IJSER Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2012 Edition
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Manipulating Standard and Inverse Chladni Patterns by Modulating Adhesive, Frictional, and Damping Forces[Full-Text[References]
Mohit Shridhar

Particles on a plate form Chladni patterns when the plate is acoustically excited. To better understand these patterns and their possible real-world applications, I present a new analytical and numerical study of the transition between standard and inverse Chladni patterns on an adhesive surface at any magnitude of acceleration. By spatial autocorrelation analysis, I examine the effects of surface adhesion and friction on the rate of pattern formation. Next, I explore displacement models of particles translating on a frictional surface with both adhesive and internal particle-plate frictions. In addition, I find that both adhesion and damping forces serve as exquisite particle sorting mechanisms. Finally, I discuss the possible real-world applications of these sorting mechanisms, such as separating nanoparticles, organelles, or cells.

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Intelligent Control Design of Pmsm Drive For Automotive Applications[Full-Text[References]
Mr.R.G.Shriwastava, Dr.M.B.Diagavane, Dr.S.R.Vaishnav

This paper describes the practical design considerations of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) drive for Electric Power Steering (EPS) Used in Automotive application. The design of various Blocks of PMSM Drive is discussed in detail. The experimental results show that the control & power circuit used in the design can achieve excellent and consistent torque & speed performance and is well suited for EPS application.

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Ant Colony Optimization To Enhance Game Theoretic Approach For Vanet Security[Full-Text[References]
Prabhakar M, Dr. J.N. Singh, Dr. Mahadevan

With promising features, VANET is potentially used in extensive variety of applications. In the current vehicular communication VANETs security properties have established more awareness in research community. Prescribed and quantitative decision structure for VANET security wants to address the issues of Attack modeling, Optimization of response actions, Allocation of defense resources which may benefit. Game theory approaches address these problems as its features are able to handle VANET security.

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The effects of the Information & Communication Technology (ICT) on growing creative minds in high schools[Full-Text[References]
Mohammad reza ghaznavi, Aleme keikha, Hasan keikha

This research's purpose was set to study the effects of the Information & Communication Technology (ICT) on growing creative minds and four elements of the creativity which are mobility, initiative, resilience and expansion in one of Kalaleh city's high schools. Through this study, a comparative-based method is used including two experimental groups: the experiment group and the control group. The whole population of the students that have been studying in the third grade in Kalaleh's high schools has been 308 individuals in the academic year 1389-90. The sampling method in this study was the "Simple Cluster" and 38 students from "Shahid Beshkufe" high school as control group and 30 students from Doctor Hesabi high school as experiment group -all male and third grade students- were selected as samples for this research. The data have been gathered using two methods: the library method and Torrance's visual creativity test. The data are analyzed in two levels of descriptive (average calculation, variance, and deviation from mean) and deductive (the T test for calculating the difference between the averages of the experiment and control group). The major results of this study were that firstly using the ICT for the third-grade students has been effective on growing creative thinking with initiative and expansion but it has had no effects on the growth of their mobility and resilience. In brief, using ICT helps the third-grade students to have creative minds.

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A Gender-based Approach to Pronunciation Accuracy of Advanced EFL Learners[Full-Text[References]
Shahrokh Jahandar, Morteza Khodabandehlou, Gohar Seyedi, Reza Mousavi Dolat Abadi

Several variables that believed to be related to pronunciation accuracy have been investigated. However, very few studies have been carried out in this area of learning foreign languages. Subsequently, this study aims to investigate the impact of gender on pronunciation accuracy of advanced Iranian EFL learners and whether male or female learners will outperform in their performance of the pronunciation accuracy of phonological characteristics in their speech production. The pronunciation accuracy of the learners was assessed through reading aloud, a recorded oral test and learners' speech production. Fifty-three advanced EFL learners- including 21 male and 32 female were chosen randomly from among the junior undergraduate university students studying English in Rodaki Institute of Higher Education in Tonekabon, Iran and participated the study. Finally, the data gathered by the experiment of the study analyzed through SPSS software (version 17), and using Independent Samples t-test. The results revealed that female outperform male subjects in producing accurate consonants, but not vowels, that it is not significantly noticeable to result in complete superiority of female over male subjects

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Mitigating Techniques to Reduce Sub-threshold Currents in Submicron MOSFETs[Full-Text[References]
Akhil Ulhas Masurkar

Scaling transistors into the nano-meter regime has resulted in a dramatic increase in MOS leakage current. Threshold voltages of transistors have scaled to maintain performance at reduced power supply voltages. Increased transistor leakages not only impact the overall power consumed by a CMOS system, but also reduce the margins available for design due to the strong relationship between process variation and leakage power. Therefore it is essential for circuit and system designers to understand the components of leakage, sensitivity of leakage to different design parameters, and leakage mitigation techniques in nano-meter technologies by designing accurate models of short channel devices and simulating the same using the available standard CAD tools. This paper provides an overview of the mitigating techniques used during the fabrication of the MOSFET using SILVACO.

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The Translation of Neologisms: Challenges for the Creation of New Terms in Indonesian Using a Corpus-based Approach [Full-Text[References]
Dr. Karnedi, M.A

This paper aims to discuss neologisms in Indonesian as a result of translation. The main objective is to identify the creation of new lexical units through professional translation activities, particularly the translation of neologisms in economics texts from English into Indonesian. As far as the methodology is concerned, a parallel corpus has been designed as a study corpus which consists of some English texts as the source text and their translation in Indonesian as the target text (TT). For this purpose, a number of translated economics textbooks have been randomly chosen. They represent economics texs as a genre. The data is processed by utilizing WordSmith Tools version 5.0, a computer program that has been widely used in Corpus Linguistics research. A list of keywords involving the British National Corpus as a referent corpus is provided for the elicitation of neologisms in the ST. A comparative analysis involving their equivalents in Indonesian is then undertaken. Research findings show that new forms comprising collocations and acronyms (apart from eponyms, new coinages, derived words and phrasal words) are those dominant types of neologisms adapted from the source language (SL) through translating economics texts. Within the context of language planning in Indonesia, particularly corpus planning, the creation of Indonesian-oriented new terms in economics by professional translators seems to be a dynamic and sustainable process that could enrich the Glossary of English-Indonesian Technical Terms (GOEITT), called Glosarium Istilah Asing-Indonesia, produced by the National Language Development Agency (Badan Bahasa), as an effort to modernize Indonesian through translating neologisms in economics texts

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An Optimal iterative Minimal Spanning tree Clustering Algorithm for images[Full-Text[References]
S.Senthil, DR. R.David Chandrakumar

Limited Spatial resolution, poor contrast, overlapping intensities, noise and intensity in homogeneities variation make the assignment of segmentation of medical images is greatly difficult. In recent days, mathematical algorithm supported automatic segmentation system plays an important role in clustering of imaging. The minimal spanning tree algorithm is capable of detecting clustering with irregular boundaries. In this paper we propose an optimal iterative minimal spanning tree clustering algorithm (OPIMSTCA).At each hierarchical level; it optimizes the number of cluster, from which the proper hierarchical structure of underlying data set can be found. The algorithm uses a new cluster validation criterion based on the geometric property of data partition of the data set in order to find the proper number of clusters at each level. The center and standard deviation of the cluster are computed to find the tightness of the individual clusters. In this paper we compute tightness of clusters, which reflects good measure of the efficacy of clustering. The algorithm works in two phases. The first phase of the algorithm produces sub trees. The second phase creates objective function using optimal number of clusters. The performance of proposed method has been shown with random data and then the new Cluster separation approach to optimal number of clustering. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method is a promising technique for effective optimal clusters.

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Enhanced Hierarchical Load Balancing Algorithm in Grid Environment[Full-Text[References]
Joshua Samuel Raj, Hridya K. S, V. Vasudevan

Scheduling independent or dependant tasks to heterogeneous and homogeneous resources is an ineluctable issue to be dealt with. Load balancing of resources is a crucial matter of concern. This paper comes out with an enhancement of hierarchical load balancing algorithm. In this paper, to evaluate cluster imbalance, probability of deviation of average system load from average load of cluster is calculated and checked for confinement within a defined range of 0 to 1. The algorithm also compares the expected computing power of jobs with average computing power of clusters to allocate fittest resources to jobs. The contributions of enhanced hierarchical load balancing algorithm is that it reduces the makespan of algorithm execution together with balancing the overall system load and time taken by each cluster for job execution.

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Effects of Multimedia Education on Learning Level of Long-Distance Education Students[Full-Text[References]
Zabihollah Allahi, Reza Mir Abdi, Hassan Mir Abdi

The goal of the present research is to study the importance of multi-media used in education, particularly in long distance education. Therefore, two groups of students were compared, as one of them received education via multi-media software and the second received traditional education by lecture. For that purpose, a group consisting 40 students in third grade of junior high school in long-distance education system were taught experimental science course. The subjects were divided into two groups, 20 students each. The methods used in this research are semi-experimental with pre and post tests. The results of research showed that learning degree of students that received education via multi-media way was significantly different from those who received traditional education.

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Spectrum Sensing using Compressed Sensing Techniques for Sparse Multiband Signals[Full-Text[References]
Avinash P, Gandhiraj R, Soman K P

Spectrum is scarce and the primary users (licensed users) do not use them always. There are free spaces called spectrum holes. Spectrum is not utilised efficiently in certain bands. A technique which scans the spectrum for the given bandwidth and finds the spectrum holes so that secondary users can use them, was proposed. But for high bandwidths the sampling rates are high such that practical Analog to Digital Converters cannot achieve. Compressed sensing techniques sample at rate less than the Nyquist rate and still are able to reconstruct the original signal except that the signal should be sparse in some domain. So spectrum sensing using compressed sensing methods were proposed and found to be more efficient.

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A Study of Quality Assurance in Open Source Softwares[Full-Text[References]
Navneet Chanalia

Open Source Software(OSS) is a software that is developed by volunteer developers for free. It also includes its source code along with the executable file of the software. In this way OSS are free to use and modifiable. But there are some issues and concerns regarding the quality of the open source softwares. So the following literature survey focuses on the various factors affecting the quality of the OSS. And we have also proposed a way to assure quality in the OSS development.

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Study of Maintainability Process In Open Source Software[Full-Text[References]
Sheenam Batra

The focus of this paper is to study about maintenance processes of International Standard Organization (ISO) and Open Source Software (OSS) As Open Source Software is becoming more popular, hence its maintenance has become most important issue. So in this paper we study the maintenance processes and also focus on differences between them. In future we are going to calculate the maintainability index of various versions of open source software to know the variations and modifications in each of the version.

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Light Hydrocarbons Produced from High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Waste using Fractional Column Distillation[Full-Text[References]
Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid, Muhammad Sadikur Rahman and Mohammed Molla

High density polyethylene (HDPE) waste plastic was investigated into a lab scale and produced light hydrocarbon fuel by using fractional column distillation. Two step process applied with this experiment 1st step process produced short to long chain hydrocarbon and 2nd step process produced only light hydrocarbon fuel without using any kind of catalyst. 1st step temperature range used 100-420 °C and 2nd step temperature range used for light hydrocarbon 40-60 °C. The first fraction fuel collected is light carbon gasoline grade fuel and 2nd fraction fuel is heavier is labeled as diesel grade fuel. Light hydrocarbon fuel density is 0.72 gm/ml. produced light hydrocarbon fuel is analyzed using GC/MC, FT-IR and DSC equipments.

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The level of Landslide Awareness Among Officers In Penang, Malaysia[Full-Text[References]
Habibah Lateh, Vijaya Govindasamy

Landslide is a natural disaster that cannot be expected by the people. Lack of landslide knowledge and awareness of the dangers is the main cause of landslides in the state. Officers from various department play an important role in addressing the problem of landslides in Penang Island. Most of the officers are not fully aware of the vulnerability of landslide disaster. Drastic action should be taken to save the hills slope in applying the landslide awareness among officers. While at the governmental and professional level, there could be a larger awareness of the situation, even here specific action areas have not been forthcoming. Many hills are explored for various purposes. This need to be addressed if disasters/hazards is to be detected at an earlier and beginning stage. Yet the extensive damages to the life and property during the landslide, indicates that there is a clear lack of general awareness among the officers about the landslide problems. This study aimed to identify the level of awareness among the government and non-gorvernment officers towards landslide hazards because they are the officers in charge of determining future planning for the country and guide for future generations to ensure the safety environment and well-being of the country. From the survey, the results showed the awareness of landslide hazards among the officers are still need to be upgraded. This matter should be given serious attention not to the occurrence of any mishap in the future and need to be addressed if disasters/hazards is to be detected at an earlier and beginning stage

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Molecular adducts of pentafluorophenylantimony (III) chlorides (Rf) n SbCl3-n with neutral monodentate oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur donors[Full-Text[References]
Isha Rizvi, Amarika Singh, Navneet Singh, Dharmendra K. Srivastava

Penta-coordinated and Tetra-coordinated neutral adducts (C6F5)2SbCl.L, (C6F5)SbCl2.L and (C6F5)SbCl2.L2 [L= Pyridine, Thiourea, Triphenylarsenic oxide, Hexamethyl phosphoramide, Triphenylphosphine oxide, a-Picoline, ß-Picoline, ?-Picoline] have been synthesized .Molecular adducts are monomeric in benzene and non-electrolyte in acetonitrile. IR spectra and conductance measurement suggest that the complexes are neutral

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Relation between N numbers and their LCMs and GCDs[Full-Text[References]
C.S.Abhishek

This paper explains the relation among product of 'n' natural numbers and the LCMs and GCDs of all combinations of these numbers. It is known that the product of two numbers is equal to the product of their LCM and GCD. There is also a relation for three numbers. In this paper I am going to introduce two generalized relations for 'n' natural numbers.

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Robust Image Watermarking using DCT & Wavelet Packet Denoising [Full-Text[References]
Mr.D.V.N.Koteswara Rao,Y.Madhuri, S.V.Rajendra Kumar,Y.V.Suresh Babu

In this paper, a new robust digital image watermarking algorithm based on Joint DWT-DCT Transformation is proposed. A binary watermarked logo is scrambled by Arnold cat map and embedded in certain coefficient sets of a 3-level DWT transformed of a host image. Then, DCT transform of each selected DWT sub-band is computed and the PN-sequences of the watermark bits are embedded in the middle frequencies coefficients of the corresponding DCT block. In extraction procedure, the watermarked image, which maybe attacked, is pre-filtered by combination of sharpening and Laplassian of Gaussian filters to increase distinction between host image and watermark information. Subsequently, the same procedures as the embedding process is used to extract the DCT middle frequencies of each sub-band. Finally, correlation between mid-band coefficients and PN- sequences is calculated to determine watermarked bits. Experimental results show that high imperceptibility is provided as well as higher robustness against common signal processing attacks. In compare to current watermarking algorithms which are based on the joint of DWT-DCT, proposed system Is achieved significantly higher robustness against enhancement and noise addition attacks.

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Detection Of Misbehavior at Mac Layer in Wireless Networks[Full-Text[References]
MR.OMKAR NATH TIWARY

The IEEE 802.11 CSMA/CA protocol is most commonly used MAC protocol for wireless network. This protocol is used to access the media. But IEEE 802.11 works properly only if all the stations obey the MAC protocol. Some node can substantially increase his share of bandwidth by slightly changing the parameters of MAC protocol, in order to increase their throughput. This cause throughput degradation of all well behaved node. In this paper, we proposed the detection scheme for such misbehavior at MAC layer in wireless networks.

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Studies on the Lipids and Fatty acid compositions of mature grain of three different varieties of corn (Zea mays L.)[Full-Text[References]
M.M. Uddin, S.Yeasmin, M. R. Zaman, M.B. Noor, K.A. Bashar, Md. Slahuddin

Changes in lipid content and fatty acid compositions of mature grain of three different varieties of corn have been studied. The lipids were extracted from the mature grain by using a solvent mixture of chloroform, methanol and water (65:35:4) and fractionated into lipid classes by a combined technique of column and thin layer chromatography. In all three varieties the synthesis of lipids and fatty acid compositions were most active between 15 and 45 days after pollination. Triglycerides (TG) constituted 15-41 % of the total lipids at 15 days and increased to 70-90% at 90 days after pollination. The saturated fatty acids of the TG fraction of all varieties decreased with the maturity of the grain. But the unsaturated fatty acids specially oleic and linoleic acids were gradually increased with the maturity of grain and it attained the highest percentage after 90 days of pollination. The synthesis of polar lipids represented 44.7-70.9% and 4-15.4% at 15 and 90 days respectively. It is interesting to note that polar lipids decreased rapidly with the maturity of the grain after 45 days. The physico-chemical characteristics of the oil of three different varieties were observed. The iodine value (130.0) and the percentage of the unsaponifiable matter (1.15) of the Sadaf variety were found to be much more higher than those of other varieties. No significant changes of other characteristics among the varieties were observed.

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Solving the oscillating electric dipole equation by Adomian decomposition technique[Full-Text[References]
HANGNILO R., ADANHOUNME V.

For modeling the electric organ discharge of Malapterurus electricus catfish we have set up the electromechanical scheme of the catfish as an electric dipole the charges of which are linked by a spring of stiffness k. We call this particular system of charges an oscillating electric dipole. Taking into account the main forces applied to this dipole and applying the Newton's second law of motion we obtain a relation that we call oscillating electric dipole equation. Our paper reports the resolution of such a nonlinear differential equation. The oscillating electric dipole approach is applied to electric behavior of Malapterurus electricus catfish in order to design the electric equivalent scheme of the fish

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New Control Algorithm for Brushless Dc motor Drive[Full-Text[References]
R.Rajasri, DR.M.Arumugam

This paper presents a direct torque control technique for three phase BLDC motor using four switches with non-sinusoidal back-emf, which is estimated using sliding mode observer. Cost of BLDC driver is reduced due to reduction of switch device and saving of hall and current sensors. The working process of the BLDC motor is divided into six modes. The proposed scheme is based on the detection of zero crossing points of three voltage function that are derived from the difference of line voltages measured at the terminal of the motor, only one current controller is used. Non-sinusoidal back-emf is estimated using sliding mode observer and generates the torque. NSGA-II algorithm is used as an effective optimization tool for regulating the PID controller parameters of speed controller.

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Network-based Identification of Novel Cancer Genes [Full-Text[References]
Soniya priyadharishni.A.K, Dr.M.Sridhar, Dr.M.Rajani

Genes involved in cancer susceptibility and progression can serve as templates for searching protein networks for novel cancer genes. To this end, we introduce a general network searching method, MaxLink, and apply it to find and rank cancer gene candidates by their connectivity to known cancer genes. Using a comprehensive protein interaction network, we searched for genes connected to known cancer genes. First, we compiled a new set of 812 genes involved in cancer, more than twice the number in the Cancer Gene Census. Their network neighbors were then extracted. This candidate list was refined by selecting genes with unexpectedly high levels of connectivity to cancer genes and without previous association to cancer. This produced a list of 1891 new cancer candidates with up to 55 connections to known cancer genes. We validated our method by cross-validation, Gene Ontology term bias, and differential expression in cancer versus normal tissue. An example novel cancer gene candidate is presented with detailed analysis of the local network and neighbor annotation. Our study provides a ranked list of high priority targets for further studies in cancer research. Supplemental material is included.

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Low Leakage Nanoscaled Body on Insulator FinFET with Underlap[Full-Text[References]
Sarika Bukkawar, Nisha Sarwade

In this paper a Body over Insulator(BOI) FinFET structure in which channel region insulated from body by buried oxide with undoped underlap is studied . An extensive simulation study and analysis of the effect of underlaps on BOI FinFET has been performed using the TCAD SILVACO (DevEDIT(3D), ATLAS). The simulations have revealed that the BOI FinFET structures with underlaps are more efficient than conventional BOI FinFET as undoped underlap region reduces DIBL, leakage current(IOFF) and improves ION/IOFF ratio.

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Design Integration Based testing using Test Case generation technique[Full-Text[References]
Lalji Prasad, Sarita Singh Bhadauria

In this research work, design an Integration based testing tool (IBTT) based on their properties and it behavior (test cases for Integration based testing) for software development. A requirement specification for an IBT is established that would involve studying the feature set offered by existing software testing tools, along with their limitations. The requirement set thus developed will be capable of overcoming the limitations of the limited feature sets of existing software tools and will also contribute to the design of a Integration based testing tool using class diagram that includes most of the features required for a software testing tool .

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Dielectric Properties of L-Glycine Formate Single Crystal[Full-Text[References]
S.Suresh and P.Mani

Single crystal of L-Glycine Formate (LGF) was grown by slow evaporation method. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss have been obtained as a function of frequency between 50 Hz -5 MHz and temperature range between 35°C-75°C. The dependence of tan d, e ? and sac on temperature and frequency of the applied field (50 Hz–5 MHz) is established D.C. conductivity has been deduced from the A.C. conductivity data and activation energy is calculated

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Enhancing Data Access Security in Cloud Computing using Hierarchical Identity Based Encryption (HIBE)[Full-Text[References]
Sai Krishna Parsha, Mohd.Khaja Pasha

Cloud computing is the latest advancements in the areas of computing technologies. The concept of offering services over the network has resulted in the development of this striking technology. It is highly promising in solving the problems related to high computing with respect to hardware availability, software availability, resource availability and many. Users can access to their data stored at the cloud on the go; they just need a thin client connected to the network. Virtualization, also being a part of this technology, solves the user's needs in much more efficient way. Like any other technology, Cloud computing also need to look into the data security issues. User's data needs to be secured from unauthorized access.

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Study of Imperfect Information Representation and FSQL processing[Full-Text[References]
Kamal Singh, Kundan Prasad, Mahendra Kumar, A.K. Sharma

Structured Query Language (SQL) is a very powerful too, but it is unable to satisfy needs for data selection based on linguistic expressions and degree of truth. As we know that the information in real-world applications is often vague, imprecise and uncertain. Fuzzy logic breaks the rigid crisp logic boundaries and allows decision to be taken in a more realistic manner. In database context, several fuzzy database (DB) models have been proposed. In these works, fuzziness is introduced at different levels. Common to all these proposals is the support of fuzziness at the attribute level and introducing fuzziness in querying permits the realistic querying on the crisp data as well as on fuzzy databases. Fuzzy query is not only a querying tool; it improves the meaning of querying extracts additional valuable information. The goal of research whose result presented in paper is to understand the implementation of imprecise data and explain FSQL (Fuzzy Structured Query Language).

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Effective Testing: A customized hand book for testing professionals and students[Full-Text[References]
Abdul Rauf E M

Software implementation errors are one of the most significant contributors to software vulnerabilities, making software testing an essential part of system assurance.This publication provides a customized course material for learning the basics of a software testing.It introduces the key concepts, methods, test techniques, test phases, test types, test cycle and software testing process.

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A Survey on Offline Recognition of Handwritten Devanagari Script[Full-Text[References]
Ashwin S Ramteke, Milind E Rane

Devanagari Script is mostly useful in India for writing number of official forms and documents, especially in the banking applications for writing amount in words on the cheque. The Offline recognition of handwritten Devanagari script has great application in automatic processing of handwritten bank cheques images, documentation of various official documents as well as digitization of government and non government documents. In this paper it has been tried to achieve automatic recognition of handwritten Devanagari Script by using various algorithms.

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MLearning Framework for Multiple Plaforms[Full-Text[References]
Jaspreet Kaur, Saurabh Rawal, Arpeet Kale, Komal Bafna

MLearning can be thought of as delivering eLearning on small form factor devices and it has the potential to do much more than deliv-er courses, or part of courses. It includes the use of mobile/handheld devices to deliver Education. MLearning Framework basically focuses on providing an environment that will help develop MLearning applications for the learners. The architecture of MLearning framework encompasses of system specifications and an actual working application based on Android 2.2(Froyo) and Android 2.3(Gingerbread) platforms. The MLearning framework will also import engineering learning content. The framework will also provide SD-card based MLearning. It will include Animated/Multimedia/2D/3D content. The framework will include Cognitive Science Research Implementations carried out by the prodigies in the field of education

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Thermal modeling Of Solar Pond In Matlab[Full-Text[References]
Mr. Md. Irfan Ali, Ms. S. Madhu, Mr. R. Yuvaraj

Solar pond technology has made substantial progress in the recent years. This paper presents the mathematical and thermal modeling of the bottom layer of the solar pond, which is also known as lower convective zone(LCZ), where heat is stored. A solar pond of height 0.95m and diameter 1.25m was built at SRM University, LCZ was maintained at the salinity of 50 g/Kg for the experiment work. Nine k-type thermocouples were used for measuring the temperature of pond at various zones. Simulink tool-box from matlab is used for simulation of LCZ. Simulated results are validated with experimental results

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Modified s-S Inventory Model Using Artificial Neural Network[Full-Text[References]
Samuel S. Udoh, Okure U. Obot, Uduak D. George, Etebong B. Isong

The use of Artifical Neural Network (ANN) in modifying and improving the output of existing scientific and economic models has been pragmatic in recent time. In this study, we modify the traditional s-S stochastic inventory model by adding the ANN predicted customers demand at lead time to the re-order quantity. The ANN was designed and implemented using Visual Basic 6.0 programming tools and Microsoft Access as the database. Data collected from petrol mega station were standardized to fit the [0,1] ANN sigmoid function domain. Backpropagation algorithm was used in training the Network. At every re-order point the expected period (days) of arrival of goods was inputted into the system and the quantity of goods to be demanded (Dp ) by the customers before the arrival of new stock was predicted and added to the s-S re-order quantity. The correlation coefficient of 0.97 and 0.58 were obtained for the modified s-S and traditional s-S inventory models respectively. The modified s-S model was found to be 97% efficient in preventing stock out of petrol in a distribution depot.

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System Design, Mathematical Modelling and Simulation of Process Drying in a Solar-Gas Convective Tunnel Dryer[Full-Text[References]
Hatem Oueslati, Salah Ben Mabrouk, Abdelkader Mami

In this paper, we present a study of convective drying for wet agricultural product by hot air. The system used is a tunnel dryer, it works with different sources of energy (solar, gas, electric), and has been conceived to dry several agricultural products. This system operates in open loop for adjustable air in temperature and velocity. The objective of this work is to establish a mathematical model describing the phenomena of heat and mass transfer at the product layer and in the air. The drying process is simulated under real operating conditions based on a thin layer model and experimental drying kinetics.

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Importance of Testing in Software Development Life Cycle[Full-Text[References]
T.Rajani Devi

in every organization, testing is an important and valuable phase in the software development life cycle. However, the way it is carried out differs from one organization to another. Software testing has become the part of development and it is better to start testing from the initial stages, in order to avoid difficulty by correcting the bug at the last stage. And the importance of testing in software development life cycle is to improve reliability, performance and other important factors, which may define under SRS (software requirement specification). Customer can wait more for software release, but they don't like to work with defected software. It is advisable to carry out the testing process from the initial stages, with regard to the Software Development Life Cycle or SDLC to avoid any complications.

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New Method to Find The Axis of a Parabola [Full-Text[References]
Nulavai.Jaya Krishna

The content describes a new way to find the axis of a parabola and a new derivation for the equation of the parabola.

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An Optimal iterative Minimal Spanning tree Clustering Algorithm for images[Full-Text[References]
S. Senthil and Dr.R.David Chandrakumar

Limited Spatial resolution, poor contrast, overlapping intensities, noise and intensity in homogeneities variation make the assignment of segmentation of medical images is greatly difficult. In recent days, mathematical algorithm supported automatic segmentation system plays an important role in clustering of imaging. The minimal spanning tree algorithm is capable of detecting clustering with irregular boundaries. In this paper we propose an optimal iterative minimal spanning tree clustering algorithm (OPIMSTCA).At each hierarchical level, it optimizes the number of cluster, from which the proper hierarchical structure of underlying data set can be found. The algorithm uses a new cluster validation criterion based on the geometric property of data partition of the data set in order to find the proper number of clusters at each level. The center and standard deviation of the cluster are computed to find the tightness of the individual clusters. In this paper we compute tightness of clusters, which reflects good measure of the efficacy of clustering. The algorithm works in two phases. The first phase of the algorithm produces sub trees. The second phase creates objective function using optimal number of clusters. The performance of proposed method has been shown with random data and then the new Cluster separation approach to optimal number of clustering. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method is a promising technique for effective optimal clusters.

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Lexical Analysis of Selected Icons available with Indian e-Governance Website[Full-Text[References]
Rajshree Agrawal, Ganesh Bhutkar

In this paper, we have evaluated e-Governance icons available with Indian e-Governance Website using lexical analysis. We have selected 12 icons in e-Governance website based on primary characteristics and secondary characteristics such as labels off, shape, synecdoche, color indicator etc. In lexical analysis, we have performed the lexical breakup of the icons and these icons are classified as icons, indices and symbols. All selected icons have indexical features in them and therefore, they may not easy to understand to users like general public.

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Usage & Issues of Cloud Computing Techniques inSmall & medium Business Organizations[Full-Text[References]
Qura-Tul-Ain Khan, Shahid Naseem, Fahad Ahmad, M.Saleem Khan

This paper presents the review work of Cloud Computing techniques in small and medium business organizations. The detail work of Trends and issues, Cloud computing: Challenges and future directions, Cloud Computing: Today and Tomorrow, Where are we at with Cloud Computing? A Descriptive Literature Review. Where are we at with Cloud Computing?,The Utility of Cloud Computing as a New Pricing – And Consumption - Model for Information Technology, Cloud Computing – Issues, Research and Implementations,Cloud Computing and Information Policy: Computing in a Policy Cloud? Journal of Information Technology & Politics, Cloud computing: state-of-the-art and research challenges, Implementation Issues of A Cloud Computing Platform, cloud computing, Special section: Federated resource management in grid and cloud are presented in this paper

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Evaluation Of Finite Element Formulation For One-dimensional Consolidation [Full-Text[References]
Wan Nur Firdaus Wan Hassan, Hisham Mohamad

Consolidation process is defined as the progress of which excess pore water pressure generated by external loading dissipated out of the soil pores and subsequently causing the soil to compress. The ability to predict the dissipation of the excess pore water pressure is important in the assessing the performance of foundations. In this paper, a formulation of Finite Element (FE) method is developed for solving uncoupled consolidation problem and its validity is examined. The basic matrix equations for uncoupling analysis using finite elements are derived based on the Galerkin's weighted residual method. Spatial variables are discretized using the same shape function and a fully implicit scheme is used to discretize the time domain. Using the MATLAB program for writing the FE code, the results are compared with that obtained by classic Terzaghi's one dimensional consolidation theory. The FE analysis showedgood agreement with the closed form solution.

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On Existence and Asymptotic Behavior of the Solution for a Fractional Integro-Differential Equation [Full-Text[References]
Azhaar H. Sallo, Afrah S. Hasan

In this paper, we have taken a fractional integro-differential equation of Volterra nonlinear type integral equation with initial conditions, and we have studied the existence and asymptotic behavior of solution in the space of p-integrable functions on , . Our method is based on the applications of the Banach fixed point theorem, generalized Gronwall's lemma and Hölder's inequality.

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Potentials of Small Hydro Power in Nigeria: The Current Status and Investment Opportunities[Full-Text[References]
Roseline Kela, Kaisan Muhammad Usman and Ahmad Tijjani

This write-up summarizes the small hydro power potentials in Nigeria, its present status and investment opportunities. Nigeria is endowed with so many resources both human and natural; the need to harness these resources in serving the human needs is paramount. Renewable energy remains the cleanest, most reliable and inexhaustible energy type and Nigeria is blessed with almost all types of renewable energy resources. One of the most readily available renewable energy resources is small hydro. Nigeria had the potentials of over 277 dispersed small hydro sites capable of generating electric power of about 734.2MW out of which only 30MW has been harnessed in 2005, and the potential as at today is estimated to reach 3,500MW. This of cause is good enough to attract any serious investors considering the overwhelming population of the country as well as the high demands of electricity in all the surrounding villages of the said potential small hydro sites. Although there are few challenges in the sector, but one important assertion is that, the profit margin in SHP in Nigeria cannot be overemphasized and investment in this sector will be highly rewarding.

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ME-SMOCK: A Memory Efficient Public Key Scheme For WSN[Full-Text[References]
J. Divya, Margret Johnson

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are constructed by a set of small devices, called the sensor nodes, with sensing and wireless communication capabilities. They are widely used in many applications such as military, ecological, and health-related areas. WSNs have certain constraints like low computation capability, limited energy resources, small memory and poor resilience to physical capture. Also, they are mostly deployed in adverse or even in hostile environment. These constraints and issues make security in WSNs a challenge. So, efficient key distribution and management schemes are must. In this paper, a novel key management scheme based on deployment knowledge has been proposed which adds memory efficiency to the existing public key based integrity scheme. Using this scheme memory efficiency can be improved by minimizing the total number of keys to be stored in each sensor node without altering the security.

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The Power Saving Low Cost Rotating 8 Led Information Display[Full-Text[References]
Sheikh Rafik Manihar

This paper explains the project which is a special kind of circular LED display. With the help some mechanical assembly, LED count, hardware requirement, and hence overall cost is cut to very affordable price. Also, maintenance and repairing of the display is so easy, that anyone having a little electronics knowledge can take care of this. All the synchronizing can be implemented through software. First of its kind, made using the 20-pin 8051 series microcontroller, this project use the principle of Space Multiplexing. This propeller display is mechanically scanned and displays the characters in digital format. Made from scrap it can be used anywhere and everywhere and the most amazing fact about this display is its crystal clear display. This display consists of just 7 bright LEDs which are rotated to show the display. For building this project, requirement is just a small 20 pin microcontroller, a position encoder, and LEDs. This display can show the messages, which will require a whopping 525 LEDs. So hardware and cost minimization is achieved.

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Stability Analysis for Carbon Nanotube based Field Effect Transistors[Full-Text[References]
Saeede Afsharmehr, Mehrnoosh Zeinalkhani, Mohammadali Ghorbani, and Alireza Heidari

We present Nyquist stability criterion for small-signal equivalent circuit model of carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first instance that such analysis has been done for CNTFETs so far. In this analysis, the dependence of the degree of relative stability in CNTFETs on the length and diameter of channel tube is acquired. It is shown that increasing both the tube length and diameter causes higher stability.

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Vision Based Fire Videos Detection by using Probabilistic Approach[Full-Text[References]
P.Paruthi Ilam Vazhuthi

Automated fire detection is an active research topic in computer vision. In this paper, we propose and analyze a new method for identifying fire in videos. Computer vision-based fire detection algorithms are usually applied in closed-circuit television surveillance scenarios with controlled background. In contrast, the proposed method can be applied not only to surveillance but also to automatic video classification for retrieval of fire catastrophes in databases of newscast content. In the latter case, there are large variations in fire and background characteristics depending on the video instance. The proposed method analyzes the frame-to-frame changes of specific low-level features describing potential fire regions. These features are color, area size, surface coarseness, boundary roughness, and skewness within estimated fire regions. Because of flickering and random characteristics of fire, these features are powerful discriminants. The behavioral change of each one of these features is evaluated, and the results are then combined according to the Bayes classifier for robust fire recognition. In addition, a priori knowledge of fire events captured in videos is used to significantly improve the classification results. For edited newscast videos, the fire region is usually located in the center of the frames. This fact is used to model the probability of occurrence of fire as a function of the position. Experiments illustrated the applicability of the method.

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Design and Implementation of Centrifugal Casting Locking Plate[Full-Text[References]
Nagesh Ijamulwar, Kedar Chimote,K.S.Zakiuddin

This paper refer to the centrifugal casting process,in a situation when the molten metal is poured into the mold, the other end of the mould from where the pipe is taken out remains open .This end requires to be closed tightly so that due to centrifugal force, the molten metal does not sprinkle out. The other end of the mould which remains open is closed by a metal covering. This is fixed tightly to the frame by nut and bolt arrangement. The fixation of this covering is done manually. Workers need to tight each and every nut before the starting of casting process and again unlock these nut and bolts before liberating the casted pipe for further processing. This whole locking and unlocking of covering takes 5 – 6 min manually. This time is considered extra, which we can consider as wastage time. So in manufacturing of one pipe if 5-6 min is wasted at the end of the day, and at the end of the financial year we can calculate a loss in productivity by 20-30% to be approximate

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Offline –suffix Tree Based Combination Formation in Periodicity Mining[Full-Text[References]
V. Prema, Mr. S. Shahul Hameed

Periodic pattern mining or periodicity detection has a number of applications, such as prediction, forecasting, detection of unusual activities, etc. The problem is not trivial because the data to be analyzed are mostly noisy and different periodicity types (namely symbol, sequence, and segment) are to be investigated. Accordingly, we argue that there is a need for a comprehensive approach capable of analyzing the whole time series or in a subsection of it to effectively handle different types of noise (to a certain degree) and at the same time is able to detect different types of periodic patterns; combining these under one umbrella is by itself a challenge. In this paper, we present an algorithm which can detect symbol, sequence (partial), and segment (full cycle) periodicity in time series. The algorithm uses suffix tree as the underlying data structure; this allows us to design the algorithm such that its worstcase complexity is O(k:n2), where k is the maximum length of periodic pattern and n is the length of the analyzed portion (whole or subsection) of the time series. The algorithm is noise resilient; it has been successfully demonstrated to work with replacement, insertion, deletion, or a mixture of these types of noise. We have tested the proposed algorithm on both synthetic and real data from different domains, including protein sequences. The conducted comparative study demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm; it is generally more time-efficient and noise-resilient than existing algorithms.

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Unlocking Nigeria's Solar PV and CSP Potentials for Sustainable Electricity Development[Full-Text[References]
Habib, S.L., Idris, N.A.,Ladan, M.J.and Mohammad, A.G

Nigeria is reasonably endowed with intensity of solar energy which can be transformed into electrical energy through the use of either solar Photovoltaicor Concentrating Solar Power. The potentials range between 3.5 – 7.0 kWh/m2/day, the estimated totalpotential for solar PV of 1% area of some twenty selected states is computed at 1189321.65MWh. The minimum direct normal irradiance is in the range of 4.1 – 5.0 kWh/m2/day in the north with the highest in north-east part of the country, which has met the minimum DNI threshold of 4.1 – 5.8kWh/m2/day needed for economically viable concentrating solar power project. The total potential CSP capacity for the fourteen frontline northern states is estimated at 427,829 MW and the electricity potential at 26,841 TWh/yr. The proper harnessing and utilization of this abundant renewable energy formwould not only serve as long term solution to the looming problems of energy shortages, environmental sustainability and reversals of the low per capita electricity consumption of 121 in the country, but will no doubt lead to rapid transformation of the nation's socio-economic well-being of the citizenry. Thus, high initial investment cost and lack of adequate technical know-how and skilled manpower are identified asbarriers to deployment of this emerging technology in the country. Sound policies, feed-in tariffs, technology transfer and collaboration with industry leaders are proposed as some of the solutions to overcome those challenges enumerated. This paper attempts to review the abundant solar energy potentials of the country and the need to effectively develop it in other to overcome the current electricity poverty facing the nation.

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Traffic Study On Road Network And Programming For Fixing Priority To The Identified Transport Improvement Projects In Salem City, Tamilnadu, India [Full-Text[References]
T Subramani, R Elangovan, P.K.Kumaresan

Salem is the fifth largest city with a population of 7.54 lakhs (2011) in Tamil Nadu. Fast growth in population and vehicles in these centre have caused congestion in roads for movement of passengers and goods affecting economic development. Local Authorities faced with great difficulties to identify required various road improvement projects. Local authorities have inadequate funds to improve these road networks from all angles at any point of time. Repair or improvement works may have to be under taken on a basis which has to be decided based on socio-economic, administrative, technical, political factors etc., An efficient transportation network is the need of the present urban scenario to tackle the discussed problems. The identified road network selected for the study comprises 162 road links in Salem Corporation. Existing traffic condition, surface condition of carriageway, street lighting, footpath condition and drainage condition in the Salem Corporation area has been studied in detail. Traffic volume count survey was conducted on the idendified 162 road links in Salem Corporation. Identify the type of transport facilities required for the road links. In programming process, priorities are set for project implementation. Even in cases where a formal process of priority setting does not exist, the allocation of organizational and financial resources for the development of some projects over others is an implicit setting of priorities. In programming process, priorities are set for project implementation. Even in cases where a formal process of priority setting does not exist, the allocation of organizational and financial resources for the development of some projects over others is an implicit setting of priorities. The important technique devised in this study is working out priority indices based on measures of current conditions of the facilities. There are two approaches for fixing the priorities to select road links to improve existing conditions. In the first approach priorities are fixed mainly based on hierarchy of road net work and considering location of road links with weightages assigned to the road links In the second approach priorities are fixed mainly based on location of road links and considering hierarchy of road net work with weightages assigned to the road links.

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Optimization Of Web Server Through A Domain Name System Approach[Full-Text[References]
Dr varaPrasad .s. .Kondapalli

A clustered web system with one virtual URL-name is one of the possible approaches to handle ever increasing client requests to popular websites. This system maintains a single interface to the users & has the potential to provide better load balancing. The client HTTP requests can be assigned to the web server with the least load by the IP address dispatcher. The IP address dispatcher assigns client requests to the web server through the packet rewriting mechanism that modifies the destination address of each incoming packet to the address of the selected web server. However, the task of rewriting the address fields of all packets can cause the IP dispatcher to become a bottleneck when the system is overloaded with heavy client requests. The DNS maps the URL name to the IP address of one of servers in the web clusters through the round robin scheduling policy. The DNS dispatcher based cluster does not present risk of bottleneck but it control distribution of user requests in a limited way due to the IP address caching in the DNS.

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Design of a Rectangular Plate Optical Pressure Sensor Waveguide with Integrated Bragg Grating[Full-Text[References]
Meenakshi Singh, R. Sivacoumar, Zachariah C. Alex

This paper presents the design and simulation of a rectangular plate optical pressure sensor waveguide. The waveguide has a nano-scale Bragg grating introduced on the upper half area. The Bragg grating shows a considerable deformation, when it is subjected to tangential strain, which forms the basic sensing principal for the design. The free space wavelength of 1.55µm and Bragg spacing of 0.5µm is used. The performance of the Bragg sensor for different types of grating is also observed and compared. The maximum sensitivity counted for a pressure of 300bar was about 2.436dBm/µm. After analyzing the simulation results of types of grating, it is found that chirped fiber grating gives the better reflectivity, with maximum suppressed side lobes. The design is simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.2a.

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Enhancement of Data Compression Using Incremental Encoding[Full-Text[References]
Ajit Singh1 and Yogita Bhatnagar2

Now a day's compression is becoming more popular, because it helps to reduce the size of data from its original size of the data. This paper describes the two phase encoding technique which compresses the sorted data more efficiently. The research paper provides a way to enhance the compression technique by merging RLE compression algorithm and incremental compression algorithm. In first phase the data is compressed by RLE (Run length encoding) algorithm that compresses the frequent occur data bits by short bits. In the second phase incremental compression algorithm stores the prefix of previous symbol from the current symbol and replaces with integer value. The proposed technique increases the compression rate as from RLE compression algorithm and incremental compression algorithm. In future the proposed mechanism will be very beneficial for compression large amount of data.

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Analysis of High Speed Spindle with a Double Helical Cooling Channel[Full-Text[References]
R.Sathiya Moorthy, V. Prabhu Raja, R.Lakshmipathi

The purpose of this paper is to numerically analyze the fluid motion and temperature distribution in built-in motorized high-speed spindle housing with double helical water cooling channel. A three dimensional finite element model of high speed spindle housing is developed and simulated using computational fluid dynamics software to determine the temperature distribution. The model is based upon a machine tool spindle of 5KW and maximum speed of 40,000 rpm. The effect of heat flux (q"= 310867 W/m2) with different cooling water velocity are examined in detail. The results are compared with a single helical cooling channel and it indicates that the designed cooling loop is more effective and increase in temperature can be reduced significantly.

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Multi-Domain Record Matching over Query Results from Multiple Web Databases[Full-Text[References]
P.Kowsiga, T.Mohanraj

Record Matching is a process to identify the duplicate records in web databases. It is an important step for data integration. In earlier systems, the record matching is addressed through the Unsupervised Online Record Matching method, UDD, i.e for a given user query, can effectively identify duplicates from the query result records of multiple web databases. This process of record matching are done through a single domain which provides limited number of non-duplicate data results. Hence, the proposal is made for a Multi-domain record matching process which includes an algorithm called N-Staged SVM, that helps to separate the duplicate and non-duplicate records based on the classifiers. The N-Staged SVM which helps to separate the duplicate and non-duplicate data using iterative process. A single domain can include multiple web databases, a single database can include multiple hyperplanes, a single hyperplane include multiple data, which are made separated as duplicate and non-duplicate using the N-Staged SVM. This process is repeated for multiple domains by constructing hyperplanes for each. Hence the result produced will be efficient and more reliable results are provided for the user query.

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Augmented Systems in Ontology Based Intelligent Information Retrieval [Full-Text[References]
Ravindra Pratap Singh, Poonam Yadav

In order to solve the problem of information overload, current information retrieval systems need to be improved. Intelligence should be embedded to search systems to manage effectively search, retrieval, Filtering and presenting relevant information. This can be done by ontology based information retrieval techniques. Systems are evaluated by using their information retrieval features. Ontologies are introduced to describe the semantic information of knowledge leases in order to meet requirement of utmost sharing and reuse of the domain knowledge .The paper provides an overview of ontology-based information retrieval techniques and software tools currently available as prototypes or commercial products.

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Intelligent Information Retrieval in Data Mining[Full-Text[References]
Ravindra Pratap Singh, Poonam Yadav

In this paper we present the methodologies and challenges of information retrieval. We will focus on data mining, data warehousing, information retrieval, data mining ontology, intelligent information retrieval. We will also focus on fundamental concepts behind all information retrieval methods. The Data Mining Ontology is a formal description of the domain concepts and the relation between the concepts; it uses a hierarchical structure containing the concept entities and their relation. We discuss some issues and challenges facing developing the new techniques targeted to resolve some of the problems associated with intelligent information retrieval.

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Methodologies to Amalgamate Artificial Intelligence and Software Engineering [Full-Text[References]
Charu Khatwani

Software Engineering (SE) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) are the two different disciplines that have developed without much indulgence with each other. The intersection between these two disciplines is currently rare but growing at an enormous rate. Merging the concepts of these two trades can take us to a whole new world of automated systems where human effort is minimized. These systems are Intelligent Systems because they not only develop efficient programs but also learn from past experiences.

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Minimization of Power Loss in Distribution Networks by Different Techniques[Full-Text[References]
Mr.Rudresh.B.Magadum, Mr.Tejaswi.M.Timsani

This paper proposes accurate loss minimization is the critical component for efficient electrical distribution power flow. The contribution of this work presents loss minimization in power distribution system through network reconfiguration, DTC relocation, voltage regulator placement, express feeders and building new substation.

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Performance Measurement of Indexing Techniques Used in Biomedical Databases[Full-Text[References]
Amit Bansal, Sankalap Arora

Biomedical data warehouse is the central management system having pool of DNA/RNA protein datasets where protein identification, matching and searching are important operations. The traditional data warehouse was designed in such a manner that it can efficiently manage transactional data which is highly dominated by numerical information where as in biomedical data warehouse textual and non transactional information is encountered. The dataset which contains text data is accessed over the network on the daily basis and performance issue arises. The objective of this paper is to propose an indexing technique based on time complexity and index space complexity for data warehouse used in application of biomedical field. The performance evaluation of three data warehouse queries is focused in this paper by comparing techniques used mostly with FULL TEXT indexing technique and to observe the results of variable size dataset with respect to time and space complexity.

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Low Cycle Fatigue Failure of Composite Materials/Aluminium Alloys At Different Heat Treatments Process – A review[Full-Text[References]
Mr. Mazin Mahmood Yahya , Dr. Nilanjan Mallik

Aluminum alloys and composite materials are of great technological importance. One of the essential goals in the fatigue process study is the prediction of the fatigue life of a structure or machine component subjected to a given stress-time history, it is subjected to repeated loading and unloading or alternating stresses, over a long period of time. Several parameters influence fatigue life of a component like grain size, corrosion, frequency of loading, vacuum, average mean stress, ductility, surface finish, microstructure, temperature, alloying element etc.

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An Application of Statistical Thermodynamics to an Open Flow System[Full-Text[References]
Chukwuneke Jeremiah Lekwuwa, Achebe Chinonso Hubert, Okolie Paul Chukwulozie, Ajike Chinagorom Ogbu

This research work, an application of statistical (analytical) thermodynamics to an Open flow system used the grand canonical ensemble to deal with the study of a liquid flow system. The essence was to understand and to interpret measurable macroscopic properties of materials and thus establish valid relationships among measureable variables in a statistical manner over time. A valid relationship with constant, ke between the energy (E) supplied to 2hp pump and the expected discharge (Q) at a 50mm riser was established. This thus reiterates the relationship among important variables for optimal outputs and longevity of the system. Asolute values of energy and the discharge quantities were obtained Eabs = 1305.512218 Joules and Qabs =0.009532011m3/s respectively

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Talent Management - A Strategic Human Resource Challenge[Full-Text[References]
Neelima Kamjula

Companies have undergone revolutionary changes in the past decade due to increased competition in a global market place. These changes are having a major impact on the role of managers. The fortune 500 companies have greatly restructured in an attempt to become more competitive with hundreds of thousands of employees laid off in the past decade as a result. Employees in the organizations are working extra hours in the organizations to meet the consumer's requisites and to sustain in the competition

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Modified Secure Cloud Computing Platform[Full-Text[References]
Ashish Negi, Praveen Tiwari, Priti Dimri

Cloud Computing presents a distinct way to share distributed resources and services with the help of internet. Cloud computing includes sharing of distributed resources via internet- an open network, therefore security becomes an essential issue. A secure data transmission and key management is needed in cloud computing, to overcome such problems. In this paper, we proposed an Encryption technique enabled platform to make a normal cloud computing platform to trusted cloud computing platform and assured a secure data transmission

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Performance Analysis of Z-source Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive[Full-Text[References]
Amol R. Sutar, Satyawan R. Jagtap, Jakirhusen Tamboli

This paper presents performance analysis and simulation of maximum constant boost-control with third harmonic injection methods for the Z-source inverter, which can obtain maximum voltage boost for a fixed modulation index. The Z-source inverter is a recently invented a new power conversion concept mainly developed for fuel cell vehicular applications. The Z-source inverter is very advantageous over traditional inverters and it can be employed in all ac and dc power conversion applications. All traditional PWM methods can be used to control Z-source inverter. Maximum constant boost control methods eliminates the low-frequency ripples in the inductor current and capacitor voltage by maintaining the shoot-through duty cycle constant, and minimize the voltage stresses of switching devices at the same time. The Maximum boost control method is suitable for relatively high output frequency only, but in the maximum constant boost control method the Z-source network design is independent of the output frequency and determined only by the switching frequency. In this paper Z-source inverter parameters such as boost factor, output dc link voltage, capacitor voltage, output ac voltage, voltage gain etc. are determined for maximum constant boost control method for a fixed modulation index and these results are verified by simulation and experiments.

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Extraction of Polyphenols from Dried Tea Leaves[Full-Text[References]
Angshuman Bharadwaz, Chiranjit Bhattacharjee

Polyphenols, a group of compounds present in tea leaves as major constituent, is known for its antioxidant property. It was extracted from dried and ground tea leaves. Enzymes in the fresh tea leaves were deactivated prior to drying followed by grinding and sieving. Caffeine, the other pharmacologically important compound, was also extracted as a byproduct. Crude extraction was made with water and subsequently the extract was concentrated for decaffeination with 1,2-Dichloromethane. Polyphenols were extracted from the decaffeinated crude extract with ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate was removed from the extract to get dry solid polyphenols. Total polyphenols in the product was estimated by UV-Vis using Folin-Ciocalteu Phenol reagent, methods as described in ISO/DIS 14502-1. Catechins, the major component of tea polyphenols, were analysed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) for individual catechin present, as described ISO/CD 14502-2.

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Channel-Aware and Dynamic Source Routing in MANETs With Route Handoff[Full-Text[References]


Mobile Adhoc network consist of several wireless mobile nodes which dynamically send data among themselves without the reliance on a fixed base station or a wired backbone network. Due to the limited transmission power multiple hops are usually needed for a node to exchange information with any other node in the network. So route discovery and route maintenance is a problem in MANETs. Nowadays multipath routing is also taken into consideration. Multipath routing allows the establishment of multiple paths between a pair of source and destination node. It is typically proposed in order to increase the reliability of data transmission or to provide load balancing and has received more attentions. Multipath routing protocol based on AOMDV protocol, which incurs only 2n control packets for a route discovery and does not require new types of control messages over AOMDV. We propose a scheme to improve existing on demand routing protocols by creating a mesh and providing alternative routes. Their algorithm establishes the mesh and multipath without any extra control messages. The proposed Channel-Aware AOMDV with DSR used to find the stable links for discovery of paths by utilizing the channel average non fading duration. We can maintain reliable connection by applying preemptive handoff strategy and use of channel state information. Using the same information we can reuse the paths instead of being discarded. The proposed CA-AOMDV with DSR provides better performance than AOMDV.

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3D Searching[Full-Text[References]
Pranav Agarwal

As the number of 3D models available on the Web grows, there is an increasing need for a search engine to help people. Unfortunately, traditional text-based search techniques are not always effective for 3D data. The key challenges are to develop query methods simple enough for novice users and matching algorithms robust enough to work for arbitrary polygonal models. We present a web-based search engine system that supports queries based on 3D sketches, 2D sketches, 3D models, and/or text keywords. We also present a web-based search engine system that supports multimodel queries which include both text query and sketch query. This results in faster retrieval of the result and the percentage efficiency also increases. The net result is a growing interactive index of 3D models available on the Web (i.e., a Google for 3D models).

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Improvement in Reliability Analysis using Distributed Generators[Full-Text[References]
Japinder Pal SinghVirk, Dr. Smarajit Ghosh

Reliability is a key factor aspect of power system design and planning. In this paper we present a reliability analysis after and before connecting a Distributed Generation on radial distribution systems. The distribution systems on which calculations are carry out and data index of failure rate and repair time are taken as default data. The placement of distributed generation and its effects on reliability is investigated. A power flow calculation is used to check the power handling constraints. Reliability indices is developed and reliability index is proposed for load points and the overall system

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Tracking System using GPS and GSM: Practical Approach[Full-Text[References]
Sameer Darekar, Atul Chikane, Rutujit Diwate, Amol Deshmukh, Prof. Archana Shinde

The ability to track, trace and control anything by anyone from anywhere on the planet has been mankind's unfulfilled desire. The usefulness of GSM and GPS has made them popular in their own context; integrating these technologies can prove to be a flamboyant solution for many unsolved problems. The idea of this paper is to integrate these two technologies into one system and provide an effective application for vehicle tracking as well as personal tracking. To implement a multi tracking system use of the following two technologies can be made, firstly GSM(Global System for Mobile) which is a set of standards to describe technologies for Second Generation (2G) and GPS(Global Positioning System) which is a satellite-based navigation system consisting several satellites revolving around the earth. The system will provide solution for tracking and tracing of multiple movable objects at a same time, so the name Multi-Tracking System. We can see the current location of the object and other add-on features, for vehicles there will be live tracing and tracking via GPS, controlling its subsystem parts via GSM network using SMS or GPRS. The whole system will be implemented in Microsoft .Net Technology, for system components C#.net will be used and for web based parts ASP.net will be used

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A Hierarchical Routing Based Novel Network Lifetime Increment and Energy Competent Protocol for WSN[Full-Text[References]
JYOTSNA AGRAWAL

WSN has been recognized as one of the emerging technologies in the field of wireless communication which contains a large number of sensor nodes. As sensor nodes have limited amount of energy, one of the major issues in wireless sensor networks is developing an energy-efficient routing protocol which has a significant impact on the overall lifetime of the sensor network. This paper proposes a clustering technique based protocol which shows energy efficiency and also increases the lifetime of the network. Our technique forms clusters and selects cluster head within each cluster with highest residual energy in each communication round of transmission and also takes into account, the shortest distance to the base station from the cluster heads

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Electrophoretic Deposition of Silica on Stainless Steel[Full-Text[References]
Ryan D. Corpuz, Lyn Marie Z. De Juan, Herman D. Mendoza, Meliton U. Ordillas

Fabrication of stainless steel-silica composite was successfully done using Direct Current Electrophoretic Deposition. Deposition of silica particles on stainless steel substrate was conducted in an aqueous suspension with 0.001M Sodium Nitrate as background electrolyte, 30V constant voltage and a deposition time of 5 and 10 minutes. Characterization of the samples showed randomly distributed silica particles for 5 minutes deposition time and aggregated silica particles for 10 minutes deposition time

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Respiratory Sound Analysis using MATLAB[Full-Text[References]
Pankaj B. Gadge, Bipin D. Mokal, Uttam R. Bagal

Bronchitis, pneumonia and many other pulmonary diseases cause respiratory disorders. The respiratory sound signal can be processed by using several techniques for diagnostic information. Computerized analysis of respiratory sound can facilitates the detection of changes in respiratory sound & storing the record of the measurement made from patient. This may help for diagnosis of respiratory disorders and treatment for a patient suffering from various respiratory diseases. Most of the respiratory sound energy is concentrate below 200 Hz. Respiratory sound frequencies overlaps heart sound frequencies. Suppression of heart sound was done by using frequency domain and adaptive signal filtering method. The respiratory sound signals are classified based on peak energy of signal in 40Hz – 160Hz

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Quality Analysis Of Water Of Two Districts (Murshidabad And Birbhum) Of West Bengal [Full-Text[References]
Ishani Roy Chowdhury

Water is a liquid at ambient conditions and it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state ice & gaseous state water vapors or steam. Water covers 70.9% of the earth's surface and is vital for all forms of life. Water on earth moves continually through a cycle of evaporation or transpiration, precipitation and runoff, ultimately reaching the sea. Water is an essential requisite for life for human beings, animals or plants. The present research work is to analyze the health of the water bodies of the two districts of West Bengal (Murshidabad and Birbhum) in order to make the people aware that consumption of polluted water may cause morbidity and mortality not only to them but to the ecosystem as a whole.

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Space Habitat Design[Full-Text[References]
Ritwik Bera

We have chosen Mars, the fourth planet from the sun in the inner solar system as an appropriate host for our project. It would be a hybrid idea in which large maneuverable spaceships would be manufactured and sent to Mars where they shall land and be stationed to support 25000 persons. The spaceships will have residential units in the form of capsule living units. Recreation units will also be provided on board.

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Landuse Landcover Change Detection Using Remotely Sensed Data For Coimbatore District,INDIA[Full-Text[References]
Y.Babykalpana

Many innovative techniques can be used to create dramatic images of Land sat data combined with other kinds of remotely sensed or ground-based data. Digital elevation models (DEM) are especially useful in this regard. DEMs may be displayed as contour maps, block diagrams, or shaded-relief images. Possible combinations include.

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Biometric Iris Recognition for Person Identification using Cumulative Sum Algorithm[Full-Text[References]
Emmanvel Raj.M.Chirchi, Dr.R.D.Kharadkar

Quality of the iris pattern is achieved by using cumulative sum algorithm for feature extraction and this emphasis fast iris identification. In this paper, we describe the performance improvement by reducing FAR and FRR for quality of the algorithm, as the performance evaluation is most important for efficient iris identification if the image is occluded or covered by eyelid and very less iris image is retrieve or noisy image, though our algorithm works efficiently for correct identification of person as it is very important for the security system. We use publicly available database CASIA and UBIRISv1.

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Mems & Nano Technology[Full-Text[References]
Ms. Santoshi Gupta

We have proposed a unified approach to the modeling and study of developments in the field of MEMS and Nanotechnology and its application in futuristic Nano-enabled Cells. We have proposed a novel to approach reliability of MEMS enabled fuel cells. We know that reliability and accurate prediction of properties in nano domains remains a major challenge where still theories are being developed to predict the accurate model for the system. The necessity of a nonporous membrane has been eminent in recent fuel cells.

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Mixed signal IC (CP-PLL) Testing scheme using a novel approach[Full-Text[References]
Ashish Tiwari, Anil Kumar Sahu

An effective novel approach for built in self test is proposed in this paper, which is useful in Mixed signal IC testing (here CP-PLL). The approach is useful in digital testing applications which can detect the fault in any of the block that is phase frequency detector, VCO, loop filter, or charge pump. The key advantage of this approach is that it uses all the existing elements for measuring and testing which reduces the area overhead for testing scheme. Restated, that the proposed architecture does not alter the analog blocks. Rather the proposed approach adds small circuits to PLL with slight modification for digital part. The testoutput generated is purely a digital output which certainly increases the realiability of the proposed BIST structure. A fault simulation result shows the charactericstics of the BIST structure that is high fault coverage of 98%. The implemtation is done using the Tanner, VHDL and waveforms are made using the T- Spice.

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Some Linear Multi-step Methods for the Initial Value Problems Y" = f(x,y,y') by Perturbed Collocation[Full-Text[References]
Kwanamu, J. A, Odekunle, M. R

Two linear multi-step schemes for the numerical solutions of initial values problems of the type Y" = f(x,y,y') by perturbed collocation using Legendre and Chebyshev polynomials as our approximating functions in tau methods of solution were developed. The schemes were found to perform very well when compared with existing known schemes and were also found to be stable.

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Development of Higher Order Shear element for the static analysis of composite lamina using mat lab[Full-Text[References]
A.Venkateswarlu, Dr. V.K.Sharma, N.Ranganayakulu

In this paper a higher order shear element, which is a 4 nodded quadrilateral element, is developed. This element is used for the static analysis of composite lamina. Using the Higher order shear deformation plate theory for basic displacement field equations, the B matrix, (Strain-Displacement relationship matrix) the D matrix (material matrix) and the resultant K (global stiffness matrix) are formulated. These B, D & K matrices were used in formulating the 4 nodded element with 3 degree of freedom at each node. This element was also formulated to incorporate 5 degrees of freedom per node to obtain increased accuracy in the analysis. MATLAB, a numerical analysis package, was used for the calculation of nodal displacements taking A. Ferreira [7] as basis for coding principles. The modeling was initially done for an isotropic material given by Chandraputla [5] then extending it for the composite lamina with different angles of orientations. Knowing the position of the quadrilateral in the coordinate system, geometrical dimensions, its material properties and the loads which it is being subjected to, the above said entity can be calculated. Developing a MATLAB code was meticulously done to make sure that all the formulations are rightly interpreted in the code. Eliminating rows and columns after removing corresponding constraints is one such example. This code is helpful in eliminating all the paper work that is needed to solve problems in FEM based on theory used and can obtain results as accurate and precise as possible. Complete terminology, sample problem included in this report ensures that any person novice to FEM and its formulation in MATLAB will understand the code and can successfully implement it for future purposes.

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Relationship between Double Laplace Transform and Double Mellin Transform In Terms of Generalized Hypergeometric Function with Applications [Full-Text[References]
Yashwant Singh and Harmendra kumar mandia

The object of this paper is to establish a relation between the double Laplace transform and the double Mellin transform. A double Laplace-Mellin transform of the product of H-functions of one and two variables is then obtained. Application, summation formula and some interesting special cases have also been discussed.

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Interference Reduction and DOA Estimation in GSM Systems[Full-Text[References]
Nsionu I I, Onoh G N, Ekeh J, Eneh I I

This paper considers improvement in the performance of mobile wireless communication through interference reduction in the system. By deploying Adaptive Uniform Linear Arrays in the latest generation of mobile communication systems, it is possible to achieve enhancement in the array output in the direction of a given desired mobile terminal while at the same time suppressing undesired signal from another mobile terminal which may or may not be operating with the same carrier frequency. It is understood that a single signal can have different propagation paths and therefore different directions of arrival at a given receiver. The implication is that for several transmitters, each source potentially creates many multipaths at the receiver which will now have to select from the multiple inputs. There is therefore the need for the system to decipher which sources are present and their possible directions. The data obtained in the process will be used to either eliminate or combine signals for greater fidelity through deliberate signal enhancement or suppression. The technique of Multiple Signal Classification shall be used in this paper to find signal Direction of Arrival.

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