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Wireless Sensor Network: A Review on Data Aggregation
« on: April 23, 2011, 11:11:17 am »
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Author : Kiran Maraiya, Kamal Kant, Nitin Gupta
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, IJSER - Volume 2, Issue 4, April-2011
ISSN 2229-5518
Download Full Paper - http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Wireless_Sensor_Network_A_Review_on_Data_Aggregation.pdf

Abstract— Data aggregation is very crucial techniques in wireless sensor network. Because with the help of data aggregation we reduce the energy consumption by eliminating redundancy. When wireless sensor network deployed in remote areas or hostile environment. In the wireless sensor network have the most challenging task is a life time so with help of data aggregation we can enhance the lifetime of the network .In this paper we discuss the  data aggregation approaches based on the routing protocols, the algorithm in the wireless sensor network. And also discuss the advantages and disadvantages or various performance measures of the data aggregation in the network.

Index Terms— Wireless sensor network, data aggregation, architecture, Network Lifetime, Routing, Tree, Cluster, Base Station.

Introduction
THE wireless sensor network is ad-hoc network. It consists small light weighted wireless nodes called sensor nodes, deployed in physical or environmental condition. And it measured physical parameters such as sound, pressure, temperature, and humidity. These sensor nodes deployed in large or thousand numbers and collaborate to form an ad hoc network capable of reporting to data collection sink (base station). Wireless sensor network have various applications like habitat monitoring, building monitoring, health monitoring, military survival lance and target tracking. However wireless sensor network is a resource constraint if we talk about energy, computation, memory and limited communication capabilities. All sensor nodes in the wireless sensor network are interact with each other or by intermediate sensor nodes.

 
Figure 1 Architecture of the Sensor network ( Download Full paper for Figure 1. )

A sensor nodes that generates data, based on its sensing mechanisms observation and transmit sensed data packet to the base station (sink). This process basically direct transmission since the base station may located very far away from sensor nodes needs. More energy to transmit data over long distances so that a better technique is to have fewer nodes send data to the base station. These nodes called aggregator nodes and processes called data aggregation in wireless sensor network.

2. CLUSTERING IN WSN
Sensor node are densely deployed in wireless sensor network that means physical environment would produce very similar data in close by sensor node and transmitting such type of data is more or less redundant. So all these facts encourage using some kind of grouping of sensor nodes such that group of sensor node can be combined or compress data together and transmit only compact data. This can reduce localized traffic in individual group and also reduce global data. This grouping process of sensor nodes in a densely deployed large scale sensor node is known as clustering. The way of combing data and compress data belonging to a single cluster called data fusion (aggregation).
Issues of clustering in wireless sensor network:-
1. How many sensor nodes should be taken in a single cluster. Selection procedure of cluster head in an individual cluster.
2. Heterogeneity in a network, it means user can put some power full nodes, in term of energy in the network which can behave like cluster head and simple node in a cluster work as a cluster member only.
Many protocols and algorithm have been proposed which deal with each individual issue.

 
3. DATA AGGREGATION 
In typical wireless sensor networks, sensor nodes are usually resource-constrained and battery-limited. In order to save resources and energy, data must be aggregated to avoid overwhelming amounts of traffic in the network. There has been extensive work on data aggregation schemes in sensor networks, The aim of data aggregation is that eliminates redundant data transmission and enhances the  lifetime of energy in wireless sensor network. Data aggregation is the process of one or several sensors then collects the detection result from other sensor. The collected data must be processed by sensor to reduce transmission burden before they are transmitted to the base station or sink. The wireless sensor network has consisted three types of nodes. Simple regular sensor nodes, aggregator node and querier. Regular sensor nodes sense data packet from the environment and send to the aggregator nodes basically these aggregator nodes collect data from multiple sensor nodes of the network, aggregates the data packet using a some aggregation function like sum, average, count, max min and then sends aggregates result to  upper aggregator node or the querier node who generate the query.
 

 Figure 2 Data aggregation model and Non data aggregation model ( Download Full paper for Figure 2. )

It can be the base station or sometimes an external user who has permission to interact with the network. Data transmission between sensor nodes, aggregators and the querier consumes lot of energy in wireless sensor network.
Figure 2 contain two models one is data aggregation model and second is non data aggregation model in which sensor nodes 1, 2, 3,4,5,6 are regular nodes that collecting data packet and reporting them back to the upper nodes where sensor nodes 7,8 are aggregators that perform sensing and aggregating at the same time. In this aggregation model 4 data packet travelled within the network and only one data packet is transmitted to the base station (sink). And  other non data aggregation model also 4 data packet travelled within the network and all data packets are  sent to the base station(sink), means we can say that with the help of data aggregation process we decrease the number of data packet transmission. And also save energy of the sensor node in the wireless sensor network. With the help of data aggregation we enhance the lifetime of wireless sensor network. Sink have a data packet with energy efficient manner with minimum data latency. So data latency is very important in many applications of wireless sensor network such as environment monitoring, health, monitoring, where the freshness of data is also an important factor. It is critical to develop energy-efficient data-aggregation algorithms so that network lifetime is enhanced. There are several factors which determine the energy efficiency of a sensor network, such as network architecture, the data-aggregation mechanism, and the underlying routing protocol. Wireless sensor network has distributed processing of sensor node data. Data aggregation is the technique. It describes the processing method that is applied on the data received by a sensor node as well as data is to be routed in the entire network. In which reduce energy consumption of the sensor nodes and also reduce the number of transmissions or length of the data packet. Elena Fosolo et al in [5] describe “In network aggregation is the exclusive process of collecting and routing information through a multi hop network. Processing of data packet with the help of intermediate sensor nodes. The objective of this approach is increasing the life time of the network and also reduces resource consumption. There are two type of approach for in network aggregation. With size reduction and without size reduction .In network aggregation with size reduction. It is the process in which combine and compressing the data received by a sensor node from its neighbors in order to reduce the length of data packet to be sent towards the base station. Example, in some circumstance a node receives two data packets which have a correlated data. In this condition it is useless to send both data packets. Then we apply a function like MAX, AVG, and MIN and again send single data packet to base station. With help of this approach we reduce the number of bit transmitted in the network and also save a lot of energy. In network aggregation without size reduction is defined in the process of data packets received by different neighbors in to a single data packet but without processing the value of data. This process also reduces energy consumption or increase life time of the network.


Read More: http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?Wireless_Sensor_Network_A_Review_on_Data_Aggregation.pdf