IJSER Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2012 Edition
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Extraction of Face Segments based on Proportion[Full-Text[References]
Akshay Kajekar, Shreyash Patel, Sweta Chauhan, Prof. Prashasti Kanikar

A novel algorithm for extracting the regions of interest (ROI) from face images based on the human facial propor-tions. Despite the researches in image processing there has not been much development in this field. The available approaches are complex and require a thorough session of training for the users to use it. Moreover the images or the results obtained were more than often unclear and non-specific. The novelty of our algorithm comes from the fact that it is simple to understand and incorporate into a working model as well as it gives the near perfect results.To achieve its task, the approach uses three modules: Skin detection, feature detection and feature extraction.

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Real-Time Feature Based Face Detection And Tracking I-CURSOR [Full-Text[References]
Sunita Barve, Dhaval Dholakiya, Shashank Gupta, Dhananjay Dhatrak

This project aims to present an application that is able of replacing the traditional mouse with the human face as a new way to interact with the computer. Facial features (nose tip and eyes) are detected and tracked in real-time to use their actions as mouse events. In our work we were trying to compensate people who have hands disabilities that prevent them from using the mouse by designing an application that uses facial features (nose tip and eyes) to interact with the computer. It can be applied to a wide range of face scales. Our basic strategy for detection is fast extraction of face candidates with a Six-Segmented Rectangular (SSR) filter and face verification by a support vector machine[4][5]. A motion cue is used in a simple way to avoid picking up false candidates in the background. In face tracking, the patterns of between-the eyes are tracked with updating template matching

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Design and Analysis of Pulse width Modulator (PWM) using Current Comparator[Full-Text[References]
Rockey Choudhary, Monika Bhardwaj, Prof. B. P Singh

This paper presents the new design of a simple pulse width modulator. The circuit principle is based on uniform sampling method known as uniform sampling PWM signal (UPWM) with a current comparator. The proposed scheme is simpler than the existing PWM methods and the duty factor linearly depend upon modulating signal. Another advantage is that the circuit is suitable for IC implementation. The simulating and experimental results are shown in this paper. It is suitable for high power applications as well as ordinary low power use.While possessing important advantages. Pulse-width (PW) modulation has been widely used to convert analog (or multibit digital) signals to binary streams. The average power consumption is about 9.33mW under the implementation of TSMC 0.35µm CMOS process with 1.8V power supply.

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Enhancing Value of Slit Housing using Value Engineering - A Case Study[Full-Text[References]
Amit Sharma, Dr. R.M. Belokar

This paper presents the concept of Value Engineering in a well articulated manner which can be easily perceived. The model of Value Engineering and its different phases are explained in brief which can be implemented for the optimization of any product. Each part of the Value Engineering job plan is discussed and executed to get the detailed information about the product. A case study has been discussed and an analysis has been carried out by this process to achieve the product optimization. Various tools are used for the analysis of the product while evaluating the product at the functional level. With the systematic approach and critical analysis, the final product turns out to be a successful showcase of Value Engineering.

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Modular PCA Based Fuzzy Neural Network Approach for Illumination and Expression invariant 3D Face recognition[Full-Text[References]
Nita M. Thakare, V. M. Thakare

In this paper a Modular PCA based fuzzy neural network approach for face recognition is proposed. The proposed technique improves the efficiency of face recognition; it performs well under varying illumination and expression conditions and its performance is better as compared to the traditional PCA methods. In this method the face image is divided into three horizontal strips thus the face image is divided into three sub-images. On these three horizontal modules the Modular PCA is applied for feature extraction. Due to the extraction of features using three horizontal strips, the effect of variations in expressions is minimized and because of the use of depth-map images the proposed algorithm gives better recognition rate even in varying illumination conditions. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated under varying f illumination and expression. The experiments were carried out on the the face images with varying light effects and expressions from two standard face databases; CASIA 3D and GAVA DB databases.

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Improving the Process Capability of a Boring Operation by the Application of Statistical Techniques[Full-Text[References]
Parvesh Kumar Rajvanshi, Dr. R.M.Belokar

In this paper we have discussed what Process Capability is and how it is implemented. All the steps are listed out in an easy to understand manner. Process Capability Methodology is presented representing the important phases of it. A case study has also been discussed involving a commonly used product of bath fittings used in our day to day life. Process-capability indices are effective tools for the continuous improvement of quality, productivity and managerial decisions. Statistical Process Control (SPC) techniques improve the quality in mass production. In this study, a process-capability analysis was carried out in the machining line of a medium-sized company that produces machine and spare parts. For this purpose, normal probability plots and histograms were prepared and the process capability indices and were calculated. It is shown that the process capability for the whole process was inadequate and that the mass production was unstable. In order to satisfy the process-capability measures it is necessary to improve the quality level by shifting the process mean to the target value and reducing the variations in the process

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Processing of fMRI Images Based on ICA and Mathematical Morphology[Full-Text[References]
Ali Akbar Pouyan, Seyed Mahdi Salehi

Health monitoring and medical diagnoses are impossible without considering different images of organs and tissues. Further, those methods that focus on brain have a great importance because of role of brain in decision-making and control of any conscious and unconscious activity of humankind. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or functional neuroimaging is a new and efficient method for investigation about function of brain through any emotional, behavioral, mental and cognitive task. In this paper, with extending the independent component analysis (ICA) method using FastICA and Infomax as two common version of it, a novel idea based on mathematical morphology and Top-Hat transformations has been applied to improve and control the contrast of fMRI images after some time-consuming preprocessing steps. Higher degree of performance is achieved testing this method on a huge database of raw fMRI images for an emotional task. Quantitative and qualitative parameters and indices are used to confirm this modification in better recognition of active areas in human brain.

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Effectiveness of DES, Triple DES and AES on MPLS network[Full-Text[References]
Mona Mudaliar, L K Bhaiya

MPLS is Multi-Protocol Label Switching Network .Internet Engineering Task force (IETF) developed this technology specially to speed up the forwarding characteristics of routers. It uses the protocols of both layer 2 and layer 3.It employs label switching technique hence making the technology fast, efficient and secure. Various types of encryption algorithm are used to secure MPLS network .Some of them are advanced Encryption Standard (AES),Data Encryption Standards(DES) and Triple DES (TDES) to secure the network against brute force attack. In this paper we have encrypted a string and analysed the DES, Triple DES and AES algorithm on MPLS network against brute force attack and plotted a graph to show the effectiveness in MATLAB environment.

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The Large Scale Explanation of Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics[Full-Text[References]
ANIL KUMAR THANVI

Here we are explaining the real cause of continental drift and plate tectonic and its large scale relation with all other celestial objects. What is large scale celestial history of continental drift and plate tectonic that is a very big question and it is very essential to explain the real working nature of background forces? We here are presenting the actual nature of our home planet earth and our main aim is to explain the large number of evidences of continental drift and plate tectonics by a long celestial history. So in other way we are trying to prove that how the earth geology is a remnant of large scale geology of universe, black hole, stars and gas giants. We are here explaining all of these on very large universal scale. We are here presenting a general theory for all celestial objects and finally also for universe. So we are putting all geological evidences of continental drift and plate tectonics on very large universal scale and trying to connect each of them with a very common model among celestial objects and universe.

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Amplified Spontaneous Emission Noise Power in Distributed Raman Amplifiers[Full-Text[References]
Arwa H. Beshr, Moustafa H. Aly and A.K. AboulSeoud

The noise accompanying an optically amplified signal plays an important role in understanding the basic properties of the gain medium. In this paper, we demonstrate an analytical formalism and a numerical integration of the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise power for distributed Raman amplifier (DRA). Three types of distributed Raman amplifiers; forward, backward and bidirectional pumping configurations, are simulated and compared.

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Design And Analysis of New Class Brushless D.C MOTOR (FSM) [Full-Text[References]
Tefera Kitaba, Dr.A.Kavitha

This paper describes a new class of electric motor, with a field winding and an armature winding, both of which are on the stator. The motor has no brushes or permanent magnets. Its motor characteristics are similar to those of a DC machines. Control of the armature windings can be achieved with very simple electronic circuits resulting in a very low cost and reliable variable speed drive. Thus, this paper presents the design and analysis of the FS motor. Design equations are analytically derived for initial calculations of the main dimensions, number of turns, and inductances of the FS motor. Furthermore, a comprehensive static finite element method analysis (SFEM)-behavioral model is developed and utilized for detailed analysis and design refinements of a prototype 8/4-pole FS motor.

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Simulation Modeling of Incipient Faults in Power Transformer[Full-Text[References]
Anil Kumar, Ajay Rathore, Ashish Patra

This paper presents a method of modeling internal winding faults of three-phase, power transformers to single-phase, distribution transformers. The model which is compatible with the alternative Transients Program, ATP, allows the simulation of turn-to-earth and turn-to-turn faults on either windings of a single-phase, two-winding, distribution transformer. Results of staged internal winding faults of a distribution transformer are compared with the simulation results to validate the model. The experimental results were found to be comparable to those of the simulation.

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Router Architecture for Network on Chip Using FPGA[Full-Text[References]
Ms. P.B. Domkondwar

On Single chip integration of storage and computational block has becoming feasible due to continuous shrinkage of CMOS technology [1]. Field programmable gate arrays (FPGA's) are power efficient devices [3] support more complex design with good performance and low cost [6]. For effective global on-chip communication, on-chip routers provide essential routing functionality with low complexity and relatively high performance [1]. Routers implemented within FPGA can give better performance with reduced area and hence reduced power consumption [4]. This paper will provide an overview of related work for on-chip router architectures.

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Improve the Evolutionary Algorithm Search Efficiency with SAT Problem[Full-Text[References]
Rasha Abdelkawy, Dr. Walid Gomaa, Dr. Soheir foad

Since the 1990s, the use of incomplete algorithm for solving the SAT problem has grown quickly. Even though the incomplete algorithm is unable to prove unsatisfiability, but it may find solutions for a satisfying problem quickly. In this paper, the improvement of GA Performance in solving the 3-SAT Problem was our main objective and it is shown that the GA can be more efficient if SAT problem-knowledge is oriented in the GA encoding phase, and the GA operators is tuned according to the encoding phase gained knowledge. In this aspect, a novel evolutionary local search algorithm is developed. In this paper the first Part of our research will be presented, that Part of improve the EAs search Performance with the SAT Problem, that was integrated later in evolutionary local search algorithm. The EAs Enhancement was assessed using a set of well-known benchmarks that includes instances with different sizes, and compared with blind EAs algorithm.

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Effect of Micropolar Parameters on Elastohydrodynamic Analysis of Circular Bearing[Full-Text[References]
Sanyam Sharma

This paper presents the effect of deformation of the bearing shell on the static and dynamic characteristics. The modified Reynolds equation and energy equation are derived on the basis of Eringen's micropolar fluid theory and are solved by finite element method. Flexibility of bearing shell is also taken into account. Static and dynamic performance characteristics are presented for a wide range of deformation coefficient and the effect of material characteristics length and coupling number on the performance are presented. An improved performance has been observed at higher coupling numbers

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Dependency Injection for loose coupling of Objects[Full-Text[References]
Dr.Soly Mathew Biju

Object oriented software may involve a number of objects that are closely coupled, making it very cumbersome for efficient software testing due to dependencies. Managing and keeping track of lifetimes of various objects becomes a difficult task. Dependency Injection is a design pattern that introduces dependency at interface levels .Configuration information of the objects wired together is maintained separately and this information can be changes at runtime. Dependency Injection technique helps in designing software with loosely coupled objects thus provides a better object oriented design.

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Immobilization of Glucose Oxidase on Synthesized Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 Nanoparticles; Application for Water Deoxygenation[Full-Text[References]
Fatemeh Mahdizadeh, Afzal Karimi, Leili Ranjbarian

Enzymatic removal of dissolved oxygen by using glucose-glucose oxidase immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 system was performed. Magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 were prepared via improved chemical co-precipitation method. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analyses confirmed the formation of these nanoparticles. The crystal sizes of the magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 were calculated approximately 19 nm via XRD by Williamson-Hall equations. The saturation magnetization value of Fe3O4 nanoparticles was obtained 68.8 emu/g. Fe3O4 nanoparticles specific surface area was obtained 62.7m2/g that it is appropriate for enzyme immobilization. Glucose oxidase immobilization was done by physical method; and percentage of immobilization was obtained 78% with specific activity of 640U/g. Deoxygenation of 150 ml of tap water with 6.9 mg/L O2 which was catalyzed by the 0.15g immobilized glucose oxidase in the presence of twice stochiometric amount of glucose was completed in about four min and 20 s at 35°C.

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Comparison of Fuzzy And Multi-criteria Decision Making Approach To Measure Manufacturing Flexibility[Full-Text[References]
Ritu Chandna, S.R. Ansari

Manufacturing flexibility is the ability of the system to adapt to changes. Manufacturing flexibility is a difficult to quantify concept. To assist managers in better achieving a flexible enterprise, a model on the basis of fuzzy logic is purposed to provide a means of measuring how flexible an enterprise is. In this approach, the performance ratings and importance weights of different flexibility capabilities assessed by experts are expressed in linguistic terms. The fuzzy logic-based measurement of flexibility can efficiently aid managers in dealing with both ambiguity and complexity involved in flexibility measurement. The fuzzy flexibility approach is an extension of the multicriteria decision making (MCDM) approach, in order to ascertain the efficiency of this method, a comparison study of the MCDM approach with fuzzy approach is proposed. The proposed scheme is illustrated through an example.

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Design of efficient classifier integration and performance evaluation in machine learning[Full-Text[References]
K.S.Kavitha , Dr. K.V.Ramakrishnan, Dr. Manoj Kumar Singh

Characteristics of any classifier heavily depend upon the nature of data set taken for training and verification. Area of applications like health care suffered from having the large and suitable dataset. Classifier designed for health care should show a better generalization and robustness characteristics so that end results presented by classifier can consider with high reliability and confidence. In this paper consistency problem associated with classifier has presented, which is a big issue from practical point of view. Defining committee of experts is one of natural way to increase the reliability in classifier design but at the same time,way of integration rules the end performance. To overcome problem of generalization and consistency of classifier, two methods for developing the mixture of classifier namely TMQD and MVFD are presented. Estimation of quality associated with a classifier is very challenging task for researcher,beacuase there is no single parameter which could alone reperesent the absolute performance .To measure the quality of classifier rather than having the conventional parameters like sensitivity and specificity,receiver operating characteristics is always a better choice.But in practical environment of health care use of ROC hardly has seen.In this paper detail understanding of ROC and estimation of area under curve has also presented.Selection of threshold value is one of the most impotant factor to determine the performance of classifier.Dependency of threshold value with population and geographical area making difficult to decide a optimal value.A graphical approach has presented to select the best threshold value as according to environment and need

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Web based classification of tamil documents using ABPA[Full-Text[References]
S.Kanimozhi PG Scholar

Automatic text classification based on vector space model (VSM), artificial neural networks (ANN), Knearest neighbor (KNN), Naives Bayes (NB) and support vector machine (SVM) have been applied on English language documents, and gained popularity among text mining and information retrieval (IR) researchers. This paper proposes the application of ANN for the classification of Tamil language documents. Tamil is morphologically rich Dravidian classical language. The development of internet led to an exponential increase in the amount of electronic documents not only in English but also other regional languages. The automatic classification of Tamil documents has not been explored in detail so far. In this paper, corpus is used to construct and test the ANN model. Methods of document representation, assigning weights that reflect the importance of each term are discussed. In a traditional word matching based categorization system, the most popular document representation is VSM. This method needs a high dimensional space to represent the documents. The ANN classifier requires smaller number of features. The experimental results show that ANN model achieves 93.33% using Back Propagation Algorithm (BPA) which is better than the performance of VSM which yields 90.33% on Tamil document classification. In this paper, our goal is to increase the percentage as 94.33% using Advanced Back Propagation Algorithm (ABPA).

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Tcl Script Generator for NS-2[Full-Text[References]
Deepti Kakade, Pallavi Bhakare, N. B. Pokale , Santosh Dubole

Tcl scripts are widely used in NS-2 simulation tool. Simulation domain use or create Tcl scripts to set up a wired or wireless communication network, and then run these scripts via the NS-2 for getting the simulation results. We have developed a new Tcl script generator tool, named "TCL Script Generator", to permit users to create Tcl scripts file in a direct and easy manner and it has GUI. This tool has friendly interface to set wired or wireless communication network parameters. After the parameters are entered, the tool automatically generates Tcl scripts file, which can be run in NS-2 network environment for getting the simulation results for the network being studied. The focus of this paper is on the Tcl script generator, its development and we introduce the specific characteristics of "TCL Script Generator" and discuss its features compared with NSG-2 (NS-2 Scenarios Generator2).

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Hybrid Process (Pervaporation-Distillation): A Review[Full-Text[References]
Syed Akhlaq Ahmad, Sohail Rasool Lone

Pervaporation is one of the most active areas in membrane research, and the pervaporation process has been shown to be an indispensable component for chemical separations. Pervaporation is a relatively new membrane separation process that has elements in common with reverse osmosis and membrane gas separation. It is very difficult to separate the azeotropic or constant boiling mixtures by the ordinary distillation. Hybrid process which basically couples two processes together plays an important role in separation of azeotropic or constant boiling mixtures. A hybrid process basically exploits the advantages of pervaporation and distillation, while the negative aspects are minimized. Hybrid systems of different types reduce energy expenditures, make separations that are otherwise difficult and/or improve the degree of separation.

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Performance Evaluation on Secure Transaction Protocols in WSN[Full-Text[References]
K. Rajasekaran, Dr.Kannan Balasubramanian

Wireless Sensor Networks(WSN) are extremely vulnerable against any kind of internal or external attacks, due to several factors such as resource-constrained nodes and lack of tamper-resistant packages. As a result, security must be an important factor to have in mind when designing the infrastructure and protocols of sensor networks. In this paper we survey the \state-of-the-art" security issues in sensor networks and highlight the open areas of research. Wireless Sensor networks have great potential to be employed in mission critical situations like battlefields but also in more everyday security and commercial applications such as building and traffic surveillance, habitat monitoring and smart homes etc. However, Wireless sensor networks pose unique challenges. While the deployment of sensor nodes in an unattended environment makes the networks vulnerable to a variety of attacks, the inherent power and memory limitations of sensor nodes makes conventional security solutions unfeasible. Though there has been some development in the field of sensor network security, the solutions presented thus far address only some of the problems faced. This research presents a security framework to provide a comprehensive security solution in sensor networks. The proposed framework consists of four components: a secure triple-key scheme, secure routing algorithms, secure localization technique and a malicious node detection mechanism. Singly each of the components can achieve certain level of security. However when deployed as a framework, high degree of security is achievable. Experimental results show that the proposed framework can achieve high degree of security with negligible overheads

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Cloud Service Publication and Discovery Using Ontology[Full-Text[References]
V.K.Reshma, B. Saravana Balaji

The emergences of cloud computing deals in various internet applications developers for hosting various applications which users are in need in this day to day life. This offers different features which is related to the resources which has been provisioned as a services over this enhancing field called Internet, which gives lots of benefits using the development of cloud services. In this paper we propose ontological model for service publication, discovery, and selection using Software as a Service (SaaS).In order to solve this with evident results we can consider a job site, (i.e.) It's not an ordinary jobsite but focusing and specializing in matching the users or clients queries related to jobs and displaying the information even by giving options of updating their information which is needed for this Job Domain. This paper implements the cloud ontology technique to make cloud service discovery system efficient for user query in job site. This concept has been upcoming as a demand in all the careers.

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Data Rate Control Algorithm for MAC Protocol in 802.11 Multi Hop Ad Hoc Networks[Full-Text[References]
K.Saravanan, Dr. T.Ravichandran

Medium access control (MAC) protocol plays an important role in providing fair and efficient allocation of limited bandwidth in wireless LANs. In IEEE 802.11 standard protocol, data rate selection is not specified. Rate control is the process of switching data rates dynamically based on channel conditions, with the target of selecting the rate that will provide the maximum throughput feasible for a given channel condition. The two major components of rate control process are Channel estimation and rate selection. Although rate control has been studied extensively for wired networks, these results cannot be directly applied to multihop wireless networks. In this paper, we propose to develop an Optimal Rate Adjustment Algorithm (ORAA) which is based on the channel state conditions. We also follow a two level channel estimation one at the receiver end and another at each intermediate node along the path. By simulation results we show that our proposed ORAA

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Improvement of Bit Error Rate (BER) of Adaptive Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (AOFDM) Systems under Rayleigh Fading Condition by using Convolutional Coding[Full-Text[References]
Md. Tanvir Hasan

In a fourth-generation wireless system, cellular providers have the opportunity to offer data access to a wide variety of devices. The cellular network would become a data network on which cellular phones could operate – as well as any other data device. For efficient transmission and reception in fourth-generation wireless system, adaptive orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system or AOFDM is considered as a potential approach. In AOFDM, adaptive transmission scheme is engaged in accordance with the channel fading condition with OFDM to develop the system performance. This paper demonstrates a technique to improve the BER of AOFDM by using convolutional coding. The BER performance of OFDM using un-coded adaptive modulation using quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and phase shift keying (PSK) have also been investigated to depict its comparison with the proposed coded system. The obtained results show that a significant improvements in terms of bit error rate (BER) can be achieved using the proposed system.

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Comparative Performance Analysis of MPSK and MQAM-Modulation Parameters on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) System over Flat and Frequency Selective Rayleigh Fading Channels with Doppler Frequency[Full-Text[References]
Md. Tanvir Hasan

OFDM is a multicarrier modulation technology which has efficient spectrum utilization to support the transmission of high data rates. The typical subcarrier modulation schemes used in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system includes: binary phase shift keying (BPSK), phase shift keying (PSK) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). This paper analyses the comparative performance of MPSK and MQAM on OFDM system that uses a range of number of PSK and QAM constellation points. Simulation is performed for various numbers of PSK and QAM (8 to 64-points) and with various Doppler frequency values (5 to 500 Hz) over flat and frequency selective fading channels. It is observed that the finest performance of OFDM system is with the number of QAM of 8 and maximum Doppler shift (MDS) of 5 Hz at all channels.

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Business Intelligence: Financial Decision Support System Research Based on Data Warehouse[Full-Text[References]
S.Kannan, K.Pappathi and M.Karnan

Business intelligence is defined as a set of mathematical models and analysis methodologies that exploit the available data to generate information and knowledge useable for complex decision-making process.Business Intelligence(BI) is about getting the right information,to right decition makers,at the right time.To resolve the heterogeneous distribution of data sources of financial business and provide financial decision-making with information support, based on the studies of data warehouse technology and decision support system,the author designed the support system of financial decision-making on the basis of data warehouse applying to Jiangxi Province's finance,which includes the overall planning of system and the key technologies of achieving the system.Practice has proved that the financial decision-making system based on the data warehouse provides powerfull support for varying out analysis of financial forecasts and policy research .In addition, The adoption of compass instrument design philosophy in displaying data shows some reference of realistic sense for financial inctitutions at all levels to build decision system..

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Flow Forming of Tubes-A Review[Full-Text[References]
M.Sivanandini, S.S.Dhami, B.S.Pabla

Flow forming technology has emerged as the most advanced metal forming technique due to its manifold advantages over conventional metal forming techniques such as extrusion and tube drawing. It offers remarkable utilization of metal, high strength high precision rotationally symmetric components with very high specific strength, excellent surface finish and close dimensional tolerances within the envelope of reasonable economics. With the introduction of heavy-duty CNC flow forming machines hard to work materials can be formed easily and deformation above 95% has become possible even for metals like maraging steel. In the last three decades flow-forming technique has undergone several remarkable advancements. The process is quite versatile in view of the fact that a great variety of tubular parts, flexibility provided for complicated parts nearer to net shape, can be manufactured with basically the same tooling, enabling customers to optimise designs and reduce weight and cost, all of which are vital. The ever-increasing strength demands of automotive industries, defense and aerospace sectors have given considerable impetus to research work in this area. In this paper, process details of flow forming, the major experimental studies reported in literature have been reviewed. The study brings out the potential and the ever increasing applications of this manufacturing technique in defense, automotive and aerospace sectors.

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Design of Temperature Sensor Using Ring Oscillator[Full-Text[References]
Shruti Suman and Prof. B.P. Singh

This paper presents the design of a low cost temperature sensor based on ring oscillator. It exploits the frequency of the ring oscillator that is proportional to temperature which is displayed in the form of a digital output. The proposed CMOS temperature sensor comprises a ring oscillator, a voltage level shifter, a 10-bit counter, and a 10-bit register. The designed ring oscillator is frequency-tunable and the voltage level shifter provides the output to full-scale to make sure that the number of its rising edge is counted by the counter. The register saves the counted output.

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Hand Segmentation from Depth Image using Anthropometric Approach in Natural Interface Development[Full-Text[References]
Rayi Yanu Tara, Paulus Insap Santosa, Teguh Bharata Adji

Hand gestures are often used as natural interface between human and robot. To acquire hand gesture from a captured image, hand segmentation procedure is performed. In this manuscript, a method for hand image segmentation from depth image is proposed. This method uses image thresholding technique to obtain human image part from a depth image. The threshold level is obtained by analyzing human posture dimension (anthropometry). By finding the centroid of the human image, left and right regions of human body can be separated. Assuming that each region has a hand image and the hand is positioned in front of its body, both hand images can be located. Hand segmentation is started by using an anthropometric data of hand pose. The data is used to compute the color values that represent the depth of hand in each image region. Thus, the acquired values are used as threshold for each image region. The thresholding operation resulted in completely segmented hand images. This proposed method has low computation time and works well when the basic assumptions are fulfilled.

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Attribute-Value Based Domain-Specific Indexing Technique for Hidden Web[Full-Text[References]
Arnika Jain

The Hidden Web is the content on the Web that is not accessible through a search on general search engines. The data retrieved through hidden web is structured and the indexing techniques used to index the unstructured data are of no use in the case of structured data. Index structures for the hidden web differ in two fundamental respects from traditional inverted list index structures used by current web search engines. First, index structures for the hidden web have to deal with structured data because the underlying database is typically richly structured and typed; this is in contrast to the mostly unstructured HTML data available off the surface web. Second, index structures for the hidden web must deal with data volumes that are orders of magnitude larger than that for the surface web. To address these issues, This Paper proposes an index structures for the deep web. This index structure understands the structure of the underlying data. The index structures can also be heavily compressed so that their space requirements are far less than the size of the original index. But the main problem is how to index the data retrieved through hidden web. This Paper also proposes an indexing technique for the same where data is indexed without having duplicates. This Paper also proposes a Data Extraction Architecture to extract the data of user's interest of a specific domain.

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Effects of Different Clock Gating Techinques on Design[Full-Text[References]
Dushyant Kumar Sharma

Low power is one of the most important issues in today's ASIC (Application Specific Intregated Circuit) design. As the transistor is scaled down, power density becomes high and there is urgent need of reduction in power. The clock gating is one of the most elegant and classic techniques for reduction of power. Clock gating can be implemented by using any of these three cells, (1) Latch based cell (2) Flip-Flop based cell (3) Gate based cell. In this paper, we demonstrate the effect of different Clock Gating cells in design and how the design metrics, area, power and performance are affected for each clock gating cell. There are two variations in each clock gating cell, one is with Reset and other is without Reset. In this paper we also demonstrate how the design metric is affected by insertion of Reset signal in each Clock Gating cell.

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Data Warehouse Vulnerability and Security[Full-Text[References]
Dr. S.L. Gupta, Sonali Mathur, Palak Modi

The aim of this paper is to provide a view on some of the vulnerabilities existing in the data warehouse along with various security models and approaches to follow in order to make the data warehouse secure. Presently, a large amount of data is available over the internet, and since a data warehouse contains processed data from multiple sources, so its security has become a concerning issue. Following the introduction, various security models which can be adopted to provide security for data warehouse are briefly described. In the end, the metadata driven approach for providing security to a sample logistics datawarehouse is discussed.

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Microcontroller Based V-I Curve Tracer[Full-Text[References]
Atul Patel, Anupam Dubey, Siddharth Dutt Choubey and Ajitesh Pandey

V-I characteristic of any electronic component is useful to determine basic parameter of that component and to model its behavior in an electrical circuit. This paper presents a low power measurement unit made with the help of microcontroller (Atmega16) for the measurement of voltage and current. Voltage and current consumption of an electronic component has been analyzed and displayed on a LCD as well as received by PC to be further plotting a V-I curve using MATLAB tool simultaneously. Experimental results obtained with the Electronic circuit are presented.

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Novel Algorithm for Multi Hand Detection and Geometric Features Extraction and Recognition[Full-Text[References]
Mokhtar M. Hasan, Pramod K. Mishra

The recent trends for house appliance devices are moving towards the natural interaction that ensures free-cumbering interaction with these human-made devices, we have presented herein our novel approach for features extraction template that enables such devices to interact in better way especially when gesturing to vision-based devices such as home TV, these vision-based devices preferred over tis competitions since its no-frills communication, robot and video game interaction without any sensors or extra hardware just like human communicates with his same species, our algorithm extracts the hand gesture structure which are palm, wrist and fingers with their corresponding features like their locations, fingertips locations, finger bases locations, wrist location and their order from left finger to right finger regardless the hand orientation even upside down or any other angles, these features are important for latter approaches for vision-based algorithms and hand/palm/fingers tracking algorithms, we have classified the finger(s) according to their five classes that are thumb, index, middle, ring, and pinkie; these fingers have been classified using Gaussian likelihood function as a classifier regardless which hand is presented left or right and without any prior assumption of the pose of the hand, any hand and any orientation, after the finger's classification we have proceeded with hand gesture recognition by preserving one binary bit for every finger and gesture indexing done perfectly, we have considered all the outcomes of such finger's raising that are 32 combinations, our system can detect multi-hands that contained in a single image frame as well as recognition step, we have applied circular templates by using dynamic template matching with two different radiuses for each of fingers and palm premises respectively, we have achieved a perfect classification of multi-hands with their corresponding palm/fingers features for different samples as well as the recognition results and we have listed the recognition percentages for finger-wise and hand-wise as well as their processing time.

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Performance Characteristics of CI Engine Fuelled with Biodiesel and its Blends by Simulation[Full-Text[References]
Sanjay Patil, Dr. M.M.Akarte

In order to overcome the scarcity of hydrocarbon and its depletion, bio-diesel is used as a substitute for diesel or with its blend. In this paper an effort is made to develop a zero dimensional single zone thermodynamic model for compression ignition (CI) engine cycle simulation. Single Wiebe function is used to fit the experimental Mass Fraction Burned (MFB) profile to model heat released due to combustion. Heat transfer and variable specific heats are also considered. The authors of this paper have used a model to compute the performance of the CI engine powered by diesel, palm oil methyl ester (POME) and it blends with diesel. The affect of compression ratio and relative air-fuel ratio on the engine performance is analyzed. The predicted performance parameters like cumulative heat release for diesel and brake thermal efficiency with diesel, POME and various blends at 17.5:1 compression ratio are validated by comparing them with experimental results.

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Quality Checking of Storage Devices Using Moore's Law[Full-Text[References]
S.Yuvarani, P.Manikandan

Today the computer storage devices have been product for different company and different size. The products to be change the quality of product also change. As computer technology advances, computers became more powerful, while their size decreases of memory chips and increase storage capacity. This is because the basic unit of the storage devices has decreased in size. This Measurement consists of nano-scale measure for main memory, the secondary storage devices including magnetic drums, magnetic tapes, magnetic disks, and optical disks. These devices vary with respect to their speed, memory and capacity. We have select different files to interchange the storage devices and measures speed to count time, How to read, write and erase of memory devices? How much time takes write to file in storage devices? This result to Moore's law; however, using currently available technology, storage devices should reach a lower limit.

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Cleaner Production by Using Recent Type of Reactor in Chemical Reactions[Full-Text[References]
Jalpa Shah, Mr.Bharat Jain, Ms.Neerja, Shuchen B. Thakore and Gopal H Chaudhari

Cleaner production is a pollution preventive, company-specific environmental protection initiative which intends to minimize waste and emissions and maximize product output. It is also reduces energy consumption and global warming. Improvement of organization and technology helps to reduce or suggest better choices in use of materials and energy and to avoid waste, waste water generation and gaseous emissions. The recently developed novel design of two rectors like jet loop rectors and gas induction rectors with new reactions will provide cleaner production. Jet loop reactor (JLR) utilizes kinetic energy of a high velocity liquid jet to entrain the gas phase and creats a fine dispersion of two phases thus having very high efficiency in gas dispersions resulting in high mass transfer rates. Gas Induction type Reactor uses the self induction principle for impellers providing vigorous gas-liquid mixing with substantial increase in gas-liquid interfacial area of contact and enhances gas- liquid mass transfer rate. JLR shows excellent performance in process of bio filtration where pretreatment of waste pretreatment of waste gases is necessary to ensure the stable operation of biofilter. JLR also found to be suitable method in high rate aerobic treatment of brewery waste waters. Gas induction reactors shows high efficiency for the removal of industrial wastes and have reliable operational stability at low investment and operating cost in processes of hydrogenation and sulphonation in dyes industries. Thus JLR and Gas induction reactor prove to be potential candidate for cleaner productions.

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QoS Based Adhoc Probabilistic Routing Strategy for e-health Services[Full-Text[References]
Rajeev Agrawal, Sweta Sneha and Amit Sehgal

Fast growing area of remote monitoring has seen E-Health as a recent addition to its domain. The objective is to provide healthcare diagnosis and monitoring services at remote locations. Adhoc networks are being used to provide the communication link between the patient being monitored and medical expert. This paper presents a probabilistic routing strategy for Adhoc networks deployed to provide e-health services. The objective is to cope-up with performance related issues due to the randomness and diversity of the channel conditions prevailing at various participating nodes. More realistic channel conditions have been considered by modeling the effect of jamming and multipath fading. Bit error rare and packet size have been taken as decision making parameters for routing algorithm.

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Screening of some plant root extracts for their antifungal activity against seed borne pathogenic fungi[Full-Text[References]
Roopa Vishwanath Sangvikar

In the present study, root extracts of five plants were screened against two seed borne pathogenic fungi Alternaria solani, Fusarium moniliforme .Out of the five root extracts ,two root extracts showed strong antifungal activity.The extract of Hemidesmus indicus showed maximum activity while minimum activity was observed by Rauwolfia tetraphylla.The purpose of investigation was to search for alternative approach to prevent biodeterioration of seeds in an ecofriendly way.

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Energy Minimization of Point Charges on a Sphere with a Spectral Projected Gradient Method[Full-Text[References]
Halima LAKHBAB, Souad EL BERNOUSSI, Abderrahmane EL HARIF

Thomson problem, which is one of the problems concerning of optimal configuration on the sphere, is defined. A Nonmonotone Spectral Projected Gradient Method that has been intensively used in many applications is presented. Numerical results that indicate the effectiveness of this method to tackle the Thomson problem are reported.

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Design and Control of Small Scale Laboratory Model of a Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) to Improve System Stability[Full-Text[References]
Venu Yarlagadda, Dr.B.V.Sankar Ram, Dr.K.R.M.Rao

Reactive power control There are two types of FACTS controllers, series and shunt compensation. Series com-pensation reduces the transmission line reactance in order to improve Power Flow through it, while shunt compensation improves the Voltage profile.Among the FACTS devices, the TCSC controller has given the best results in terms of performance. If the oscillatory response of a power system during the transient period following a disturbance is damped and the system settles in a finite time to and flexibility. This paper investigates the effects of TCSC on voltage stability improvement and enhancement of Power Transfer Capability. Stability of the System has to be assessed based on P-V Curves for without and with Controller is the basic requirement for maintaining the voltage levels thereby the stability of the interconnected power system. Voltage variations can be stabilized and controlled by providing required reactive power.

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Experimental Investigation of Reaction Kinetics and Mass Transfer data for Hydrolysis of Penicillin[Full-Text[References]
Amin Ismaili, Keyur Thaker, Shuchen B. Thakore, Umesh Bhardwaj, Jalpa Shah and Gopal H Chaudhari

A bio-catalytic hydrolysis of penicillin-G potash salt (PenGK) has been studied experimentally for reaction kinetic and mass transfer data. Effect of various process parameters on rate constant (k) & reaction order (n) has been studied. In a study carried out in kinetically controlled regime, it was observed that "k" increased with increase in temperature & catalyst loading, while "n" was decreased marginally. No significant effect of PenGK concentration was found on reaction kinetics. On other end "k" was increased significantly with increase in RPM & decrease in particle size, while operated reaction in mass transfer controlled regime. Estimated value of mass transfer co-efficient (ksL) was increased with increase in RPM below "Just suspension speed Njs". Approach was further extended for reactor design. Various reactor schemes of CSTRs and PFRs in series has been evaluated. It was identified that two CSTR in series found to be most efficient reactor configuration with highest level of conversion.

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On Supra I-open Sets and Supra I-continuous functions[Full-Text[References]
S.SEKAR and P.JAYAKUMAR

In 1983, A.S.Mashhour et al. [6] introduced the supra topological spaces and studied S-continuous maps and S* - continuous maps. In 1987, M.E.Abd El-Monsef et al. [3] introduced the fuzzy supra topological spaces and studied fuzzy supra-continuous functions. This class of sets contained in the class of b-open sets [1] and contains all semiopen sets [2] and all pre-open sets [6]. In 2008, R.Devi et al [5] introduced and studies a class of sets and maps between topological spaces called supra a-open and supra sa- continuous maps, respectively. Now, we introduce the concept of supra Iopen set, and supra I-continuous functions and investigate several properties for these classes of maps.

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3G, 4G and Enhanced MIMO cellular systems: LTE-Advanced [Full-Text[References]
Ravi Raj, Shweta Prasad, Abhishek Gagneja, Ritika Singal

This paper provides an in-depth view on the technologies being considered for Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-Advanced). First, the evolution from third generation (3G) to fourth generation (4G) is described in terms of performance requirements and main characteristics. The new network architecture developed by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), which supports the integration of current and future radio access technologies, is highlighted. Then, the main technologies for LTE-Advanced are explained, together with possible improvements, their associated challenges, and some approaches that have been considered to tackle those challenges.

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Voice over Internet Protocol - The Technology and Its Application [Full-Text[References]
Ravi Raj, Shweta Prasad, Abhishek Gagneja, Ritika Singal

The paper discusses the implementation of Voice over IP (VoIP). The objective of this paper is to identify and characterize the primary issues that must be addressed to define a large scale VoIP network that is capable of supporting (butnot necessarily limited to) full PSTN equivalence. It presents a high-level network architecture that acts as a starting point from which PSTN equivalent VoIP networks can be built The term "Voice over IP" (VoIP) describes the transport of voice over IP based networks, it is a generic term that covers deployments ranging in complexity from hobbyists using the internet to get free phone calls on a peer to peer basis or we can say end to end basis, to full scale PSTN replacement networks. Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) refers to the transmission of speech across data-style networks. This form of transmission is conceptually superior to conventional circuit switched communication in many ways. This publication introduces VOIP, it's working, its all features, architecture, all issues of network with network interconnection, explaining its advantages and disadvantages with applications, etc.

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A Technical Analysis of Brain Computer Interface and Its Real World Applications[Full-Text[References]
Ravi Raj, Ritika Singal, Abhishek Gagneja, Shweta Prasad

A brain-computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain-machine interface, is a direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain and an external device. In one-way BCIs, computers either accept commands from the brain or send signals to it (for example, to restore vision) but not both. Two-way BCIs would allow brains and external devices to exchange information in both directions but have yet to be successfully implanted in animals or humans.

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HYBROSONIC : Re-inventing Root Canal Obturation Technique using Heat + Sonic Vibration[Full-Text[References]
Sameer D Jain

HYBROSONIC : The name derives from Heat + Sonic Vibration. The invention relates to Root Canal Obturating Device for fillling of Root Canal after removal of tooth pulp. Root canal treatment is the removal of tooth's pulp, a small thread like tissue in the centre of the tooth. Proper root canal filling should achieve three dimensional obturation of the root canal space to prevent micro organisms from entering and re-infecting the root canal system and to prevent tissue fluids from percolating back into the root canal system to provide a culture medium for any residual bacteria. It should seal all portals of exit to impede any sort of communication or exchange between the endodontium(within the tooth) and periodontium(outside the tooth). If the tooth is not sealed properly the root canal may leak and lead to failure of treatment. Conventional obturation techniques like cold lateral condensation technique and warm vertical condensation technique have limitations and are very technique sensitive hence a novel machine was developed which transforms gutta percha (root canal filling material) into alpha phase and using sonic vibrations the gutta percha is forced to flow into lateral canals(accessory canals in horizontal planes), thus achieving 3-Dimensional fuild tight hermetic seal and thus preventing any chances of re-infection, and fulfilling one of the amin goals of endodontic treatment. Hence, an innovative, efficient, fast yet economical method to achieve perfect obturation thus, enhancing the prognosis of the tooth

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Improving & Restoring of Image Using Super-resolution Technique[Full-Text[References]
Shwetambari Shinde, Meeta Dewangan

Image Super-Resolution is a multithreaded Image for super-resolution. Super-resolution is an image fusion and reconstruction problem, where an improved resolution image is obtained from several geometrically warped, low resolution images. The high resolution image is not only an image that has more pixels (like in the case of interpolation), but it also has more visible details. A non-iterative method of image super-resolution based on weighted median filtering with Gaussian weights is proposed. Visual tests and basic edges metrics were used to examine the method. It was shown that the weighted median filtering reduces the errors caused by inaccurate motion vectors. Image re sampling is one of the most important problems in image processing. Many image re sampling algorithms use a priory information. As an example, image self-similarity at different resolutions is used in NEDI algorithm. Nevertheless this approach improves the image visual quality only if the a priori information is true.

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A Simple Bird's Eye View Transformation Technique[Full-Text[References]
M.Venkatesh, P.Vijayakumar

Bird's Eye View transformation technique is used to generate a top view perspective of an image. Now a day's machine vision is one of the hottest areas under research for extracting information from images. By implementing bird's eye view transformation technique we increase the scope of extracting information from images. Different perspective view is one of the key requirements in WSN image based monitoring systems. This paper discusses a simple perspective transform technique to generate a Bird's Eye View. We discuss a technique were we can generate a bird's eye view by using a simple pin hole camera model. To develop a real time product and evaluate real time performance of this technique, we implemented it on a 32-bit floating point VLIW TMS320C6713 DSP processor.

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Alphabet Recognition Using Pixel Probability Distribution[Full-Text[References]
VaidehiMurarka, Sneha Mehta, DishantUpadhyay, SonaliBhadra, AbhijeetLal

The project uses techniques of Image Processing and Machine Learning in Computer Vision. Alphabetrecognition is the mechanical or electronic translation of scanned images of handwritten, typewritten or printed text into machine-encoded text. One of the popular mobile applications includes reading a visiting card and directly storing it to the contacts. The implementation of our project has been done using Visual Studio and Open CV (Open Source Computer Vision). Our algorithm is based on Neural Networks (Machine learning). The language used is c++. Our software is a fully functional model.We have running software available with us.

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Analysis of Material Removal Rate using Genetic Algorithm Approach[Full-Text[References]
Ishwer Shivakoti, Sunny Diyaley, Golam Kibria, B.B. Pradhan

In the present scenario of manufacturing industries particularly in all of the machining processes, the application of various optimization techniques is playing vital role which seeks identification of the best process parametric condition for that particular manufacturing or metal removal process. Manufacturing process involves a number of process parameters (controllable and uncontrollable). Since selection of wrong cutting parameter in any machining process may lead to several negative effects. For example, high maintenance cost of the lathe machine, poor surface finish of the work piece, short tool life, low production rate, material wastage and increased production cost. In this research paper, Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been applied for optimizing of machining parameters during turning operation of mild steel using conventional lathe machines. The purpose of this paper is to find the optimum parameters values for turning operations for maximizing the material removal rate. The machining parameters that been consider in this paper are cutting speed, feed rate and spindle speed. The Turbo C compiler is used to develop the GA simulation. GA can be used in optimization problems such as scheduling, materials engineering, optimal control, and so forth.

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Wavelet Analysis of Dynamic Behaviors of the Large Interconnected Power System[Full-Text[References]
Samir Avdakovic, Amir Nuhanovic, Mirza Kusljugic, Elvisa Becirovic

In this paper, the simulation of the disturbance propagation through a large power system is performed on the WSCC 127 bus test system. The signal frequency analysis from several parts of the power system is performed by applying the Wavelet Transform (WT). The results show that this approach provides the system operators with some useful information regarding the identification of the power system low-frequency electromechanical oscillations, the identification of the coherent groups of generators and the insight into the speed retardation of some parts of the power system. The ability to localize the disturbance is based on the disturbance propagation through the power system and the time-frequency analysis performed by using the WT is presented along with detailed physical interpretation of the used approach.

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Automated Vehicle Input / Output Test Tool[Full-Text[References]
Bhan Sengar, Smita Hulyalkar, Prateek Yadav, Rohit Tikekar, Ashwini Sidhaye

This document describes the tool developed to test vehicle input/output (VIO) layer. VIO layer is part of application communication layer in the American Axle software Architecture. This layer extracts the data from Controller Area Network (CAN) Bus and passes the information to control systems

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Screening of some plant root extracts for their antifungal activity against seed borne pathogenic fungi[Full-Text[References]
Roopa Vishwanath Sangvikar.

In the present study, root extracts of five plants were screened against two seed borne pathogenic fungi Alternaria solani, Fusarium moniliforme .Out of the five root extracts ,two root extracts showed strong antifungal activity.The extract of Hemidesmus indicus showed maximum activity while minimum activity was observed by Rauwolfia tetraphylla.The purpose of investigation was to search for alternative approach to prevent biodeterioration of seeds in an ecofriendly way.

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Extended Queue Management Congestion Control Algorithms for TCP Bulk Transfers in Wireless Environment[Full-Text[References]
V. Sinthu Janita Prakash, Dr. D. I George Amalarethinam, Dr. E. George Dharma Prakash Raj

Transmission Control Protocol is a reliable transport protocol which performs well in wired networks. TCPs congestion control mechanism is insufficient in a wireless environment because packet loss does not always mean congestion, but can be due to the sudden drop in channel quality. The throttling measures of TCP often result in an unnecessary reduction of end-to-end throughput which results in suboptimal performance. Hence the sender has to be made aware by some feedback mechanism that some of the losses reported are not due to congestion. The Active Queue Management algorithms (AQM) are used to reduce congestion, and in this paper, we have analysed two AQM algorithms, Queue Management Congestion Control Algorithm (QMBCCA) and its enhanced version Extended Queue Management Backward Congestion Control Algorithm (EQMBCCA). Both the algorithms make use of feedback mechanisms. QMBCCA makes use of ISQ notifications and also the CE bit whenever the average queue size crosses minimum threshold value. EQMBCCA reduces the reverse ISQ traffic by introducing a configurable intermediate threshold value IntThres between the minimum and maximum threshold values and generates ISQ signals only if the congestion crosses the intermediate threshold value. There is assurance that the feedback will reach the source since CE bit is also set in the packets once congestion occurs. The comparison is made in terms of Gain in Goodput, Loss percentage and ISQ traffic for FTP flows in a wireless environment. It is found that the performance of EQMBCCA is almost equal to that of QMBCCA and there is a significant reduction in the ISQ traffic in the reverse direction.

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Mixed signal IC (CP-PLL) Testing scheme using a novel approach[Full-Text[References]
Ashish Tiwari, Anil Kumar Sahu

An effective novel approach for built in self test is proposed in this paper, which is useful in Mixed signal IC testing (here CP-PLL). The approach is useful in digital testing applications which can detect the fault in any of the block that is phase frequency detector, VCO, loop filter, or charge pump. The key advantage of this approach is that it uses all the existing elements for measuring and testing which reduces the area overhead for testing scheme. Restated, that the proposed architecture does not alter the analog blocks. Rather the proposed approach adds small circuits to PLL with slight modification for digital part. The testoutput generated is purely a digital output which certainly increases the realiability of the proposed BIST structure. A fault simulation result shows the charactericstics of the BIST structure that is high fault coverage of 98%. The implemtation is done using the Tanner, VHDL and waveforms are made using the T- Spice.

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Novel Algorithm & methods of document security and verification system[Full-Text[References]
Mukesh Kumar, M.Phil, MCA, Dr. R.K.Sharma, M.Tech, PH.D

Before discuss any more on the topic it is necessary to know about security in actual; it is the degree of protection against risk, hazard, threat, danger, damage, loss, misdeed and crime etc...

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The Power Saving Low Cost Rotating 8 Led Information Display[Full-Text[References]
Sheikh Rafik Manihar

This paper explains the project which is a special kind of circular rotating 8 LED display. With the help some mechanical assembly, LED count, hardware requirement, and hence overall cost is cut to very affordable price and power is also saved. Also, maintenance and repairing of the display is so easy, that anyone having a little electronics knowledge can take care of this. All the synchronizing can be implemented through software. First of its kind, made using the 20-pin 8051 series microcontroller, this project use the principle of Space Multiplexing. This propeller display is mechanically scanned and displays the characters in digital format. Made from scrap it can be used anywhere and everywhere and the most amazing fact about this display is its crystal clear display. This display consists of just 8 bright LEDs which are rotated to show the display. For building this project, requirement is just a small 20 pin microcontroller, a position encoder, and LEDs. This display can show the messages, which will require a whopping 525 LEDs. So hardware and cost minimization is achieved and power which is required to run the 525 is also saved by using rotating 8 led display.

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