Volume 6, Issue 4, April 2015 Edition

Publication for Volume 6, Issue 4, April 2015.


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Effect of Pre-processing Stages on Recognition Accuracy of a Developed Isolated Word Recognition System[ ]


The major observed cause of inaccuracy of the earlier developed word recognition systems is the lack of sufficient combination of pre-processing stages adopted before extracting the speech features. In investigating this observed deficiency, two isolated word recognition systems were developed. The first was developed without pre-processing stages while the second was developed with pre-processing stages. The paper combined analog to digital conversion, end point detection and template preparation as paramount pre-processing techniques in developing the second word recognition system. The analog to digital conversion was used to obtain the digitized speech using a Gold wave software while linear pattern classifier was used as the end point detection technique to remove silence at the beginning and the ending of the digitized speech. Reliable master templates of the three speech samples words: count, stop and down were prepared using average template method. The performance evaluation carried out on the developed word recognition systems show a variation on the recognition accuracies of the three words employed with an average recognition of 23.3% and 76.7% without and with pre-processing stages respectively. The result of the study shows that pre-processing stages have significant effect on the accuracy of the word recognition system. Also, the results from the study show that differences in both ascent and pitch of the speakers have effects on the performance of the developed word recognition system.

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Modeling soil profile using GIS and Geo-statistical algorithms[ ]


This paper introduces the implementation of both GIS and Geo-statistics on Geotechnical raw data from boreholes and from CPT logs in 3D volumetric modeling of soil profile. It shows how both ArcGIS as a GIS software and Sgems as a specialized Geo-statistics software could be integrated to prepare such model in both cases. It starts by introducing Geo-statistics which is not much well known technique for the Geo-technical community and focuses of on the Sequential Indicator simulation (SIS) Algorithm as the most suitable Geo-statistical algorithm in modeling categorical data. Moreover, it discusses some of the problems that might face the modeler when dealing with data from different source in order to produce the a unified soil model on the large scale(city scale) and proposed techniques and algorithms to overcome these problems are discussed. Mainly the paper focused on two problems. First, the problems of having data from different sources or soil reports with different formats and even different naming methodology, considering the more difficulties that could be faced for such reports with Arabic naming for soil layers. It shows a technique developed for classifying this data using a simple methodology of text patterning in order to manipulate the soil borehole data to produce the categories required for Geo-statistical modeling using SIS Second, it talks about the problem faced on such city scale data in order to fulfill the main Geo-statistics assumption "autocorrelation" and introduced a practical methodology using ARCGIS for raw data grouping. Besides that, it discusses the means of integration and data exchange between ArcGIS and Sgems

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Unique Shaped Structures: Modelling, Design and Verification of a Water Drop-Shaped Building[ ]


Unique shaped structures have been of great interest to the world for the way they impact the environments. Their points of location become centres of attraction for residents and visitors alike. This has brought a lot of joy, love and benefits to the host cities. The inkling of water drop-shaped structure came as a contribution towards increasing the number of existing iconic master pieces. This work will consist of creating structural model, analysing and designing the elements in reinforced concrete and glass in accordance to the British Standards. The research will mark an advancement on previous models on bottle-shaped structures. The non-symmetric circular shaped structure is modelled floor by floor to take care of the irregular change of shape vertically and horizontally. Prevailing and the most grievous load combinations are adopted for the non-linear finite element analysis. All the elements passed the structural verification tests and the drifts were within limits for various combination of loads.

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A Survey on Trusted Fault Tolerant System in MANET With Data Recovery[ ]


Date Recovery is an important feature in Mobile ad-hoc network. Communication between the nodes in adhoc network depends the radio range, node mobility as well as intermediate nodes because they communicate with the help of intermediate nodes, that means each mobile node is treated as a route and so arises the problem of data security, different trust methods have been proposed before and have secured the data from dropping and modification as well as capture attack but in our proposed work we are trying to design reputation base trust allocation for the node and if any fault occur in any of the transaction we will try to identify the particular node using some analysis. The implementation model basically focuses on those nodes which do not actively participate in a network. We will be using Location Aided Routing (LAR) protocol for that purpose. Will try to analyze through Network Simulator-2 test based architecture and will try to identify node trust level.

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Air Quality Assessment of Jirania Brick Industries Cluster: A Case Study[ ]


The present study is aimed to estimate the quantum of significant air pollution loads that arising out from the brick industries of a small cluster located at Jirania, Tripura, India. For assessing seasonal variations of concentration of particulate matter and other gaseous pollutants, air quality monitoring was carried out using Respirable Dust Sampler at 6 locations in Jirania Brick Industries Cluster before starting brick manufacturing and also during brick production seasons. The concentration of PM10, SO2 and NO2 in the ambient air during bricks production was compared with the baseline ambient air quality data that were generated before starting the brick production. The level of deterioration of air quality in terms of low, moderate, high and critical is evaluated by calculating an exceedence factor (EF). Excedence factor (EF) ranges 0.736 implies that the Jirania Brick Industries Cluster is moderately air polluted area. The emission induced particulate matter and other gaseous pollutants increase the ground level concentration and degrading the quality of ambient air around the brick kilns during the brick production season. Human health as well the health of other living entities, manmade heritage and vegetation around the brick kilns are the serious concerned.

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Direction Based Routing in Vehicular Ad-hoc Netwoks[ ]


Vehicular networks are one of the most researched topics in computer science and networks in the present time. Most vehicles are equipped with global positioning system (GPS) these days. Vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) has become an active area of research and development because of the advances in communication technologies. Soon we can expect all vehicles to be fitted with small range wireless devices. The main issues in VANETS are routing related. A lot of VANET researches have focused on areas like routing, broadcasting, quality of service and security. In this paper we introduce an ad-hoc routing method based on direction of the vehicle. Each vehicle and roadside unit (RSU) can work as a router in the vehicular network. As a vehicle moves fast along one of the two lanes in a road, it would be much efficient if routing is done based on the direction of the vehicle. It can cause much less data loss and less overhead for route establishment. We use the RSUs to determine whether the sender and participating nodes along the route are heading in the same direction or not. For communication between vehicles heading in different directions, we use the backbone network and the RSUs.

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Investigation on the Impact of the Design of R.C Buildings in KSA According to Different Building Codes on the Level of Safety and Cost[ ]


The construction industry is a highly competitive sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In the absence of obligatory local build-ing codes, the construction industry in KSA was adopting standards and codes of practice from several other countries. As a result, a variety of the constructed buildings suffered different features of failure. So, the national building code of the KSA (SBC)was issued in 2007. The present study intends to deeply investigate the impact of using the professions of different international codes used in the KSA on the level of safety and cost of RC buildings. It should be stated that every design code stipulates factors of safety adequate for the local conditions. Over-designing beyond these limits is a waste of materials and hence harming the environmental conditions. Otherwise, neglecting the differences in loads between different cities in the KSA leads to incorrect designs of buildings which may lack the required level of safety. In this study, two types of common buildings are investigated which are moment resisting frames (MRF) and shear wall - moment resisting frames (SW-MRF). The buildings are designed according to different international building codes which are SBC, Eurocode-8, UBC 97 and NBCC. The case of study buildings have different heights ranging between 3 and 17 floors. A comparative analysis between the resulted normalized total base shear and concrete quantities according to the designs relying on these codes is carried out.

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Improvement of Mechanical Properties of Asphalt Concrete Surface Course Mixtures Using Yellow Sulfur[ ]


Specific requirements are needed to control the quality of pavement's materials by means of mechanical and durability properties. Accordingly, many studies have been conducted to improve these properties. This study represents laborato-ry studies to characterize asphalt cement-yellow sulfur and the produced asphalt concrete by conducting classical test procedures. Yellow sulfur has been added as a replacement to the asphalt cement with nine contents which were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 by total weight of asphalt cement. The yellow sulfur modified mixtures were designed according to Marshall method and their engineering properties i.e. stability, flow, bulk density, percent of voids in total mix, and per-cent of voids filled with asphalt were determined. Marshal stability of the modified mixtures is higher than those of control mixture. Also, the test results show that the engineering properties of hot mixtures treated with yellow sulfur comply with SORB specifications for surface course mixtures.

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Power Quality Improvements in Wind Based DG Systems using Solid State Transformer[ ]


Along with the random increment of power demand throughout the world, the amount of renewable energy integration into the conventional grid is also increasing day by day. Wind power is being found as one of the most rapidly increasing renewable energy resources in the present scenario. As a result of the wind power being an uncontrollable resource, various problems regarding power quality, power system stability, reactive power consumption and protection issues arise. Though the Solid State Transformer (SST) has been found to be useful in integration of different distributed energy resources in the distribution grid with multiple functionalities, research gaps are still found in SST application incase of wind power integration. In this paper, the SST based mitigation of some power quality issues like voltage sag and swell at point of common coupling (PCC), reactive power consumption, power factor improvement etc. which exist in the wind based DG systems are presented through PSCAD/EMTDC simulation using suitable case study.

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Performance Analysis Of Sensing Time Parameter In Cooperative Sensing Cognitive Radio[ ]


Spectrum scarcity problem is well addressed by cognitive radio. The main role of spectrum sensing is to discover the empty band correctly .This is done with the help of energy detector. The sensing time is a very crucial parameter which regulates the detection probability. In this paper the impact of sensing time has been investigated. The rigorous simulations are done on sensing time parameter with varying snr and keeping probability of false alarm constant and vice versa. The simulations are done for cooperative sensing with AND and OR rule and it shows that AND rule outperforms in terms of detecting the band. Results also show that Sensing efficiency is declined with increasing sensing time.

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Understanding the Roots of Male Student Prostitution: A Multiple Case Study[ ]


This multiple case study was conducted at the municipality of Compostela, Compostela Valley Province. Participants were the five male student prostitutes from private and public higher education institutions of the municipality. The in-depth interview provided the lived experiences, reasons of turning to prostitutions, and the aspirations of these male student prostitutes. It was found out that lived experiences of these male student prostitutes were manifested in their hesitation as first timers in the work and encountered disgusting sexual contacts. There were shocking revelations in the confessions of the participants that needs attention. Poverty was the primary reason of becoming a prostitute. This study has implications in education on how to address the problem and find ways to prevent the blowing number of these students in the academic world.

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GIS based Landfill Site selection for Faisalabad City[ ]


Shortage of land for waste disposal and inappropriate landfill site is one of the biggest problems in urban areas. This problem could be solved by applying new technologies like Geographic Information Systems. Most of the landfill sites in Pakistan are selected randomly, and waste is burned in air which has impacts on nature and human lives. The main aim of this research is to determine a suitable landfill site with less impact on environment. In this research, a potential site for an appropriate landfill area for Faisalabad city was determined by using Geographic Information System (GIS) as a tool to aid the decision making process. To achieve this purpose, thematic layers, and different tabular data such as topography, land use, roads network, ground, and surface water, infrastructure, and urban areas were collected. Thematic maps were used to create the vulnerability map for the area and the results were compiled to the buffer zones around sensitive areas. Multi-criteria analysis (MDA) was used to measure the relative importance weighting for each criterion. Each map layers were formed with the aid of GIS and final suitability map was created by overlay analyses of each criterion map. According to obtained results, high and low suitable areas were determined in the study area.

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Creation, Maintenance and Comparison of Multipurpose Cadastre in Pakistan and Saudi Arabia[ ]


Metropolitan regions often faced huge burden to handle to managing authorities for the linkage between transportation, land-use and environmental quality and from urban perspective about handling the other effects of growth such as loss of free land portion, housing availability, humidity and sprawl growth. The models (planning) which are using by Metropolitan authorities; are not designed in the way to overcome these needs. This multipurpose cadastral database including spatial, non-spatial data, and metadata; is designed to meet these needs and is being used in more than ten metropolitan regions for various environmental, planning, engineering, cadastral documentation projects. This work illustrates the each phase from field survey up to designing and maintaining multipurpose cadastral database.

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Virtual Computer Laboratory A worked Sample-APB Simulator[ ]


The field of Virtual Reality has made Education so interesting as it introduces a balance between Explicit Knowledge (introduced by normal theory class setting) and Tacit Knowledge (knowledge gained by practical carried out in laboratories). Virtual Reality (VR) is an artificial environment created with computer hardware and software, which presents users with hands-on experience while learning technical know-hows of a particular device in the real world. Virtual Laboratories enhances accessibility to simulated equipment and reduces cost and maintenance of physical laboratories facilities. The outcome of this work is APB- 3-D virtual laboratory, which presents students and lecturers with a virtual world/World on Windows (WoW) practical class sessions on computer hardware repairs and troubleshooting. APB strikes a balance between concrete learning and virtual classroom experience with the sole aim of combating lack of laboratory experience and lack of laboratory facilities as major challenges in developing countries such as Nigeria.

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Low Cost, Portable and Extendable Power Bank[ ]


In the following paper, a new innovative design in which simple and effective components are utilized in a circuit that enhances the capabilities of the portable power banks available in the market is discussed. Components such as DC voltage regulators and USB cable have been used to create a circuit that has more utility compared to products available in the market. It offers additional advantages and simpler approach to these portable power banks.

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Adaptive Control Method for Output Voltage of a Three-Phase Multilevel Inverter Considering For Fluctuation in DC Voltage[ ]


In this paper, a new control approach for closed loop feedback control (CLFB) multilevel inverter of the output voltage using space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) is presented. The DC sources input to the inverter circuit are directly connected without energy storage devices considering solar, wind and fuel cell cogeneration systems. The Proportional plus Integral control (PI), Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) has been applied, the main role of these control techniques is to make improvement in the controllability and absorption of the fluctuations of DC voltages, Using three level inverters with static and dynamic loads has been examined. This paper gives a detailed analysis and comparison of control techniques simulated by MATLAB environment.

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A novel Digital watermarking technique based on STD (standard division)[ ]


The data hiding, it's one of the most important means used by the security institutions with critical communications in all countries of the world, they provided the technology of high security, especially in the communication networks and the Internet. In this paper, we modified LSB algorithm to become more secure and robust, Cryptography and Steganography works separately from the other to ensure a secure content. We design scheme to increase the safety and reliability of the copyrights to images, videos, books …etc., that's published on the internet by providing a watermark image hiding inside the original file that we want protect it. Firstly, reading first image (binary scale) and encrypted it by XOR algorithm and using a key agreed upon by the two parties (sender and recipient), followed by the division of the cover image to be hide data where clips blocks size (8*8) and account values standard deviation (Standard Deviation (STD)) for each section are then finding less and the largest value of a standard deviation in addition to the median value, then isolate sections where the value of the standard deviation less or equal of median value to be key concealment (ie be adopted as locations to hide) and that by including all bit of message into the (LSB) for each section of the selected sections. The effective of the proposed scheme has been estimated by Mean Square Error (MSE), Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), BER. This paper also illustrates how security has been enhanced using this algorithm.

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Money laundering and financial market performance in Russia[ ]


Financial market efficiency can serve as an indicator of investment attractiveness of the country. We expected that the performance of capital flight will depend on the dynamics of the securities market, as part of the financial market and it must explain the problem of withdrawal of capital from developing countries to more efficient markets of developed countries. We examined the dependence of GDP, foreign direct investment, dynamics of the index RTSI, and the Net capital exports by the private sector. Our research has shown that the criterion of the effectiveness of regional financial market is not decisive for Russian foreign direct investment abroad. Until 2009, Russia shadow income laundered through the securities market intermediaries and brokers found themselves in the derivation of assets outside the Russian jurisdiction. In recent years, capital outflow occurs through trade deals and transactions. This suggests that in modern Russia capital flight from the country does not depend on the efficiency of financial markets and investment attractiveness of the country.

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Conventional Fire Alarm System[ ]


Safety is the main aspect of human life. There are hazardous effects of fire in human life. The Fire Alarm system (FAS) is implemented in building to reduce hazardous causes of fire. This System continuously monitors the space covered by zones. If fire occurs, it gets detected automatically at incipient stage and gives notification. The early detection helps to prevent the spread and increases human safety.

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COMPLEXES OF 2-AMINO-4-THIAZOLEACETIC ACID HYDRAZIDE(ATAH), SALICYLADEHYDE-2-AMINO-4-THIAZOLEACETIC ACID HYDRAZONE (ATASH) AND ACETONE-2-AMINO-4-THIAZOLEACETIC ACID HYDRAZONE(ATAAH) EACH WITH COPPER(II) SULPHATES [ ]


Four complexes obtained from 2-amino-4-thiazoleacetic acid hydrazide [keto- (ATAH) and enol- (ATA) forms), salicylaldehyde- 2-amino-4-thiazoleacetic acid hydrazone (ATASH) and acetone -2-amino-4-thiazoleacetic acid hydrazone (ATAAH) each complexed with copper(II) sulphates have been synthesized. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, conductance, infrared and electronic spectral studies. The ligands and complexes were screened for antimicrobial activity and the compounds were relatively inactive against the organism tested. The electronic data indicate a square planar coordination for the all the complexes synthesized. The IR spectra data are diagnostic of bidentate coordination via the carbonyl oxygen and the azomethine, the SO42- anions are in their inner coordination spheres. The conductivity analyses indicate a non-electrolytic nature for the chelates.

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Ciphertext Policy - Attribute Based Encryption (CP-ABE) System Solution for Securely Sharing Images Owned by One Stakeholder with Unknown Stakeholder[ ]


One of the most challenging issues in sharing systems is the enforcement of access policies and the policies updates support. Ciphertext policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) is a promising cryptographic solution to this issue. Cipher text – Attribute Based Encryption scheme enables an encryptor to define the attribute set over a universe of attributes that a decryptor needs to possess in order to decrypt the ciphertext. Thus, each viewer with a different set of attributes is allowed to decrypt different pieces of data per the security policy. It is designed to use CP-ABE scheme to improve security and efficiency in attribute based image sharing. The designed image sharing system includes Key Generation Center, Image Owner, Image Viewer, Image Server system entities that helps to share image securely using CP-ABE scheme. Here, specifically focus is on sharing image in ‘.jpg/.jpeg’ format.

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Production of chitosan from different species of zygomycetes and its antimicrobial activity[ ]


Zygomycetes fungi cell wall is a source for chitosan production. In this study, chitosan was produced by three fungal strains (Cunninghamella elegans RCMB 012002, Mucor rouxii RCMB 015002 & Rhizopus.sp) and its antimicrobial activity was investigated against deferent pathogenic microorganisms. The chitosan produced by the fungal strains was characterized by FTIR to evaluate the degree of deacetylation, and the DD was 80.30, 81.50 & 80.30 % with Mucor rouxii, Rhizopus sp. & Cunninghamella elegans, respectively. To enhance the value of fungal chitosan production, five culture conditions such as growth medium, carbon and nitrogen source, pH value and temperature were studied. The results showed higher chitosan yield with YPG medium and gave 640, 440 and 240 mg/l for Cunninghamella elegans, Mucor rouxii & Rhizopus sp., respectively. The higher yield of chitosan was obtained when used glucose as carbon source for all fungal strains. The sodium nitrate was the best nitrogen source for Cunninghamella elegans & Mucor rouxii, but urea as the best one for Rhizopus sp. The pH 5 was the best for Cunninghamella elegans & Mucor rouxii, while the pH 4.5 was the best one for Rhizopus sp. and 30?c as temperature for all fungal strains. The produced chitosan was used as antimicrobial agent against pathogenic microbes, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC- 47077), Escherichia coli (ATCC- 25922), Candida albicans (ATCC- 10231) and Fusarium oxysporum. The results showed variable antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of produced fungal chitosan was calculated and the results were ranged between 100 and 1500 ppm with all tested microbes. We produced eco-friendly fungal chitosan and applied it as antimicrobial agent which can be used in various fields.

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Towards a Methodology for Performance Measurement of Service-Based Systems[ ]


Currently, the use of web services in systems engineering and execution is increasing considerably. In addition, service oriented computing (SOC) is being viewed as an interesting approach for building more complex systems based on primitive services. Based on the widely adoption and use of this approach, web services performance evaluation acquires a considerable relevance, because this performance directly impact the performance of the entire system. This work proposes a methodology for measuring the performance of Web services, in which a set of steps can be used to accomplish this task. In special, considering that two relevant communication protocols, SOAP and REST, were proposed in the last years to support web services project and execution, a case study focuses on a comparative study of these protocols in order to evaluate performance aspects in real world scenarios.

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Business Intelligence[ ]


Business Intelligence is becoming more significant to firms and organizations because with business intelligence they may have good knowledge management (Boylan 2015). Business Intelligence basically is computer software that assists firms to gain more perspectives into addressing the data needs and crucial operations through reporting applications and analysis tools ((Boylan 2015).

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Physicochemical Properties of Japanese Scad (Decapterus Maruadsi) Surimi Prepared using the Acid and Alkaline Solubilization Methods[ ]


The physicochemical properties of Japanese scad (Decapterus maruadsi) surimi prepared using the acid solubilization method (ACS), alkaline solubilization method (ALS), and conventional method (CON) were investigated and compared. In CON, the fish was mechanically deboned, washed, screw pressed, treated by adding cryoprotectants, and frozen. For ACS and ALS, the minced meat was homogenized, solubilized with acid pH 3 or alkaline pH 12, respectively, and centrifuged to separate insoluble materials from soluble protein. The soluble protein was collected and adjusted to the isoelectric point of proteins (5.4), and the precipitated proteins then were centrifuged to collect the protein isolate. Cryoprotectants were added and the product was frozen. ACS yielded the highest protein recovery, ALS yielded the highest lipid reduction, and CON yielded the lowest protein recovery and lipid reduction. ACS and ALS generated products with higher protein and lower fat contents compared with CON, whereas CON produced a product with higher moisture and ash contents than ACS and ALS. Quantitative descriptive analysis revealed that the surimi produced by CON had a strong fishy odor and a rancid odor. Results shows that compared to CON, ACS and ALS methods increase the protein recovery, lipid reduction and gel quality of Japanese scad surimi.

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