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International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research


International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research

 


Volume 4, Issue 8, August 2013 Edition


IJSER Research Group http://www.ijser.org/forum/index.php Register for IJSER Research Forum      IJSER Xplore IJSER Xplore Research Paper Database

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Soft computing in data mining, a young and inter-disciplinary area of computer science used as a problem solving field[ ]


With the originations in science and technology and the advanced tools there has been an outburst outgrowth in transitory and stored data and hence to transfer the huge measure of data into utile information. Mining refers to the evocation of data while soft computing covers the processing of information. In this paper we examine ,data mining as a practical method for solving various issues like providing goal of enhanced yield in semiconductor manufacturing ,privacy security , use in banking industry, application in broadcasting effect to figure equivalent surface, for deliberately harmful code detection, dupery detection in accounting, in geosciences data, in heart disease diagnosis and treatment. Our examination manifests diverse positive applications of data mining, proving it to be one of the most versatile technologies for problem figuring as well as for providing a wide range of implementation. And in all of the above implementations the usefulness of the distinctly separate methodologies of soft computing are highlighted. Mostly, fuzzy sets are employed for pattern recognition. Neural networks do not include any estimation of the parameters and demonstrate good discovering and abstraction potentialities in data-rich environments.

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The impact of conducting a short-term improvement process on TQM practices implementation, customers' satisfaction and loyalty[ ]


Total quality management (TQM) can be defined as the agreed company-wide and plant-wide operating work structure, documented in effective, integrated technical and managerial procedures, for guiding the co-ordinated actions of the people; the machines, and the information of the company and plant in the best and most practical ways to assure customer quality satisfaction and economical costs of quality. Total quality management (TQM) has become popular in the hospitality industry. Many organizations working in the field of hospitality industry have already realized that their only way of surviving in today’s competitive global market is to become a successful “total quality management organization. The aim of this part of the research is to re-test the validity of the introduced theoretical model in the first part of the research, the validity of such a model can provide guidance for managers, decision makers and quality practitioners aiming to implement TQM in 5-stars hotels business to achieve their long and/or short - terms quality goals, the hotel that was selected to conduct the TQM practices improvement process in the third part of the research , was re-used as a case study for primary data collection, the statistical package for social science (SPSS) approach was used for hypotheses testing, Furthermore, a future scope is also presented at the end of this part of the research.

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Multielement Analysis of Fresh Tomatoes Produced at the Tono Irrigation Scheme by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis[ ]


Fresh tomatoes can be a source of mineral components and trace elements as well as some undesirable substances due to exposure to the environment. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was therefore used to analyze the elemental composition of fresh tomatoes, cultivated under the Tono irrigation scheme. In this study, As, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, S, Co Cu, Mo, Fe, Zn, P, Na, Cl, Br, Se and Cr were analyzed. Among the metals analyzed, P was the most abundant, ranging from 5.09g/kg in Gaani sample to 11.91 g/kg in Bonia sample, followed by K with 0.97 g/kg in Biu sample to 7.74 g/kg in Chuchuliga sample. Ca and Mg concentrations were also determined in the range, (0.048 - 0.75) g/kg and (0.15 - 0.66) g/kg respectively. Mn, As, Co Cu, Mo, Fe, Zn, Na, Cl, Br, and Se were all also found in reasonable amounts. Fortunately, toxic element (As) had very low concentration in most of the samples with concentration ranging from < 0.09 mg/kg in Yigbwania samples to 0.21 mg/kg in Wuru sample. This data therefore, should not only be helpful in explaining the nutritional value of tomatoes grown in these localities but also in establishing the base-line values in the country’s agroecosystem.

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Fuzzy Markov Model for Web server Queues[ ]


In this paper queuing network model which can be used for web traffic networks has been studied. The model is an open network of infinite server queues where client arrive according to a non- homogenous fuzzy Poisson process. The interaction of the client with server is described by a Fuzzy Markov Renewal Process. The changing attribute of the customer in the customer are driven by continuous time Markov chain and therefore change as they move through the network. The transient and limited number of customers in disjoint sets of servers and attributes are investigated. These turns out to be independent fuzzy Poisson random variable. The covariance of number of clients in 2 sets of servers and attributes at different time epochs has also been discussed.

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Requirements Analysis Based on Ontology Techniques[ ]


We have designed a method by using which one can analyse the requirement document of the software. It is mapping between software requirement specification and the knowledge base. To represent the knowledge base we have chosen ontology techniques. Our designed system consists of Natural language processing part in which we can separate the parts of speech by tagging them. Natural language generator develops sentences for putting output in the form of natural language. More precisely we developed a system in which input is the SRS document and the output will be a report in which the detailed information will be presented about the SRS document. We have taken care of incompleteness inconsistency, accuracy on these criteria a final verdict is presented weather the SRS document is acceptable or not. Experimental results shows RABOT is indeed a good analysing technique for SRS document analysis.

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Feasibility Study of Available Georesources at Kanaighat Thana in Sylhet District, Bangladesh[ ]


This paper reports feasibility study of available georesources at Kanaighat thana in Sylhet district. In Kanaighat, rocks are found as available georesource. The source of these rocks is near Meghalaya of India. Luba River is the main rock quarry in Kanaighat Thana. Every day approximately 400,000 cubic feet of rocks have been extracting commercially from this quarry. People normally use manual hand tools during rock extraction. There are 7 crusher mills established whose main task is to give these rocks various sizes and shapes. A Technical & Economic analysis has been applied over this project area, to make this project more informative and worthwhile. Although there are some technical shortcomings in extraction area and its surroundings, but after economic analysis it can be said that Rock extraction project in Luba quarry is economically feasible.

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Modeling and Characterization of Supercapaci-tor in Many Power Electronics Application[ ]


As a new technology supercapacitors are emerging device for power electronics application. It acts as an energy buffer or energy sources due to their high power density compared to other charge storing devices. In this paper an equivalent circuit model (ECM) is proposed by considering leakage and self-discharge current. Here all the electrical parameters of supercapacitor deduce in two phases .In first phase we didn’t consider the leakage or self -discharge current and in later phase considered these losses. The proposed model is based on the supercapacitor RC branches model .Moreover, simulation results are presented to prove the validity of this model. This model can be used to determine or predict the actual energy obtained from a supercapacitor. This model also can be used in many industrial applications where supercapacitors act as an energy storage device.

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2-class, N-class Approach for Complete Multimodal Biometric Identification[ ]


Multibiometric systems are expected to be more reliable than unimodal biometric systems for personal identification due to the presence of multiple, fairly independent pieces of evidence e.g. Unique Identification Project “Aadhaar” of Government of India. In this paper, we present a two step multibiometric identification system. In the first step the person is classified as an imposter or genuine, and in second step exact reorganization of a person is done. Here we have proposed PCA and Wavelet based technique to perform fusion at score level by considering two biometric modalities face and fingerprint, which handles 2-class problem and k-NN classifier to identify an individual that handles N-class problem. The results indicate that the proposed technique can lead to substantial improvement in multimodal matching performance. In this paper, score level fusion is done using two different strategies based on performance parameters, EER (Equal Error Rate) and DI (Decidability Index).

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Simulation of Sensorless Control of PMSM based on Zero-Sequence Carrier Injection with Improved Speed Estimation[ ]


A sensorless control method for surface mounted permanent magnet synchronous motor is discussed. This method uses magnetic saliencies to estimate the position of the rotor. A high frequency zero- sequence signal generated by space vector modulation is used as the carrier. It is applied to the motor by connecting the neutral point of motor to the dc link through a filter.The current response to the injected signal is analyzed for estimating the rotor position. In this paper, a phase-locked loop observer to estimate speed and to filter the estimated position is proposed. Thus the noise produced by position differentiation is eliminated. This method is validated using simulation.

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Revisiting the Approaches to Design Secured Hash Functions Using Weakened Random Oracle Models[ ]


Random oracles are used to model cryptographic hash functions in schemes where strong randomness assumptions are needed of the hash function's output. Random oracles have long been considered in computational complexity theory and many schemes have been proven secure in the random oracle model. In this paper, we studied the recent works for constructing secure cryptosystems and secure hash functions in weakened random oracle models. At first we reviewed the Hash functions used in cryptographic systems for message authentication. Then, we studied the properties of the original Random Oracle Model (ROM). Next, we focused on the weakened variants of the ROM which are called Weak random Oracle Models (WROMs). The WROMs we discussed here are CT-ROM, SPT-ROM and FPT-ROM which are based on the properties of ROM. We also followed an investigation about whether public-key encryption schemes in the random oracle model essentially require the standard security of hash functions by the WROMs. The public-key encryption schemes considered here are Fujisaki-Okamoto conversion (FO), its two artificial variants dFO and wFO and Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding (OAEP). The result of the investigation implied that standard encryption schemes such as the OAEP and FO-based one do not always require the standard security of hash functions. Finally, we concluded with our comments and improvement ideas which can be explored in the future.

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Acceleration to LMS based STBC MC-CDMA Receiver[ ]


High data rate is one of the key demands of future networks like 4th generation (4G) networks. One of the key solutions is the systems like Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) or Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). We have used Alamouti’s space time coding with MC-CDMA system in this paper. We proposed different types of Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm to measure the performance of sub-optimum MC-CDMA receiver with exceptional relationship. We find out that sign-sign LMS with proposed relation has the fastest convergence rate than the other types of LMS receiver.

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Security of Medical Images by Discrete Sine Transform Encryption Algorithm[ ]


Image encryption is an application of security on digital images. Digital medical images contains vital information about patient personal data and need to be safe and protected.This paper presents the used of watermarking algorithm with encryption by discrete sine transform in the medical field as the demand for security is getting higher day by day. Furthermore, Hash (key) has been used to strengthen the security and chaotic sequences are used to image encryption by DST domain. In medical images ROI in an area that contains important information. This algorithm has very good effect and can resist against the common and geometrical attacks. Experimental results demonstrate that watermarking with encryption scheme is robust to signal processing operation such as rotation, JPEG compression and median filter.

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Is Leagile Supply Chain Suitable for Apparel Manufacturing Organizations? A Multicriteria Decision Making Perspective[ ]


The global economy and growing demand have been pushing companies to meet new ways to acquire distinctive competences to respond to customer demands. In a general sense, competition no longer can be defined as something between companies but supply chains and networks of firms. The paradigm Leagile, involving lean and agile, creates a virtually brand new management framework. It is particularly important in the cases of firms exploiting markets in terms of cost, quality, response time and service level where the client seeks for better responsiveness to meet their demands. This paper aims to evaluate the supply chain strategies and select an appropriate strategy for apparel manufacturing industry. It is considered as a multicriteria decision problem and solved using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) through deep review on several contributions and opportunities Leagile in apparel industry. The evaluation factors are developed and used successfully and a case study based on an apparel manufacturing organization is conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

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Cyber Security Considerations for Advanced Metering Infrastructure in Smart Grid[ ]


Advanced Metering Infrastructure is a very critical part of Smart Grid that offers bidirectional information flow of vital power related information such as smart metering data and control messages across the entities to provide intelligent real time monitoring of the grid. However, AMI network is susceptible to many cyber vulnerabilities and attacks which could result in unreliable system performance causing false energy estimations or even completely destabilize the grid from its optimal running state. Consequently, proper attention is required towards its cyber security concerns. This paper attempts to provide an overview of AMI communication architecture and focuses on its cyber security requirements and constraints. We also discuss and review the current solutions and possible attack countermeasures.

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Assessing Some Emerging Effects of Hexavalent Chromium on Leaf Physiological Performance in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)[ ]


Sunflower plants of two cultivars (Hysun-33 & SF-5009) were treated with varying Cr6+levels (mg kg-1) and leaf performance for photosynthetic rate (CO2 exchange) and total chlorophyll contents was assessed. Post flowering data showed inhibitory effects of Cr application on photosynthetic rate and foliar chlorophyll contents. Limitations for intracellular CO2 assimilation, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance found associated with inhibition of photosynthesis. Increased water use efficiency and CO2 use potential of plants indicated more water and CO2needto plants. Both factors predicted development of drought mechanism and stressed carbohydrate biosynthesis during photosynthesis in Cr affected plants, respectively. Cr load in roots was more than leaves due to root efficient absorption. Cr accumulation particularly in leaves interrupted chlorophyll photoactivity performance to inhibit photosynthesis. The rate of reduction increased from lower to higher Cr doses. Gradual response of plants towards low Cr doses was due to resistant mechanism of plants than at higher Cr doses. Cr application 50 mg/kg developed positive effects on leaf performance of both test varieties revealing phytoactive than phytotoxic. Sunflower variety SF-5009 was less affected by Cr than Hysun-33.

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RSS BASED ADAPTIVE HYSTERESIS VERTICAL HANDOFF DECI-SION ALGORITHM BETWEEN WIMAX AND LTE TO REDUCE PING-PONG EFFECT[ ]


In the next generation of wireless network such as long term evolution (LTE) and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX), always best connected concept is required. However in many situation handoff failures and unnecessary handoff are triggered causing degradation of quality of service. In this paper our main focus is on the handoff decision problem which affects the number of handoffs which may result in ping pong effect. To overcome this problem we have pro-posed an RSS based vertical handoff decision (VHD) algorithm with adaptive hysteresis to prevent this ping pong effect and also avoid late handoffs.

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Fractional calculus of M-Series for Power Function[ ]


The present paper is to convert the M-series into M-series for Power function, using fractional calculus. This series is a particular case of H-function given by Inayat Hussain. The M-series is a powerful technique for solving the problems in a variety of fields such as in quantitative biology, scattering theory, signal processing and image processing etc.

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Legislative analysis on property restoration in the Republic of Macedonia[ ]


In this article I will outline the events and processes occurring after Macedonia’s peaceful secession from Yugoslavia in 1991, around the issue of denationalization, which in 1998 led to the first law on this topic. The aim of this article is to present the content and evolution of the denationalization laws that were introduced as a consequence of the former deprivation of private property like expropriation, nationalization and confiscation during the communist socialist regime. The importance of this article is that it describes restoration process for a country where this is seen as a major topic in daily political life. This is relevant to assess the degree of enforcement of real property rights in the Republic of Macedonia. The firs law on denationalization had many shortcomings and was attacked by the opposition. It underwent significant changes after decision of the Constitutional Court of Macedonia.

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Some Parasitic Plants of Pakistan- Anatomical and Taxonomic Attributes[ ]


The present work was conducted to study the anatomical characteristics of five parasitic plants (Cuscuta reflexa, Korthalsella opuntia, Orobanche aegyptiaca, Viscum album and Viscum cruciatum) of Pakistan. There were two main categories i.e. holoparasites such as Cuscuta reflexa and Orobanche aegyptiaca and hemiparasites such as Korthalsella opuntia, Viscum album and Viscum cruciatum. Longitudinal and transverse sections in the form of slides were also prepared in order to examine some important taxonomic (family, habit, phyllotaxy, height) and anatomical attributes (epidermis, stomatal type, petiole, leaf and stem) of these parasitic plants.

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Analyzing the use of combined cryptography for increasing the security of information[ ]


Data security means protecting data from misuse, and controlling that access to this data. In this way, data security helps us for maintaining privacy and securing personal data. Privacy represents secrecy of data, meaning that only authorized people can access them. In this article we will explain some concepts of combined cryptography in order to increase the security of the information that is sent electronically. Further, we will conduct some experiments with combined algorithms AES-RSA, DES-RSA, Blowfish-DSA by using the LabWIEW software. Furthermore, we will measure the speed of some combined algorithms in terms of the number of the characters that are encrypted/decrypted. Form our analysis we point out that the speed of combined algorithms is not very low, taking into account the security of data transmitted electronically.

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?fg?^* a-Continuous Functions In Fuzzy Topological Spaces [ ]


This paper deals with several types of fuzzy generalized closed sets and their interrelations. Also ?fg?^* a--continuous, ?fg?^* a-open functions and ?fg?^* a- closed functions are introduced and studied. Again, some important properties of such functions are studied in the newly defined spaces using ?fg?^* a¬¬¬-closed sets.

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Assessment and Impact study of surface soil on thermoelectric generator energy efficiency[ ]


The main aim of this research is to find the effectiveness of the thermo-electric power, renewable sources of heat flow in the soil depending on the influence of various factors on its surface. The necessity of taking into account the state of the soil surface conditions when designing and determining the optimal operating conditions of such power sources.

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An Empirical Judgment of Computer Simulated Ayo Game for Decision Making[ ]


Decision making plays an important role in the life of every living creature. Virtually on daily basis, people must make one or more decision. A faulty decision can lead to defeat in any competition. This paper presents the process of making decisions on the basis of knowledge of game playing as a major key in defining human characteristics. We simulated Ayo game playing on a digital computer and empirically evaluated the behavior of the prototype simulation. Empirical judgment was carried out on how experts play Ayo game as a means of evaluating the performance of the heuristics used to evolve the Ayo player in the simulation. A paper-based questionnaire was designed and administered to the Ayo game players which were used for the assessments of players’ perceptions of the prototype simulation, which gives room for statistical interpretation. This projects a novel means of solving the problem of decision making in move selections in computer game-playing of Ayo game.

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RF Filter Design for Radar Receiver Using ADS Software[ ]


In this paper band pass filter with pass band 130- 180 MHz is designed for Atmospheric Radar receiver using Agilent ADS software. Simulation results consist of comparing for schematic, EM Momentum simulation , EM simulation with RF grounding . ADS Optimization funtionality is used to get final hardware design of filter. Results indicate substantial improvement in VSWR and filter response characteristics after inclusion of RF grounding (which include RF isolation and metal casing) and EM optimization. Both software and hardware results are obtained.

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Enhancement of Wood Preservation Technology by Pressure and Nonpressure Process and comparison of their properties[ ]


Wood is a very valuable thing in this world. Wood is used in various purposes say for making house utilities, as a fuel. Most of the People around the world don’t have proper knowledge about wood preservation. Since the total amount of wood is reduced day by day hence it is the time to maintain environment al equilibrium by proper utilization of consumption of wood. First time ever in Bangladesh, the variation of wood properties was observed by applying most two effective methods namely pressure and non -pressure processes .the properties like as Moisture content (%), weight reduction (%), penetration depth, retention, nature of preservative coating was observed carefully. By applying full cell pressure process and various non- pressures process (Brushing, Deeping, and Steeping), it was observed that the treated wood life is increased by 5 to 10 times and it is clear from this project that the durability of wood under pressure process is much more greater than that of the durability of wood founded by nonpressure process. It is very effective method of wood preservation which protects the wood from various insects, termites, torrents etc. Hence in order to stable the Bio conservation and maintain the environmental equilibrium such types of wood preservation techniques will control and reduce the consumption of excessive wood and hence makes the environment more fresh and powerful.

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An Approach for Determining Angle of Rotation of a Gray Image Using Weighted Statistical Regression[ ]


This article presents a computationally efficient method to estimate two dimensional in place rotation. This method is based on the estimation of weighted linear regression lines of the reference and the sense image pair. Angle between these two regression lines can identify the rotational angle between the reference and sense images. This fully unsupervised technique offers convincing result for wide range of images, without any need for setting control points. Another important contribution is that in composite rotation this method can effectively identify cumulative angle of rotation. The experiments show that the proposed method is robust and can be applied on various kind of image applications. Comparison with existing methods suggests the supremacy of the present one over its existing competitors.

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Memory-efficient Short Read Sequence Alignment Algorithm for Human Genome Sequence[ ]


Any genetic change in a population that is inherited over several generations is called Biological evolution. Biological evolution is a scientific theory that was proposed by Charles Darwin in “The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection”. Today we need to build a relation between the development of methods for the management and analysis of biological information arising from genomics and high-throughput experiments. The development of computational methods for studying the structure, function, and evolution of genes, proteins, and whole genomes form the bioinformatics. High-throughput experiments produce large amounts of quantitative data. This poses chal-lenges for bio-informaticians. How do we store information is such a way that it can be compared with results from others? How do we best extract meaningful information from the vast amount of data? New methods are needed to spot significant trends & patterns in the data. This is a new area of biological sciences where computational methods are essential for the progress of the experimental science where algorithms & experimental techniques are being developed side by side.

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Optimized Broad Band Riblet Short-Slot Waveguide Coupler for X-Band Applications[ ]


The full-wave modeling and design of Riblet short-slot waveguide coupler (RSC) is addressed in this contribution. This type of directional couplers is commonly used by its compact size in comparison with other waveguide configurations. Simulation is achieved by the commercial software Computer Simulation Technology (CST2011) in the frequency range 8-10 GHz. For this purpose the standard WR-90 waveguide is used, and then the simulated results are compared with their experimental measurements.

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Synthesis, Characterization, Biological Acvtivity and Crystal Structures of 2(3’,4’-Dimethoxy Phenyl imino)-3-o-Fluorophenyl Carboxamido-4,5-Trimethylene Thiophene(I) and 2(3’,4’,5’- Tri-methoxy Phenyl imino)-3-o-Fluorophenyl Carbox-amido-4,5-Trimethylene Thiophene (II)[ ]


The title compounds (I and II) have been prepared, characterized and crystallized to determine their crystal structures. The compounds I and II crystallize in space groups, Pna21 and P21/c, respectively. The former has cell parameters: a = 8.3701(5), b = 19.8697(15), c = 12.3072(9) (orthorhombic system) with four asymmetric molecules in the unit cell. The molecule exhibits extensive hydrogen bonding in the crystal lattice with C-H---O, C-H---F, N-H---N and C-H---S interactions with bridge distances vary from 2.839(3) to 3.307(3). The predominant extensive hydrogen bonding is responsible for the arrangement of molecules in the unit cell. The intra and inter molecular hydrogen bonding play a greater role in the stability of the molecules in the lattice. Similarly compound II crystallizes in space group, P21/c with unit cell parameters: a = 12.0085(5), b = 9.1071(4), c = 20.8623(8), ß = 103.723° (3) with four asymmetric molecules in the unit cell. The compound II contains one extra -OCH3 group compared to compound I. Compound II also displays an extensive hydrogen bonding network of the type C-H---O, C-H---F, N-H---N and C-H---S with varying hydrogen bond distances from 2.808(2) to 3.441(2). Both the compounds exhibit antimicrobial and antibacterial activities.

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EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF METHANOL AND ETHANOL-UNLEADED GASOLINE BLENDS IN A SPARK-IGNITION ENGINE[ ]


In this study, the effect of unleaded gasoline and unleaded gasoline blended with 5% and 10% of ethanol or methanol on the performance and exhaust emissions of a spark-ignition engine were experimentally investigated. The engine tests were performed by varying the engine speed between 1000 and 4000 rpm with 500 rpm period at three-fourth throttle opening position. The results showed that brake-specific fuel consumption increased while brake thermal efficiency, emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HCs) decreased with methanol-unleaded gasoline and ethanol-unleaded gasoline blends. It was found that a 10% blend of ethanol or methanol with unleaded gasoline works well in the existing design of engine and parameters at which engines are operating.

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TO Overcome UDP Flooding Attacks in IP Multimedia Subsystem (NGN) using the Genetic Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS)[ ]


IP Multimedia Subsystem designed by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project to provide the access networks services and telecommunication services, plans to merge services like multimedia, data and voice conversation under one umbrella. In this research, network based anomaly detection system is proposed by using Genetic Algorithm rules to avoid such attacks like UDP Flooding which cause the DoS and DDoS attacks keeping in view to secure the IMS and also discussed the complete overview of IMS (NGN) based network architecture, their DoS and DDoS attacks which cause the unavailability of services to the users.IMS inherits many security issues because the billions users are in the form to interact with IMS to get large No of services like multimedia, data or voice conversation. Due the large usage of IMS services there is also the availability of malicious user to attack the IMS services and make the services unavailable for the intended user, which reduces the performance of IMS. IMS based abnormality detection method is proposed using GA as abnormality detector. Genetic Intrusion Detection system effectively detects intrusive attack in IMS system and shows low false positive results.

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CULTURAL VALUES UNDERLYING SPEECH ACT OF INVITING: THE CASE OF IRAQI EFL SPEAKERS[ ]


This study is an attempt to describe and analyze the realization patterns of the speech act of inviting. The study also attempts to detect causes for potential differences of the speech act realization strategies during conversations such as Linguistic or pragmatic aspects, cultural values or social parameters. Furthermore, the study aims to highlight some cultural values underlying invitations. In the study, one -to- one correspondence is unattainable between the speech acts of inviting, across English and Arabic. In this context, the same speech acts can be loaded with dissimilar illocutionary force and cultural values across languages. Finally, divergence in politeness features and social parameters leads to divergent speech act strategies across the relevant cultures and languages.

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SWs and DLs in IA Solitary Wave in e-p-i Degenerate Dense Plasma[ ]


The nonlinear propogation of ion-acoustic waves in a unmagnetized collisionless degenerate dense plasma (containing degenerate electron, positron, and ion fluids) has been theoretically investigated.

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An Inventory Model with Allowable Shortage Using Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers[ ]


In this paper we investigate a deterministic inventory model with allowable shortage and it is completely backlogged. Our goal is to determine the optimal total cost and optimal order quantity for the proposed inventory model. Ordering cost, holding cost, shortage costs are taken as trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. Signed distance method is used for defuzzification. Sensitivity analysis is carried out through the results of the numerical examples.

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Novel Segmentation Algorithm based on Mixture of Multiple Histograms[ ]


In any man machine interaction system, a fast and accurate skin color classification is a challenging step, and the detection of skin color considered as the preliminary step in various recent applications such as face detection and gesture recognition. Segmentation based skin color process should be robust, accurate, and feasible for specific application field. Color distribution modeling techniques varies in its simplicity and complication according to particular color space and modeling technique parameters. Histogram technique has proven its outstanding capability of skin color classifications. In this work we adopted a novel method for hand gesture classification based on the mixture of histogram with look up table LUT applied on several three color models are combined into single model by assigning weight for each histogram based color model separately. The suggested system mechanism inspired from Hasan and Mishra [25] but they utilized Gaussian mixture model rather than the histogram technique. the performance of the proposed system evaluated using two methods in order to examine system efficiency comparing with other skin color classification systems including system performed by [25], these methods are; classification rate CR and accuracy. System results revealed that our system outperforms over other systems in term of accuracy and classification rate by achieving 99.48% and 98.9349 respectively.

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COMPARISON OF TWO STOCHASTIC ECONOMIC LOT SCHEDULING PROBLEM (SELSP) CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES[ ]


Two seminal review papers on SELSP and their approaches to classifying existing literature in the area are compared. One of the approaches is found to be based on the modeling methods presented by academicians, while the other classifies them based on critical elements of the production plan as seen by practitioners. A brief treatment on the positive and negative implications of both approaches is given. Recommendations are provided for future lines of work, including notably, one related to the lack of systematic reviews of the types of production constraints encountered in different real-world production environments in open literature.

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Quality of life experienced by the residents of Nagpur, (Maharashtra, India)[ ]


Quality of life has a major influence on where people choose to live and what gives them a sense of pride in their city. City life is appealing because of its diversity. Great cities offer access to a wide range of cultural experiences, job opportunities and things to see and do. An increasing challenge for us all is to sustain and develop the cities we have created, in order to provide people the quality of life they desire. Ensuring that the qualities that make our cities unique are protected and enhanced - now and in the future - is a very important part of this. It is essential that infrastructure and services support the continued population growth that our cities are experiencing. The paper tries to examine the major variables contributing to a good quality of life specific to the people at Nagpur.

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Novel U-shape and H-shape Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna for Ultra Wide Band application[ ]


This paper introduces a novel U-shape and H-Shape microstrip patch antenna for UWB application using single layer structure. In this paper one U-shape design and another H-shape design are proposed which gives enhanced bandwidths with 95.26% and 139.10%. The simulation results show that the antenna offers excellent performance for UWB application ranging (18.8 GHz to 53 GHz) and (11.1 GHz to 61.81 GHz).The electromagnetic simulation of the proposed antenna has been carried out using Ansoft HFSS software. Radiation characteristics of microstrip patch antenna like VSWR, return loss, smith chart and directivity are evaluated using this software.

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WORKERS SATISFACTION IN TEXTILE UNITS IN TIRUPPUR, COIMBATORE DISTRICT[ ]


Satisfaction from work for an employee is based on social, economic and working place conditions. Primary research with descriptive and statistical analysis was done in select knit wear units in Tiruppur , Tamil Nadu. The Organization registration nature, service length of the workers, nature of the textile worker employment, working environment were analyzed . The object of the study was to evaluate whether amenities provided by the employer , overtime ,wages, financial and non financial benefits impact the level of satisfaction of the workers. Hypothesis was framed to test relationship between the level of satisfaction the workers derived being employee of a concern and liking towards the work environment.

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Replica Allocation in MANETs for Eliminating Selfish Node[ ]


In wireless ad hoc networks, all nodes cooperate to provide network services. Due to the limited radio transmission range, data packets are usually forwarded through multiple relay nodes before they reach the destinations. If a node always serves as a relay to transmit the packets, it may quickly use up its own energy and other resources. Therefore, some nodes use a selfish approach, they try to avoid forwarding the packets. Such selfish behavior would probably cause the network to break down. Selfish nodes are common within ad hoc networks because they are managed by different resources. The performance of ad-hoc network degraded because of selfish node which causes large packet loss, low throughput, decrease data accessibility, high query delay, high communication cost, higher chances for network cresses etc. In a mobile ad hoc network, the mobility and resource constraints of mobile nodes may lead to network partitioning or performance degradation. Several data replication techniques have been proposed to minimize performance degradation. Most of them assume that all mobile nodes collaborate fully in terms of sharing their memory space. In reality, however, some nodes may selfishly decide only to cooperate partially, or not at all, with other nodes. These selfish nodes could then reduce the overall data accessibility in the network. In this paper, we examine the impact of selfish nodes in a mobile ad hoc network from the perspective of replica allocation. We term this selfish replica allocation. In particular, we use a selfish node detection algorithm that considers partial selfishness and novel replica allocation techniques to properly cope with selfish replica allocation. The conducted simulations demonstrate the proposed approach outperforms traditional cooperative replica allocation techniques in terms of communication cost, throughput, packet delay and packet delivery ratio.

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Development of Work Centre Selection System for Process Planning in Manufacturing Using AHP With Sensitivity Analysis[ ]


The selection of appropriate work center is one of the most critical decision in process planning of a successful production environment. In this study, a user-friendly decision support system is proposed for work center selection. This system guides the decision-maker in selecting work-center from available work-centers via effective algorithms, such as the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). .The robustness of the selection procedure may be evaluated using sensitivity analysis. An illustrated example of work center selection using the proposed tool is also provided.

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Indexing techniques for Geospatial Searching : A survey[ ]


These Given a geographic query that is composed of query keywords and a location, a geographic search engine retrieves documents that are the most textually and spatially relevant to the query keywords and the location, respectively, and ranks the retrieved documents according to their joint textual and spatial relevance to the query. In this survey paper, the efficient index, called IR-tree, that together with a top-k document search algorithm is studied along with similar techniques like KR* Trees, and other hybrid indices

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Error minimization in Variable Fractional delay FIR Digital Filter[ ]


The Digital filters having changeable frequency responses are called variable digital filters. Basically, variable digital filters include those with variable magnitude response or/and VFD response. The various efficient methods have also been developed for designing both FIR VFD filters and IIR all-pass VFD filters. The simplest VFD filters are the Lagrange-type VFD filters that can be derived from the Lagrange-polynomial interpolation. Lagrange-type VFD filters are a special class of FIR VFD filters whose frequency responses at frequency are the maximally flat, so they are often called the maximally flat VFD filters. Since Lagrange-type VFD filter has a closed-form impulse response that can be expressed as a polynomial in the VFD parameter, it is easy to use. Moreover, coefficient symmetry can be developed and exploited in fast hardware implementation through coefficient transformations. However, one disadvantage of the Lagrange-type VFD filters is that the passband width is rather narrow. For wideband VFD filtering applications, efficient methods for designing wideband VFD filters using both FIR and IIR all-pass transfer functions have been developed. So far, most existing design methods obtain VFD filters by approximating the desired (ideal) VFR in the WLS sense or minimax sense. The former minimizes the total error energy (integral of squared errors) of the VFR while the latter minimizes the maximum absolute error (peak error) of the VFR. Generally speaking, there is a trade-off between the two kinds of errors, i.e., the two kinds of errors cannot be simultaneously minimized by using the existing design methods. Usually, minimizing one then increases another. In the minimax design case, So develop a biminimax method for designing even-order FIR VFD filters whose VFR peak error and VFD peak error are simultaneously suppressed. More concretely, both the two peak errors are simultaneously made nearly equi-ripple, which is referred to as bi-equiripple. The most important part of the biminimax design is to linearize the highly non-linear constraints on the VFD errors as linear ones. After the linearization, the biminimax design can be easily performed by minimizing a mixed error function that contains both the VFR peak error and VFD peak error. However, minimization is a highly nonlinear problem, So we want to try iterative method for overcome it to further reduce the maximum absolute group-delay error in the least squares design, an iterative weighting-updated technique is also proposed, which constitutes the outer loop of the overall iterative process while the iteration stated earlier makes up the inner loop.

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EFFECT OF MOBILITY MODELS ON ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN AD-HOC NETWORK[ ]


MANET is an infrastructure-less network formed with the help of mobile nodes carrying wireless devices capable of communicating each other. MANET has dynamic topology due to node mobility. In this paper, basically three scenarios are considered one in which no mobility model is applied, other where random mobility model is applied and third one where file mobility model is applied. The aim is to determine the performance measures like throughput, packet delivery ratio, delay and protocol overhead that are commonly used in MANET for evaluating ad-hoc routing protocols- DSDV, AODV and ZRP with realistic mobility model. The routing protocols under realistic mobility model provide higher Throughput, Packet Delivery Ratio and lower Normalized Routing Overhead & Average Delay. AODV routing protocol performs better than DSDV and ZRP Routing protocol. Also it is concluded that random mobility pattern gives better result than file mobility model.

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Novel Low Power and High Speed 8T Full Adder[ ]


Full adder (FA) is an essential component for the design and development of all types of processors viz. digital signal processors (DSP), microprocessors etc. Adders are the core element of complex arithmetic operations like addition, multiplication, division, exponentiation etc. In most of these systems adder lies in the critical path that affects the overall speed of the system. So enhancing the performance of the 1-bit full adder cell is a significant goal. Thus in this work 8 transistors full adder (8T FA) is proposed which addresses the discharging problem at the carry output for the particular combinations of the inputs in the existing 8T FA. The proposed 8T full adder is implemented using the 90nm technology library and is simulated & verified using the Cadence spectre simulator. Further the proposed full adder is compared with some other existing full adder designs such as conventional CMOS FA, 10T FA, 16T FA and static energy recovery full adder. And it observed from the simulation results that the proposed 8T full adder outperforms the other existing full adders in terms of power consumption, delay PDP (power delay product) and transistor count.

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Present Scenario of Building Construction with Respect to Green Criteria’s[ ]


With the help of questionnaire data was collected on present scenario of residential building in Sangli, Islampure and Ashta city with the help of questionnaire. The questions in this questionnaire base on the green building rating system such as LEED, GRIHA, and SVAGRIHA. Data from this question give the information on rainwater harvesting in building, use of fly ash in construction, low water fitting, reduced water during construction, reduced water in landscape, reuse of material etc.

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OFDM Modulator for Wireless LAN (WLAN) standard[ ]


Multicarrier modulation is required for wireliess communication system.OFDM is multicarrier modulation which provides good spectral efficiency and eliminates intersymbol interference and intercarrier interference.Proposed work is to simulate OFDM modulator for IEEE802.11a standard.OFDM modulator is simulated using Simulink tool from Matlab 2010b and System generator tool from Xilinx 12.2. and implemented on FPGA board.Sytem performance is evaluated as BER vs SNR using AWGN noise channel and Multipath Rician Fading Noise channel.

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Reduction of High Density Impulse Noise Using Block Based Decision and Unsymmetric Trimmed Median Filter[ ]


Digital images could be contaminated by impulse noise during image acquisition or transmission. The intensity of impulse noise has the tendency of being either relatively high or relatively low. Thus, it could severely degrade the image quality and cause some loss of information details. A new proposed algorithm modi?ed decision based unsymmetric trimmed median ?lter (MDBUTMF) for the restoration of gray scale images that are highly corrupted by salt and pepper noise is used. This algorithm shows better results than the Standard Median Filter (MF), Adaptive median filter (AMF), Decision Based Unsymmetric Trimmed adaptive median filter (DBUTAMF), and Progressive Switched Median Filter (PSMF) at high noise density. The proposed algorithm is tested against different gray scale images and it gives better Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR).

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Effect of Fly Ash Concentration and its Surface Modification on Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composite’s Mechanical Properties[ ]


Polymers materials, due to its light weight and high corrosion resistance, have a unique place in engineering applications. However, due to low strength and low heat resisting capability, its application is constrained significantly. To overcome this drawback hard phase materials such as fibers and/or fillers are reinforced into soft polymer matrix. Effect of fly ash as filler in fiber reinforced epoxy composite was studied for characterization of mechanical properties. Investigation was done by varying fly ash concentration and modifying fly ash particles surface by a ?-aminopropyl triethoxy silane coupling agent. The DMA test result showed improvement in damping capability and thermal stability with lower concentration of fly ash; however surface modification with silane coupling agent (i.e. silanization) resulted in decrease in damping capability. The tensile test result showed that with increase in fly ash concentration, the ultimate tensile strength and elongation at break was reduced; however silanization of fly ash showed improvement in strength when compared to unmodified fly ash at same concentration. The impact test result also showed similar trend, i.e. the toughness of FRP composite was reduced due to addition of fly ash, but silanization resulted in improved toughness. SEM analysis showed that surface modification of fly ash with coupling agent enhanced their bonding with polymer resin which resulted in lower damping capability and improved strength and toughness.

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Producing Electrical Energy by using wastage wind energy from exhaust fans of industries[ ]


Crisis of an electric power is a common phenomenon in a developing country. Day by day it’s become serious issue due to various factors, such as increasing demand, lower production capacity and transmission losses, etc. As a developing country, Many Industries are running on in our surroundings & also so many are being installed every day. We can see so many exhaust fans are being used to keep the working environment at a moderate temperature of an industry. These fans circulate air from inside to outside. From outside we can consider it as a high velocity wind source. In this Paper, we will show a process to use this wastage energy source. In this process, wind from all exhaust fans will be collected and driven through a single tunnel which will give a huge wind flow to the wind turbine. And then wind turbine will convert it into effective electrical energy. We will measure the velocity by using anemometer. This paper also consists of analyzed data of the wind velocity of the different industries of Bangladesh. We also analyze these produced electricity are whether profitable or not from the existing system. Thus we can utilize the wastage wind energy from the exhaust fans of the industries and producing electrical energy we can reduce the load of national grid.

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Analysis and Implementation of Efficient GMSK Modulation in Spectrum Sensing[ ]


This paper describes an implementation of GMSK modulator on the TMS320C6713 16-bit Floating Point Processor. GMSK is a highly bandwidth efficient scheme which is currently popular in GSM based cellular mobile systems. The modulator is configured for a data rate of 8 kbps and a BT product of 0.3, both of which are fully configurable. The implementation has been done based around a numerically Controlled Oscillator, which provides a very flexible means of implementing most of the modulation schemes. The improvement lies in the fact, that by the simplification of the filtering process, in phase and quadrature output samples in baseband remain only in a denumerable number of points. A very simple algorithm has been designed, which brings more accuracy and efficiency in the generation of GMSK signals in DSP. Simulation work has been done using Elanix software package.

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Synthesis, analytical, spectral and x-ray dif-fraction studies of Co(II), Fe(II) and Mn(II) complexes with Glimepiride,[1-s[[p-[2-(3-ethyl-4-methyl-2-oxo-3-pyrroline-1carboxamido) ethyl ]phenyl] sulphonyl]-3-(trans-4-methylcyclohexayl)urea an oral antidiabetic agent [ ]


Metal complexes of Glimepiride-an oral antidiabetic drug were prepared and characterized based on elemental analysis, FT-IR, NMR and powdered X -Ray Diffraction techniques. From elemental analysis data, the complexes were proposed to have general formulae (C24H31N4O6S)2Co.2H2O, (C24H31N4O6S)2Fe.2H2O and (C24H31N4O6S)2Mn.2H2O.The IR spectra shows that Glimepiride is coordinated to metal ions in a neutral bidentate manner. From the IR spectra and XRD-spectra, it is found that the geometrical structures of these complexes are octahedral. The XRD data was used to calculate various parameters like crystal system, volume, density, porosity, particle size etc. which shows that the complexes of Co(II), Fe(II) and Mn(II) have octahedral structure.

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Investigations on the corrosion inhibitive characteristics of novel polyesters for mild steel in acid media[ ]


The adsorption and inhibitive properties of polyesters formed by the condensation reaction between terephthaloyl chloride and 4, 4’ -bis(hydroxyl thioureaazo) biphenyl sulphone diamine monomer[STTP]/ schiff base formed between 4,4’-diamino biphenyl sulphone and 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde and vanillin [SBTP,SVTP] for the corrosion of mild steel in 1M H2SO4 were studied using weight loss, Impedance spectra and potentiodynamic polarization methods. The protection efficiency increased with increase in inhibitor concentration. The effect of temperature on the corrosion behavior of mild steel was studied in the temperature range 303 K -333 K for 1M H2SO4 containing an optimum concentration of the synthesized polymers. Polarization studies show that the polymers function as mixed inhibitors but predominantly control the cathodic reaction. AC impedance spectra and SEM studies reveal the formation of a protective film on the metal surface. The adsorption of the polymers on the steel surface was in agreement with Langmuir isotherm.

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Human Computer Interaction for Visually Impaired Users in Web Based Applications[ ]


This paper focuses on making any web based system Human computer Interaction (HCI) compliant for visually impaired users thereby achieving a point of conjunction between man and machine. Currently not many web-based apps have means to provide accessibility. Our system aims to make existing web based systems as well as systems to be developed, accessible by using screen reader as an assistive technology and keyboard navigation. We propose to incorporate WAI-ARIA standards into web based system which acts as an accessibility API. It intercepts user inputs and dynamic web contents and generates information to screen reader which outputs it as voice.

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Improved Short Term Wind Power Prediction Using A Combined Locally Weighted GMDH and KPCA[ ]


Wind power prediction is one of the most critical aspects in wind power integration and operation. This paper proposes a new approach for wind power prediction. The proposed method is derived by integrating the kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) method with the locally weighted group method of data handling (LWGMDH) which can be derived by combining the GMDH with the local regression method and weighted least squares (WLS) regression. In the proposed model, KPCA is used to extract features of the inputs and obtain kernel principal components for constructing the phase space of the multivariate time series of the inputs. Then LWGMDH is employed to solve the wind power prediction problem. The coefficient parameters are calculated using the WLS regression where each point in the neighborhood is weighted according to its distance from the current prediction point. In addition, to optimize the weighting function bandwidth, the weighted distance algorithm is presented. The proposed model is evaluated using real world dataset. The results show that the proposed method provides a much better prediction performance in comparison with other models employing the same data.

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Community Survey and On-farm trials for Conservation Agriculture to enhance adoption and its impact, SNNPR, Ethiopia[ ]


This survey provides primary information for the study area/SIMLISA project with the objectives of, the community survey was designed to guide the baseline survey in terms of first approximation of socioeconomic profile of the communities within each target zone developed to identify and target hot spots. Secondly, designed various on-farm trials in conservation agriculture and recommend the most profitable once for scale up in order to improve production and productivity. Descriptive and inferential statics were used to analyze and present the data using statistical package of SPSS version 17. The results were identified and analyzed the farming systems of the study area, livelihoods risks and strategies, constraints as well as the impacts of conservation agriculture based on-farm trials. The report also recommended the fact that there are many constraints and opportunities in the target areas and beyond suggests that policy makers, researchers and other development partners harmonize their efforts and work together to bring smallholder poor farmers out of their current circumstances. There is a need to improve the accessibility of improved maize seed and widely adapted haricot bean technologies, improved livestock and agricultural development services. However, all may be made successful if improvement of the capacity of the farmers to take up and continue with the technologies can be ensured.

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Effectiveness of Advanced Vs Conventional Wet Coffee Processing Technologies in Effluent Wastewater Quality[ ]


This study examined the effluent suitability for discharge of newly emerged advanced wet coffee processing technologies compared to the conventional systems; near Jimma, Ethiopia. A descriptive study design was employed and composite samples were analyzed in triplicate for selected physicochemical parameters (COD, BOD5, DO, NH3, PO33-, NO3- -N, pH, TSS, TDS, conductivity, and turbidity). Consequently, the mean results obtained from conventional wet coffee processing technologies effluent wastewater were BOD5 (1697 mg/L), COD (5682.5 mg/L), TSS (1975 mg/L), TDS (1800.75 mg/L), and pH (4.13). Whereas mean values from effluent wastewater of advanced wet coffee processing technologies were BOD5 (2687 mg/L), COD (3567 mg/L), pH (6.69), and TSS (282.42). Even though there was significant variation between conventional and advanced wet coffee processing effluent wastewater; both wet coffee processing technologies did not comply with Ethiopian permissible discharges limit standards for BOD5, COD and TSS. Hence, establishing advanced wet coffee processing technologies does not seem to solve the pollution problems associated with coffee processing. Therefore, effluent wastewater treatment systems are needed for both technologies before discharging to prevent surface water pollution.

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Review on Aspect level Information Retrieval System for Micro Blogging Sites[ ]


In this paper we have done systematic review of the Aspect Level Retrieval Systems and have also traced its theory and practice since year 2003 (LDA, ME-LDA, SLDA, ASUM, TSM, JST, JAS and LingPipe Model). It has also been found that today Aspect based, Perspective based systems are gaining significance, therefore, there is an urgent need to improve existing algorithm working in this area, for this we have also given typical flow of such retrieval systems.

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Review on Classification of Wheat Grain Using Machine Algorithms[ ]


In this paper we have conducted a systematic review of the machine vision algorithms used in identification of class of quality of wheat grain. We have found that not much work has been done on Indian variety of wheat in terms of identification of its class using machine algorithm.

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Empirical Model for Drain Induced Barrier Lowering in Nano Scale MOSFET[ ]


The effect of variation of oxide design parameters on the Drain Induced Barrier Lowering in a conventional nano scale MOSFET has been studied, by theoretically proposing a new numerical method and verifying the empirical model by simulating with Sentaurus TCAD Toolkit. Since SiO2 has its limitations at very low oxide thicknesses, improvement in the performance of the MOS by using high K dielectric material for Gate-channel isolation has also been studied. Empirical fitting parameters for accurately mapping the simulated data have been extracted.

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Localization & Segmentation of Indian Car Number Plate system: A Projection based Multistage Approach[ ]


Enormous incorporation of information technologies into all aspects of recent life caused demand for processing vehicles as conceptual resources in information systems. This can be achieved by a human agent, or by special intelligent equipment which is be able to recognize vehicles by their number plates in a real environment and reflect it into conceptual resources. Because of this, various recognition techniques have been developed and number plate recognition systems are today used in various traffic and security applications, such as parking, access and border control, or tracking of stolen cars. This work deals with problematic from field of artificial intelligence, machine vision and neural networks in construction of an automatic car number plate Recognition (ACNPR). This techniques deals with enhanced shadow removal algorithm, along with horizontal and vertical projection method for number plate localization & segmentation..Work comparatively deals with methods achieving invariance of systems towards image illumination, translations and various light conditions during the capture.

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Development and construction of Bamboo Roofing system-An Eco-friendly system[ ]


According to 11th development plan, 24.71 million people are not having their own houses. Therefore there is need of development of suitable low cost housing system so that people can satisfy their shelter need. As low income group people can not bear to satisfy cost of conventional construction system, there is necessity to decrease cost of construction with the help of an eco-friendly as well as affordable construction system. Considering all these problems, bamboo is suitable solution. As bamboo is naturally available material, it can be traditionally used by mankind. Due to lack of technology and awareness about bamboo, people are not using bamboo in construction of houses. Nowadays, construction industry has many burning issues like disposal of construction waste, wastage of material which causes financial loss, labour problem etc. As bamboo is traditional and an eco-friendly material, it has zero waste and it does not require skilled labour therefore, does not arises problem of disposal of waste and requirement of skilled labours. To minimize all this problems and to achieve an economy in the construction, we have to think about the utilization of bamboo in construction. In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop and construct bamboo roofing system which is an eco-friendly system.

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Study Feasibility of Preservative chemicals & its effect on Load Carrying Capacity of Bamboo[ ]


Bamboo is a natural material of organic origin. Bamboo can be destroyed by fungi and insects in a relatively short period of time. Without any protective treatment its durability is less than five years. Therefore, it is necessary to protect and preserve the bamboo culms when good quality and durability are required. The presence of starch makes it more attractive to microorganisms. Biological degradation can affect the usage, strength, utility and value of the bamboo & bamboo product leading to a) decay and disintegration b) splits or cracks c) unsightly stains and blotches. Preservation Treatment is absolutely necessary when bamboo is used as a structural member where safety is of major concern. Increasing life by treatment is more economical in the long run.

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ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL MICROORGANISMS FROM INDUSTRIAL BELT OF CUTTACK, ODISHA[ ]


Industrialization has led sharp increase in Man made activities and disturbances in the environment. Soil microorganisms act as indicators of soil health and are responsible for breakdown of harmful substances in the soil along with circulation of nutrients. The present study was carried out in the industrial region of Cuttack. The industrial belt has mostly small scale industries which release waste in the form of iron, drug residues and paint residues. The waste decreases the organic matter of the soil which in turn acts as indicator of soil fertility. The study was carried out to isolate and identify various microorganisms and study their role in soil . Different types of gram positive and negative bacteria were isolated and differentiated based on biochemical tests.

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Controller Synthesis: Case study of an Automated Sun Tracking System[ ]


A major aspect of System dynamics concerns itself with the Modeling, system identification, measurement/observation and control of the system. Such systems could be a single or multi domain systems requiring mixed modeling techniques. This paper looks at the dynamic model and controller synthesis of a prototype electromechanical system. It follows a mechatronics design paradigm and aims to capture as much of the system dynamics as possible. Two models will be described here for the system in elevation and azimuth. The mathematical models are described and analysis of elevation system’s controller is designed and tested in simulation experiments using Matlab/Simulink. We then present our results with varying controller parameter consideration or controller gain tuning.

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HUMAN ACTIVITY RECOGNITION - AN ANDROID APPLICATION[ ]


Nowadays mobile phones become part of human life and it will change life style patterns. Mobile phone technology is an active area of research and now at present it includes more sensors for enabling advanced applications. Latest generations of mobile phones incorporates GPS systems, vision cameras, micro phones, accelerometers, temperature sensors, etc. The availability of these sensors in mobile phones creates new opportunities for data mining applications. The built in sensors are very helpful for health care applications.

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Efficient Packet Filtering for Stateful Firewall using the Geometric Efficient Matching Algorithm[ ]


As GEM algorithm is recently studied and presented where it had shown the efficient performance. We observed that GEM algorithm is performing efficiently for the packet matching in firewall. The practical experiment was done successfully in the Linux kernel, as well as tested its packet-matching speeds on live traffic with realistic large rule-bases. The speed of GEM algorithm is more as compared to the naive linear search, in addition to this also resulted into the improved throughput of iptables with order of magnitude. We also observed that GEM is having better space complexity in order to suit current hardware. We have noted that GEM is exceptionally well according to it space complexity, but its optimization performance not yet evaluated as compared to other previous algorithms of firewall packet matching in order to claim GEM as optimized in packet matching. Also one more limitation of GEM which we identified is only four fields are used for firewall packet matching. Thus in this project we are presenting the extended GEM approach in which we will first like to evaluate the performance with existing method of firewall packet matching as well as will try to use more than four fields while packet matching and this results into more improved performance of GEM.

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Rule order optimization for packet filtering firewall[ ]


An optimization algorithm which optimize the sequence of firewall rules to reduce packet matching time is presented. It has been observed that some incoming packet can match with more than one rule . Such type of rules called as dependent rules and if their action differs then it is called as conflict.Our main focus in the paper is on dependent rules. This paper proposes an algorithm that is designed for conflict resolution and give good network performance by reducing the packet matching time of the firewall.The algorithm uses the method of hashing for dividing the rule list into many equal sized subrulelists and resolve the conflict by the method of indexing which creates separate list for dependent rules.The performance of the algorithm has improved performance over other alternative algorithm in terms of packet matching time.

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Logisim Operon Circuits[ ]


Creation of Logism Operon circuits for bacterial cells that not only perform logic functions, but also remember the results, which are encoded in the cell’s DNA and passed on for dozens of generations. This circuits is coded in JAVA Language. “Almost all of the previous work in synthetic biology that we’re aware of has either focused on logic components and logical circuits or on memory modules that just encode memory. We think complex computation will involve combining both logic and memory, and that’s why we built this particular framework for designing circuits Life Science. In one circuit described in the paper, one DNA sequences have three genes called Repressor, Operator (terminators) are interposed between the promoter (DNA Polymerase) and the output Proteins (Beta glactosidase, permease, Transacetylase in this case). Each of these terminators inhibits the transcription and Translation of the output gene and can be flipped by a different Promoter enzyme (DNA Polymerase), making the terminator inactive.

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CONTROLLING ELECTRON TRANSPORT RATE AND RECOMBINATION PROCESS OF INDIGO CARMINE DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS BY DESIGN OF COMPOSITE TIO2 NANOWIRES/NANOPARTICLES PHOTOANODES[ ]


Nanostructured films of metal-oxide semiconductors are the focus of intensive research nowadays due to their applications in the current quest for new sources of clean energy. Metal-oxides like TiO2 can be used to make efficient photoanodes for photoelectrochemical solar cells. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are an attractive solar cell option because of their relatively low manufacturing costs and simple process technology. In the present investigation, DSSC based on TiO2 nanowires/nanoparticles composite photoanodes were prepared. TiO2 nanowires (TNWs) are prepared via hydrothermal treatment and the photoanodes are made-up of by mixing various mass ratios of TiO2 nanowires with TiO2 nanoparticles (TNPs). DSSCs photoanode were prepared using TNWs concentrations of 0%, 10%, 50%, 90% & 100% with TNPs and are named as DSSC-2, DSSC-3, DSSC-4, DSSC-5 & DSSC-6 respectively. In addition, a photoanode is prepared using bulk particle of TiO2 and named as DSSC-1. In this work, Indigo carmine dye is used as a photo sensitizer, PMII (1-propyl-3-methylimmidazolium iodide) ionic liquid as electrolyte and Copper sulfide is used in counter electrode. The morphology of TiO2 nanowires with nanoparticles would be a promising nanostructure in fabricating DSSCs for its advantages in charge separation, electronic transport and light harvesting. The results of the present investigation revealed that the composite photoanode containing optimized TiO2 nanowires with nanoparticles can increase electron transfer efficiency. Among all DSSCs, DSSC-3 (TiO2 nanowires content is 10 wt%) have illustrated the relative high conversion efficiency of 3.04% because of the longer electron life time and rapid electron transfer in the photoanode and electrolyte regions of this cell. This work has established that composite TNWs/TNPs photoanode structure can suppress the electrons recombination process and increase the conversion efficiency effectively.

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Mystery of Beal Equation[ ]


This paper contains the proof of Beal Equation Mystery i.e. without common factor among all the bases a Beal equation cannot exist and then the theory behind the formation of Beal Equation.

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STRENGTH OF CORRUGATED ROOFING ELEMENTS REINFORCED WITH SILK FIBRE AND RICE HUSK ASH[ ]


Most of the corrugated roofing sheets have damaged due to tearing out at its corrugations by high wind loads and impact loads. The strength of these corrugations can be improved with fibre reinforcement, as the fibres are the crack arresters and absorbs energy. In this paper natural fibre namely silk fibres are used as reinforcement in cement matrices for producing corrugated roofing sheets has been investigated and reported. Rice husk ash-based silk fibre roofing sheets were cast manually and the strength of the corrugations of the above composite sheets in terms of splitting, due to direct and impact loads, were experimentally evaluated. It is found that the strength towards splitting of corrugations of the RHA based silk fibre corrugated roofing sheets due to direct and impact loads was improved as compared to the corrugated sheets without silk fibres. Also it is observed that RHA based silk fibre reinforced sheets are comparable to the splitting of corrugations due to direct and impact loads of a commercial roofing sheet, available in India. The result of the study revealed that rice husk can be used to replace asbestos, in the production of corrugated roofing sheets. Also the usage of industrial wastes still needs study on their better usage toxicity. These materials if studied and developed properly hold the key to address the current housing needs. The roofing tiles can be adapted particularly for hot climate due to its high insulation properties and therefore suitable to provide shelter for livestock by using the locally available agricultural waste materials for its production.

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The Topological Property of Topological Manifold- Compactness with Cut Point and Punctured point[ ]


We conduct a study on Topological manifold and one of its property compactness with cut point and punctured point. Some of theorems, structures on Topological manifold and its structural characteristics. The concepts like local and global property of manifold with some cut point or puncture point, local compactness, path in compact space, cut point in compact space and property on Topological manifold.

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