with the comparative analysis of the toxic effect of both studied species and vegetable shows that the leaves of Oleonder (Orium oleonder) are very toxic compared to those of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). The dried leaves of Oleonder desoxygenent much the receiver medium than Eucalyptus. Aching time proves a limiting factor in the mortality of Gambisia (Gambusia affinis). The mortality rates of Gambisia is growing as and as leaching time increases and Lessivas 24 hours of Oleonder leaves appear very toxic they are 15 times and more toxic than those obtained after one hour while for Eucalyptus those values TL 50 decreases. The toxicity of Eucalyptus leaves and Oleonder could be due to their content of polyphenols and soluble toxic substances.

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A Class of New Block Generalized Adams Implicit Runge-Kutta Collocation Methods[ ]


In this paper, the reformulation of the block generalized Adams methods into block generalized Adams implicit Rung-Kutta methods for step numbers k =3, 4, 5, is considered. This is because of the usefulness of block implicit Runge-Kutta methods for the solution of stiff ordinary differential equations. The new methods proposed in this paper turn out to be A-stable and possess the stability properties of the Runge-Kutta methods and have implicit structure for accurate and efficient implementation. Numerical examples obtained demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the new block methods.

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Review of Generalized Fermat Number & Few Properties of Prime Number with respect to N-equation[ ]


It cannot be denial of the fact that with the help of N-equation theory we have received the answers of so many unsolved problems in number theory. N-equation is nothing but the systematic arrangement of all Pythagorean triplets, details of which was first published in this journal IJSER vide Aug-edition 2013 and by which first we have been able to penetrate the mystery of Beal equation. Then with further development of N-equation we unveiled the mystery of Generalized Fermat Number published in same journal Nov-edition, 2015 and so many related conjectures in between. Now it is felt necessary to review the proof of Generalized Fermat Number once again just to have a clear picture and to highlight few properties of prime numbers generated out of this. The most important highlight of which is how twin primes form with respect to N-equation.

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Utilization Of Ultra Sonics For Making A Hologram Tangible[ ]


In this present day technological era, technology plays a crucial role than art and artists. Holography on the other side gained its roots in the industry representing an era of three dimensional (3D) entertainments. For example, movies like ‘Avatar’, ‘The Iron Man’ and ‘The Minority Report’ used HOLOGRAPHY extensively which made the viewers to have a very good visual experience. Although Holograms used in those films were graphically designed in the computer (CGI) ,we can generate a Hologram by our usual HOLOGRAM MAKING METHODS. But till now, there is no evidence that Holograms are tangible .We can only see the Hologram but cannot touch and feel it. This paper presents an analytical approach towards Tangible Holography by Utilizing U.S (ULTRA SONIC) WAVES, giving rise to a new form of live entertainment in real time applications.

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Improved Fault Tolerant Elastic Scheduling Algorithm (IFESTAL)[ ]


The existing fault tolerant models focus on the failure of host. If a host fails, the copies of tasks on this host will fail to finish. At one time instant, at most one host may encounter a failure, that is to say, if the primaries of tasks fail, the backups can always finish successfully before another host fails. Failures can be either transient or permanent, and are independent, affecting only a single host. In this paper, an attempt will be made to propose an improved algorithm to tolerate multiple host failures which will be tested using guarantee ratio, hosts active time, ratio of task over host time.

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Theory of Anything-Sankhya Philosophy[ ]


I am going to present a unify theory of anything, from which you can solve all the unsolved problems of universe. To understand Theory of Anything (TOA) first I will explain an old Hindu philosophy called Sankhya philosophy. Than from Sankhya Philosophy I’ll try to explain all the unsolved problems of universe.

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HOME AUTOMATION[ ]


Due to the proliferation of modern technology, these days, the world is increasingly experienced the use of wireless devices. The devices such as remote control and GSM phone could provide means for monitoring and controlling home appliances in a more convenient way. This project has explored the concept of home automation. A home automated system based on Arduino and GSM Modular developed which is tried to be in-tegrated with Android application through Home Gateway for network interoperability. To show the effective-ness and feasibility of this proposed system, a remote control, indoor control and outdoor control systems have been developed and evaluated. However, integrating the system with android application remains unsuccessful.

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Magnetically Propelled Warehousing, Courier and Same Hour Delivery System[ ]


This paper describes about an alternative Warehousing, Courier and Delivery System which will involve minimalist or almost no human involvement. The system is primarily designed to run on magnetic propulsion system called MegProp invented by Author. When in place, the warehousing will be completely automated with robots which will help deliver orders within an hour or minutes to customers. The System can be used as automated courier system for masses as well. The System is designed to utilize magnetic propulsion MegProp and Cities Sewerage System to complete the purpose. The paper also describe ways to maintain the System. Once in place. Not only can the System be used for Same Hour Delivery of products and automated courier. But other purposes such as waste management, Food delivery etc as well.

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DYSLIPIDEMIA IN UREMIC PATIENTS TREATED WITH INTERMITTENT DIALYSIS[ ]


It is known that uremic patients present clinical atherosclerosis mirror the earlier representation and serious complications of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular with peripheral arterial injuries more frequently with many more younger compared with the healthy population. Recent years has been verified that uremic dyslipidemia persists that in the early stages of kidney weakness, prior to treatment with hemodialysis (HD) and is one of basic factors of the beginning of atherogenic processes in uremic patients. Lipid metabolism disorders in patients with ESRD is first described in 1827 by Dr. Bright, especially in patients with nephrotic syndrome. Replacingphysiological lipoapoproteins with those pathological and effect of their high atherogenic impact phenomena are still undiscovered. Metabolism disorders of HDL-ch is the main factor responsible for checking the progress and pace of atherogenesis in uremic patients.The purpose of this paper research is to evaluate the anomalies of lipids and apolipoproteins inuremic patients treated with hemodialysis over 7 years in the Department of Haemodialysis at the Clinical Hospital of Tetovo, randomized by gender, age and underlying disease that has led to uremia. Matherial and methods; In our study are included 120 patients (66 male and 54 female) with ESRD treated with hemodialysis in Clinical Hospital in Tetovo, Nephrology and Hemodialysis Unit.

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Multiple Collection Searching: An approach with two term layers in the Bayesian network retrieval model[ ]


As hundreds or even thousands of collections are available on the Internet, the IR community must cope with the problem of searching multiple collections. To build a single index for all collections is practically prohibited by its obvious drawback: it is too slow, because searching such a gigantic index takes a long time to complete. Worse, this search may not complete due to network resource limits in case of hundreds of collections. This paper describes how to use Bayesian inference network, a probabilistic approach, to solve the problems in searching multiple collections. An efficient learning method to capture the relationships among terms contained in a given document collection, for improving the retrieval performance, as well as their use for retrieval purposes, is also shown.

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Computer Vision and Web Framework for Bank Security Locker System Using Arm Processor[ ]


Internet and Digitalization is everywhere and that is the next and running revolution running around the globe. Everything is digitalized, and the market trends on it. E-commerce plays a vital role in marketing the product, purchasing the product, reviewing the product and mainly in India there were too many start- ups running on E-commerce. The purchase with internet is the most feasible way and reaches the customer satisfaction in majority possible cases. When you see the market, there were Android Smartphones coming up with the new emerging applications that moves the e-Market to next gen. Collecting signature from the customer is the digitalization concept that anyone wants to see. That topic is our main agenda, which is to collect signature from the user and to check whether it is her/his own signature or not. Signature is collected with the help of Android Smartphone from the user and it is uploaded to the dynamic web server for image processing using OpenCV with Python (Histogram Evaluation). If it matches with the original signature then SMS will be sent to the user. The same application can also be used in accessing the locker at Banks. This application is demonstrated here with a simple security system.

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Modeling of the Dehydrogenation Reaction to produce Olefins for the Petrochemical Industry[ ]


Modeling of a heterogeneous industrial fixed bed reactor for selective dehydrogenation of heavy paraffin with Pt-Sn-Al2O3 catalyst (DEH-7 (UOP)) is the subject of current study. Using mass balance for appropriate element of reactor . In order to investigate reactor performance in time, the reactor model which is a set of partial differential equations (PDEs), ordinary differential equations and algebraic equations will be solved numerically. Variation of paraffin, olefin mole percent as a function of time and reactor radius is estimated by numerical solution of the mathematical model. And variation of temperature with reactor radius found by numerical solution of the mathematical model. Modeling results are compared with an industrial reactor data at different operating times.

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DANGER: Adolescent! Keep your personal information private on SNS[ ]


The Social Network is a channels of communication and self-expression. Countless individuals use message boards, date matching sites, interactive social networks, blog hosting services and video sharing websites to make themselves and their ideas visible to the world. Facebook is one eminent social networking service where users create personal profiles, add other users as friends and exchange messages, including automatic notifications when they update their own profile. Once you uploaded photos, videos and personal details on the SNS sites, you are helpless to control its circulation. While such intermediaries enable the user-driven digital age, they also create new legal problems. This study has summarized some of the main findings with respect of the antecedents, behaviors, and effects relating to Facebook use. There are still gaps in the research to date that may be worth studying in more detail.

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Effect of Adding Surfactant Slug to Polymer Flooding in Cross flow Multi-layered Reservoir[ ]


Natural reservoir energy recovers less than one third of the original oil in place (OOIP) leaving substantial part of the oil in the reservoir. Due to high energy demand and difficulties in exploring and developing new oil fields; several enhanced oil recovery methods are being developed in order to optimise production in marginal oil fields. In an effort to understand the effect of adding surfactant slug to polymer flooding in a cross flow multi-layered reservoir, a simulation study was carried out for polymer flood and surfactant/polymer flood at different water cuts of 30%, 50% and 65% in order to compare and predict the incremental oil recovered by each of the two enhanced oil recovery methods. The polymer slug consists of water, calcium, alcohol, tracers and was injected at the rate of 112ft3/day for 1500 days at the different water cuts. Both the polymer and the surfactant floods were carried out for a period of 1500 days using one injection well and one production well. The simulation results show that polymer flooding on the average can recover about 27% of the original oil in place while surfactant-polymer flooding can recover up to 45% of the original oil in place (OOIP). This shows that adding surfactant to polymer can increase oil recovery by about 18% on the average for both single and multi-layer reservoirs provided there is communication at the contact planes.

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Survey on Software Effort Estimation Technique – A Review[ ]


This paper aims to provide improvements of software sizing, effort estimation and cost estimation research through a systematic review of the previous work carried out by many authors. The review used 150 research papers from different journals and conferences and analysed in three title namely software sizing models, effort estimation models, and cost estimation models. The review results combined with other knowledge provide support for recommendation for future software sizing, effort estimation and cost estimation.

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Methods for Providing High Security to Transfer Secret Image[ ]


Privacy and security of data being transmitted has become the major issue. Now a day’s one of the major challenge is transfer of data securely through the secure communication channel. Many images transmitted via Internet containing secret information but not secure. In Visual cryptography technique, the secret image is initially partitioned into different shares. The shares may be meaningful or meaningless. The receiver can get the original image only after combining specified number of shares. Here each individual image does not give any information about the secret. To transfer the secret, which is in the form of image, the visual cryptography technique is more suitable. Different algorithms already proposed in visual cryptography by considering the security level. Multi layer security approach is used to increase the security level. Along with Symmetric and asymmetric algorithm, Visual Cryptography method is also considered for more security. In this paper, a visual secret sharing scheme is used so that the secret image can hide into share images with pixel expansion. An extra confidential image is embedded in the share images. Share images are encrypted using DES algorithm. Extra confidential image is also used for check the validity of reconstructed secret image. At the receiver side, receiver has to decrypt two shares and stack them to get secret image. In another method, the secret image is encrypted using Arnold’s transformation in the first step. Two shares are created using basic (2, 2) method in the second step. In the third level of security, shares are embedded in two host images. On the receiver end, shares are extracted from camouflage image and then stacked to get the encrypted image. Encrypted image is decrypted using Arnold’s Inverse Transformation These two proposed methods definitely increase the level of security.

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INHIBITORY ACTIVITY OF MAKAHIYA (Mimosa pudica Linn) LEAF EXTRACT TO THREE TEST ORGANISMS[ ]


With the reported phytochemical analysis of Mimosa pudica Linn, the study determined its leaf extracts’ inhibitory activity to three test organisms through methods of extraction and microbial test. The leave of Mimosa pudica were collected from Lussoc Ilocos Sur and was evaluated against three multi drug resistant human pathogens .The antimicrobial activities are important diagnostic laboratories to analyse the resistance of microorganisms to an antimicrobial agent. This study is in support of the Philippine Department of Health’s continuous research for traditional alternative herbal medicine. The leaf extract of Mimosa pudica strongly inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus The researcher recommends the establishing of Mimosa pudica as traditional, alternative medicine for diseases/ illnesses caused by the above mentioned bacteria. Hence the MIC of the secondary metabolites as well as the isolation and characterization of the primary metabolites of the plant should also be done as it has yielded a promising potential as an antimicrobial.

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INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY TRADITIONAL HEALERS IN ILOC0S SUR[ ]


This research documented local plant species with its botanical interest and scientific names used by the traditional healers in Ilocos Sur. In this study, the profile of the respondents who were Ilocano traditional healers were identified in terms of sex, age, serve as a healer, mentorship type of disease treated and specialization in the indigenous medicinal treatment The indigenous knowledge of the Ilocano traditional healers was studied based on the botanical remedies and human ailments of the identified plant species in Ilocos Sur. It also included the methods of preparation of the medicinal plants used by the traditional healers. Fifty three (53) local traditional healers were interviewed to provide needed information.

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ANDROID PHONE PERSONALIZATION AND USE[ ]


A smartphone can be personalized either by modifying its appearance or by adapting its functionality/content to the user’s needs. We looked at the personalization habits and self-reported usage in a group of students furnished with an Android smartphone. Appearance personalization was done mainly by changing the wallpaper. Functionality personalization was done by downloading apps, putting them on the home screens, changing the launcher and, in some cases, modifying the favorites tray. Although entertainment apps were downloaded most often and tool and entertainment apps were most often placed in the home screens for quick access, participants reported using their smartphones primarily for socialization and search. Participants appreciated the smartphone mainly for how it supported their social needs. At the same time, they were worried about it alienating them from the people around them. In summary, personalization supported Android users’ relatedness, utilitarian, and hedonic needs.

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Mobile Cloud Computing and Issues - A Survey[ ]


Together with rapid growth in mobile applications and cloud computing technology, mobile cloud computing has been introduced to be a potential technology for mobile services. In this paper, we present a survey of mobile cloud computing research, highlighting the specific issues in mobile cloud computing. This Paper gives brief introduction of Mobile Cloud Computing and its architecture. It also discusses various different issues in different aspects of Mobile Cloud Computing.

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“Leadership in Bangladesh Corporate Culture” A research on the changes in organizational leadership & culture in Bangladesh[ ]


Corporate leadership is set to be one of the most challenging roles in organizations today. With the dynamic changes in the global business environment, the focus on changes in organizational culture is explicitly sought to be the key aspect of organizational change management. Keeping in tandem with the volatile global business environment, countries like Bangladesh where the dynamism of organizational changes are shifting from the traditional methods of leadership to a more autocratic leadership, it is understandable that the changes are taking place throughout the organization at each level. As corporate culture is thought be a genuinely challenging aspect of organizational change, the research has therefore extended its horizon towards understanding the organizational leadership and culture in the corporate sector of Bangladesh spreading over a mix of multicultural and different leadership styles existing as well as the challenges the organizations are facing to keep in tune with changing business environment.

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Improved Fault Tolerant Elastic Scheduling Algorithm for Cloud Computing[ ]


The paper focus on Fault Tolerance, a long standing problem in cloud computing by extending Primary Backup model to include cloud features such as virtualization and elasticity. Fault tolerance is a challenging work in Cloud Computing as virtual machines are the basic computing instances rather than hosts that enable virtual machines to migrate to other hosts. The on demand provisioning of resources makes the cloud elastic thus resources can be added on demand and when no longer requirement exists, the resources can be released. Prevailing fault tolerant scheduling algorithms which studied PB model approach in cloud computing investigated single Host crashes. The proposed algorithm, improved Fault Tolerant Elastic Scheduling Algorithm identified as IFTESA, is able to handle two host crashes concurrently. IFTESA attempts to boost performance by involving virtual machine migration and overlapping technique. The constraints have been investigated to full fill fault tolerance needs.

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Proposed methodology to allow bottom pour in a less than 400 kg ladle with steel thermal masses in Investment Shell Casting Process[ ]


Bottom pour of certain metal alloys is used regularly in casting industries. Good quality castings are produces as optimization of parameters like pour height, metal flow and temperature range of pouring etc. can easily be achieved. Metal slag related issues are also avoided resulting in less inclusion defects. But this process is used only for large mass of metal (> 1100 kgs) due to various reasons. Solutions to come up with a smaller mass of metal (< 500 kgs) are discussed here to achieve same advantages as by bottom pour for large mass of specific metal alloys. Specific example for bottom pour using stopper rod for ASTM 351A/CFM 8 is discussed for experimentation in investment casting process based on these solutions.

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Realistic Comparison of Performance Parameters of Static and Dynamic Unicast Routing over Mesh Topology[ ]


In this paper a realistic comparison analysis of the static and dynamic routing protocols has been made. Parameters of performance selected for this analysis are average delay, average throughput and average packet loss in different mesh network. Both the routing protocols are used by the network architectures and designers in practice. A static routing protocol does not check the connection once it has been established i.e. during transmission of data transfer whereas dynamic routing protocol periodically checks the connection and also update the path accordingly. Analysis conducted in this paper presents that the dynamic routing is better than static routing in term of average delay and average packet delivery ratio while static routing is better than dynamic routing with respect to average throughput. All the simulations have been done with the help of Network Simulator Tool NS2.

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Reliable Control of PMDC Motor Speed Using Matlab[ ]


This research investigated several controllers designed to control the speed of a 380-volt permanent magnet DC motor set to rotate at a speed of 45 rads/sec. The aim is to design a controller which is robust and reliable, with a good disturbance rejection suitable for use in any industrial equipment or domestic appliance which rotates at a speed of 45 rads/sec. The system modeling was carried out using simulink for proper analysis of the time responses of the various controllers. The reliability of the system model was tested with a torque of 10Nm and the responses show that the cascade-PID controller amongst all controller designs tested can produce a stable, reliable, and robust but not very sensitive system, while the ordinary PID controller can produce a highly sensitive, but less stable system.

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Soil Improvement Techniques[ ]


Soil at a construction site may not always be totally suitable for supporting structures in its natural state. In such a case, the soil needs to be improved to increase its bearing capacity and decrease the expected settlement. This paper gives an overview of techniques that are commonly used to improve the performance of saturated clayey soil in situ, its functions, methods of installation, the applicable soil types and cost of those techniques. Then, this study concluded that there is an urgent need to study the technique of removal and replacement for improving soil behavior taking into consideration geotechnical requirements (i.e. bearing capacity and settlement) and cost to achieve the optimum thickness of replacement layers and the most suitable material corresponding to minimum total cost of foundation works.

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Quality Evaluation of Acid Radicals of Some Selected Boreholes in Edda, Ebonyi State[ ]


The Acid Radicals of some boreholes in Edda of Ebonyi State were evaluated. Composite samples drawn from 8 borehole water sources were collected for dry and rainy seasons and analyzed for acid radicals The Ammonia, Nitrate, nitrite of the water samples were determined using UV Spectrophotometer model HACH DR 2400 (Phenate Method) at wavelengths of 636, 470 and 520 nm. The Phosphorus of the water samples was determined at wavelength 882nm using UV Spectrophotometer (Ascorbic Acid Method) while sulphate was determined at wavelength 420 nm using UV Spectrophotometer model SM 7525. The Chloride of the water samples was determined Mohr’s Method.

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DESIGN OF A REAL-TIME MICROCONTROLLER BASED GSM-EMBEDDED INTRUSION SECURITY SYSTEM[ ]


Intrusion detection systems are essential if home security is to be guaranteed. This paper aims at developing a real-time intrusion detection system using Passive IR sensor, ATmega32 microcontroller, SIM1900a GSM Modem, Liquid Crystal Display and buzzer. The Passive IR detects motion and intrusion within a desired perimeter range and sends pulses to microcontroller continuously. The microcontroller will trigger an alarm and sends alert messages to preprogrammed mobile device via GSM in case of untoward situations. The passive Infrared is low-powered which utilizes pyroelectricity effect to detect a human body that is a constant source of infrared radiation. Use of real-time SMS notification with in-house alarm system will increase home safety and security.

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Task Based Language Teaching Method[ ]


This paper is about Task Based Language Teaching, which is considered one of the newest of the teaching methods

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An Iterative Technique for Requirement Elicitation in Global Software Development[ ]


The purpose of the research is to solve those ambiguities which arise when requirements gathering are conducted globally. In the global software devel-opment there are unique challenges for developers and system users across national, cultural, political and language barriers. The most important challenge in the global software development is the selection of an appropriate technique and how the change management process can be applied because the technology is transforming day by day. There is a need that software engineers must be free and open to choose the requirement elicitation techniques and applicable changes can be made any time. This research made comparison between requirement elicitation techniques. The quantitative approach was used by processing online survey and interview and on the basis of these findings we will be able to find out that how the requirements should be gathered and some suggestions also been given to improve the process.

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Crack Formation in CFRP Grid Reinforced Mortar Member – A Case Study[ ]


This paper reports from a research study, aiming to investigate the crack development of a CFRP grid-reinforced mortar member tested in uniaxial tension. This composition of CFRP together with the mortar forms the MBC (Mineral Based Composite) strengthening material and its application for strengthening concrete structures is being researched. For the strengthening material, tendencies in behaviour with changing geometrical parameters and mortar compositions are detailed. The actual tests described contribute to a larger ongoing project on Mineral Based Composites (MBC), which is a newly developed strengthening materials and system for existing concrete structures, where FRPs, mainly CFRP grids are externally bonded to the concrete surface by means of cementitious bonding agents, i.e. polymer modified mortars. Here only the strengthening system itself has been tested, the FRP material and the bonding agent together under uniaxial tension. Crack formation, crack development in CFRP reinforced concrete and the interaction between CFRP reinforcement and mortars are documented and evaluated and different mortars and grids are compared.

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